Abstract

Silicon photonic microrings have the capability of handling two wavelengths simultaneously and this capability does not exist in other types of photonic switching technologies, such as directional couplers or MEMS. Exploiting this two-wavelength switching capability has not been done before. In this paper, we use this capability to construct a new type of microring-based non-blocking optical interconnects. For a 4×4 network, the new architecture only needs four rings. In contrast, the conventional crossbar-based architecture requires 16 rings. For medium size switches, such as 8 ports or 16 ports, the new architecture also requires significantly fewer rings than conventional crossbar switches of the same sizes.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. C. Gunn, "CMOS photonics for high speed interconnects," IEEE Micro 58-66 (2006).
  2. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometrescale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
  3. A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, J. E. Cunningham, "Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97, 1337-1361 (2009).
  4. L. Benini, G. D. Micheli, "Networks on chip: A new SoC paradigm," IEEE Computer 49, 70-71 (2002).
  5. R. Ho, K. W. Mai, M. A. Horowitz, "The future of wires," Proc. IEEE 89, 490-504 (2001).
  6. T. Mudge, "Power: A first-class architectural design constraint," IEEE Computer 34, 52-58 (2001).
  7. X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: Modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).
  8. I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (2006).
  9. C.-T. Lea, B.-C. Lin, "A new approach to the wavelength non-uniformity problem of silicon photonic microrings," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2552-2559 (2011).
  10. H. S. Hinton, "Photonic switching using directional couplers," IEEE Commun. Mag. 25, 16-26 (1987).
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  21. J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95, 989-997 (2009).
  22. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/scarrier injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Exp. 15, 430-436 (2007).
  23. Y. Xie, J. Xu, J. Zhang, Z. Wu, G. Xia, "Crosstalk noise analysis and optimization in 5×5 hitless silicon-based optical router for optical networks-on-chip (ONoC)," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 198-203 (2012).
  24. S. Feng, T. Lei, H. Chen, H. Cai, X. Luo, A. W. Poon, "Silicon photonics: From a microresonator perspective," Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 145-177 (2012).
  25. X. Tan, M. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Jiang, J. Yang, "A generic optical router design for photonic network-on-chips," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 368-376 (2012).
  26. R. Min, R. Ji, Q. Chen, L. Zhang, L. Yang, "A universal method for constructing N-port nonblocking optical router for photonic networks-on-chip," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3736-3741 (2012).

2012

Y. Xie, J. Xu, J. Zhang, Z. Wu, G. Xia, "Crosstalk noise analysis and optimization in 5×5 hitless silicon-based optical router for optical networks-on-chip (ONoC)," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 198-203 (2012).

S. Feng, T. Lei, H. Chen, H. Cai, X. Luo, A. W. Poon, "Silicon photonics: From a microresonator perspective," Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 145-177 (2012).

X. Tan, M. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Jiang, J. Yang, "A generic optical router design for photonic network-on-chips," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 368-376 (2012).

R. Min, R. Ji, Q. Chen, L. Zhang, L. Yang, "A universal method for constructing N-port nonblocking optical router for photonic networks-on-chip," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3736-3741 (2012).

J. Chan, K. Bergman, "Photonic interconnection network architectures using wavelength-selective spatialrouting for chip-scale communications," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4, 189-201 (2012).

2011

C.-T. Lea, B.-C. Lin, "A new approach to the wavelength non-uniformity problem of silicon photonic microrings," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2552-2559 (2011).

R. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Tian, J. Ding, H. Chen, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, W. Zhu, "Five-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip," Opt. Exp. 19, 20258-20268 (2011).

2009

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, J. E. Cunningham, "Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97, 1337-1361 (2009).

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95, 989-997 (2009).

2008

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: Modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, M. Lipson, "Optical 4×4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC)," Opt. Exp. 16, 15915-15922 (2008).

2007

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/scarrier injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Exp. 15, 430-436 (2007).

2006

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (2006).

C. Gunn, "CMOS photonics for high speed interconnects," IEEE Micro 58-66 (2006).

2005

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometrescale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

2003

A. Jajszczyk, "Nonblocking, repackable, and rearrangeable clos networks: Fifty years of the theory evolution," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 28-33 (2003).

