Abstract

We propose a cognitive Quality of Transmission (QoT) estimator for classifying lightpaths into high or low quality categories in impairment-aware wavelength-routed optical networks. The technique is based on Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), an artificial intelligence technique which solves new problems by exploiting previous experiences, which are stored on a knowledge base. We also show that by including learning and forgetting techniques, the underlying knowledge base can be optimized, thus leading to a significant reduction on the computing time for on-line operation. The performance of the cognitive estimator is evaluated in a long haul and in an ultra-long haul network, and we demonstrate that it achieves more than 98% successful classifications, and that it is up to four orders of magnitude faster when compared with a non-cognitive QoT estimator, the Q-Tool.

© 2013 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Azodolmoky, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53, 926-944 (2009).
  2. C. V. Saradhi, S. Subramaniam, "Physical layer impairment aware routing (PLIAR) in WDM optical networks: Issues and challenges," IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials 11, 109-130 (2009).
  3. S. Azodolmoky, "Experimental demonstration of an impairment aware network planning an operation tool for transparent/translucent optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 439-448 (2011).
  4. S. Azodolmolky, P. Kokkinos, M. Angelou, E. Varvarigos, I. Tomkos, "DICONET NPOT: An impairments aware tool for planning and managing dynamic optical networks," J. Netw. Syst. Manag. 20, 116-133 (2012).
  5. R. Schmogrow, "Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61-63 (2012).
  6. Y. Qin, "Demonstration of C/S based hardware accelerated QoT estimation tool in dynamic impairment-aware optical network," Proc. ECOC 2010 (2010) Paper P5.17.
  7. N. Fernández, "Cognition to design energetically efficient and impairment aware virtual topologies for optical networks," Proc. ONDM 2012 (2012).
  8. P. Poggiolini, "The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. .
  9. A. Aamodt, E. Plaza, "Case-based reasoning: Foundational issues, methodological variations, and system approaches," Artif. Intell. Commun. 7, 39-59 (1994).
  10. A. Caballero, "Experimental demonstration of a cognitive quality of transmission estimator for optical communication systems," Opt. Exp. 20, B64-B70 (2012).
  11. T. Jiménez, "A cognitive system for fast quality of transmission estimation in core optical network," OFC/NFOEC 2012 Los ÁngelesCAUSA (2012) Paper OW3A.5.
  12. T. Jiménez, "Optimization of the knowledge base of a cognitive quality of transmission estimator for core optical networks," Proc. 16th Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM 2012) (2012).
  13. CHRON Project. Deliverable D2.1Specification of the Network Scenario and Service Requirements (2011) http://www.ict-chron.eu.
  14. R. López, "Retrieval, reuse, revision and retention in case-based reasoning," The Knowledge Engineering Review 30, 215-240 (2006).
  15. M. Angelou, Y. Pointurier, D. Careglio, S. Spadaro, I. Tomkos, "Optimized monitor placement for accurate QoT assessment in core optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 4, 15-24 (2012).
  16. D. W. Aha, "Tolerating noisy, irrelevant and novel attributes in instance-based learning algorithms," Int. J. Man-Machine Studies 36, 267-287 (1992).
  17. D. Wettscherek, D. W. Aha, T. Mohri, "A review and empirical evaluation of feature weighting methods for a class of lazy learning algorithms," Artif. Intell. Rev. 11, 273-314 (1997).
  18. M. Salamó, M. López-Sánchez, "Adaptive case-base reasoning using retention and forgetting strategies," Knowledge-Based Syst. 24, 230-247 (2011).
  19. S. J. Delany, P. Cunningham, Advances in Case-Based Reasoning (Springer, 2004) pp. 3-25.
  20. E. McKenna, B. Smyth, "Competence-guided editing methods for lazy learning," Proc. 14th Eur. Conf. Artif. Intell. (2000) pp. 60-64.
  21. A. Mokhtar, M. Azizoglu, "Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 6, 197-206 (1998).
  22. A. Zapata-Beghelli, P. Bayvel, "Dynamic versus static wavelength-routed optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3403-3415 (2008).

2012

S. Azodolmolky, P. Kokkinos, M. Angelou, E. Varvarigos, I. Tomkos, "DICONET NPOT: An impairments aware tool for planning and managing dynamic optical networks," J. Netw. Syst. Manag. 20, 116-133 (2012).

R. Schmogrow, "Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61-63 (2012).

A. Caballero, "Experimental demonstration of a cognitive quality of transmission estimator for optical communication systems," Opt. Exp. 20, B64-B70 (2012).

M. Angelou, Y. Pointurier, D. Careglio, S. Spadaro, I. Tomkos, "Optimized monitor placement for accurate QoT assessment in core optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 4, 15-24 (2012).