2002

L. Y. Lin, E. L. Goldstein, "Opportunities and challenges for MEMS in lightwave communications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 163-172 (2002).

L. Benini, G. D. Micheli, "Networks on chip: A new SoC paradigm," IEEE Computer 49, 70-71 (2002).

2001

R. Ho, K. W. Mai, M. A. Horowitz, "The future of wires," Proc. IEEE 89, 490-504 (2001).

T. Mudge, "Power: A first-class architectural design constraint," IEEE Computer 34, 52-58 (2001).

1990

C.-T. Lea, "Multi-Log2N networks and their applications in high-speed electronic and photonic switching systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 1740-1749 (1990).

1987

H. S. Hinton, "Photonic switching using directional couplers," IEEE Commun. Mag. 25, 16-26 (1987).

1979

M. H. Ackroyd, "Call repacking in connecting networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 27, 589-591 (1979).

Appl. Phys. A

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95, 989-997 (2009).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

A. Jajszczyk, "Nonblocking, repackable, and rearrangeable clos networks: Fifty years of the theory evolution," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 28-33 (2003).

H. S. Hinton, "Photonic switching using directional couplers," IEEE Commun. Mag. 25, 16-26 (1987).

IEEE Computer

L. Benini, G. D. Micheli, "Networks on chip: A new SoC paradigm," IEEE Computer 49, 70-71 (2002).

T. Mudge, "Power: A first-class architectural design constraint," IEEE Computer 34, 52-58 (2001).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

L. Y. Lin, E. L. Goldstein, "Opportunities and challenges for MEMS in lightwave communications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 163-172 (2002).

IEEE Micro

C. Gunn, "CMOS photonics for high speed interconnects," IEEE Micro 58-66 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Lett.

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: Modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (2006).

IEEE Trans. Commun.

M. H. Ackroyd, "Call repacking in connecting networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 27, 589-591 (1979).

C.-T. Lea, "Multi-Log2N networks and their applications in high-speed electronic and photonic switching systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 1740-1749 (1990).

J. Lightw. Technol.

C.-T. Lea, B.-C. Lin, "A new approach to the wavelength non-uniformity problem of silicon photonic microrings," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2552-2559 (2011).

Y. Xie, J. Xu, J. Zhang, Z. Wu, G. Xia, "Crosstalk noise analysis and optimization in 5×5 hitless silicon-based optical router for optical networks-on-chip (ONoC)," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 198-203 (2012).

X. Tan, M. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Jiang, J. Yang, "A generic optical router design for photonic network-on-chips," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 368-376 (2012).

R. Min, R. Ji, Q. Chen, L. Zhang, L. Yang, "A universal method for constructing N-port nonblocking optical router for photonic networks-on-chip," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3736-3741 (2012).

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

Laser Photon. Rev.

S. Feng, T. Lei, H. Chen, H. Cai, X. Luo, A. W. Poon, "Silicon photonics: From a microresonator perspective," Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 145-177 (2012).

Nature

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometrescale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

Opt. Exp.

R. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Tian, J. Ding, H. Chen, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, W. Zhu, "Five-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip," Opt. Exp. 19, 20258-20268 (2011).

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, M. Lipson, "Optical 4×4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC)," Opt. Exp. 16, 15915-15922 (2008).

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/scarrier injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Exp. 15, 430-436 (2007).

Proc. IEEE

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, J. E. Cunningham, "Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97, 1337-1361 (2009).

R. Ho, K. W. Mai, M. A. Horowitz, "The future of wires," Proc. IEEE 89, 490-504 (2001).

Other

A. Joshi, C. Batten, Y. J. Kwon, S. Beamer, I. Shamim, K. Asanović, V. Stojanović, "Silicon-photonic clos networks for global on-chip communication," Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Networks-on-Chip (2009) pp. 124-133.

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, J. H. Ahn, "Corona: System implications of emerging nanophotonic technology," Proc. Int. Symp. Computer Architecture (ISCA) (2008) pp. 153-164.

J. Chan, N. Ophir, C. P. Lai, A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "Data transmission using wavelength selective spatial routing for photonicinterconnection networks," Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (2011) pp. 1-3.

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