2011

S. Azodolmoky, "Experimental demonstration of an impairment aware network planning an operation tool for transparent/translucent optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 439-448 (2011).

M. Salamó, M. López-Sánchez, "Adaptive case-base reasoning using retention and forgetting strategies," Knowledge-Based Syst. 24, 230-247 (2011).

2009

S. Azodolmoky, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53, 926-944 (2009).

C. V. Saradhi, S. Subramaniam, "Physical layer impairment aware routing (PLIAR) in WDM optical networks: Issues and challenges," IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials 11, 109-130 (2009).

2008

A. Zapata-Beghelli, P. Bayvel, "Dynamic versus static wavelength-routed optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3403-3415 (2008).

2006

R. López, "Retrieval, reuse, revision and retention in case-based reasoning," The Knowledge Engineering Review 30, 215-240 (2006).

1998

A. Mokhtar, M. Azizoglu, "Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 6, 197-206 (1998).

1997

D. Wettscherek, D. W. Aha, T. Mohri, "A review and empirical evaluation of feature weighting methods for a class of lazy learning algorithms," Artif. Intell. Rev. 11, 273-314 (1997).

1994

A. Aamodt, E. Plaza, "Case-based reasoning: Foundational issues, methodological variations, and system approaches," Artif. Intell. Commun. 7, 39-59 (1994).

1992

D. W. Aha, "Tolerating noisy, irrelevant and novel attributes in instance-based learning algorithms," Int. J. Man-Machine Studies 36, 267-287 (1992).

Artif. Intell. Commun.

A. Aamodt, E. Plaza, "Case-based reasoning: Foundational issues, methodological variations, and system approaches," Artif. Intell. Commun. 7, 39-59 (1994).

Artif. Intell. Rev.

D. Wettscherek, D. W. Aha, T. Mohri, "A review and empirical evaluation of feature weighting methods for a class of lazy learning algorithms," Artif. Intell. Rev. 11, 273-314 (1997).

Comput. Netw.

S. Azodolmoky, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53, 926-944 (2009).

IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials

C. V. Saradhi, S. Subramaniam, "Physical layer impairment aware routing (PLIAR) in WDM optical networks: Issues and challenges," IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials 11, 109-130 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. Schmogrow, "Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61-63 (2012).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking

A. Mokhtar, M. Azizoglu, "Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 6, 197-206 (1998).

Int. J. Man-Machine Studies

D. W. Aha, "Tolerating noisy, irrelevant and novel attributes in instance-based learning algorithms," Int. J. Man-Machine Studies 36, 267-287 (1992).

J. Lightw. Technol.

M. Angelou, Y. Pointurier, D. Careglio, S. Spadaro, I. Tomkos, "Optimized monitor placement for accurate QoT assessment in core optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 4, 15-24 (2012).

P. Poggiolini, "The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. .

J. Lightw. Technol.

S. Azodolmoky, "Experimental demonstration of an impairment aware network planning an operation tool for transparent/translucent optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 439-448 (2011).

A. Zapata-Beghelli, P. Bayvel, "Dynamic versus static wavelength-routed optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3403-3415 (2008).

J. Netw. Syst. Manag.

S. Azodolmolky, P. Kokkinos, M. Angelou, E. Varvarigos, I. Tomkos, "DICONET NPOT: An impairments aware tool for planning and managing dynamic optical networks," J. Netw. Syst. Manag. 20, 116-133 (2012).

Knowledge-Based Syst.

M. Salamó, M. López-Sánchez, "Adaptive case-base reasoning using retention and forgetting strategies," Knowledge-Based Syst. 24, 230-247 (2011).

Opt. Exp.

A. Caballero, "Experimental demonstration of a cognitive quality of transmission estimator for optical communication systems," Opt. Exp. 20, B64-B70 (2012).

The Knowledge Engineering Review

R. López, "Retrieval, reuse, revision and retention in case-based reasoning," The Knowledge Engineering Review 30, 215-240 (2006).

Other

Y. Qin, "Demonstration of C/S based hardware accelerated QoT estimation tool in dynamic impairment-aware optical network," Proc. ECOC 2010 (2010) Paper P5.17.

N. Fernández, "Cognition to design energetically efficient and impairment aware virtual topologies for optical networks," Proc. ONDM 2012 (2012).

S. J. Delany, P. Cunningham, Advances in Case-Based Reasoning (Springer, 2004) pp. 3-25.

E. McKenna, B. Smyth, "Competence-guided editing methods for lazy learning," Proc. 14th Eur. Conf. Artif. Intell. (2000) pp. 60-64.

T. Jiménez, "A cognitive system for fast quality of transmission estimation in core optical network," OFC/NFOEC 2012 Los ÁngelesCAUSA (2012) Paper OW3A.5.

T. Jiménez, "Optimization of the knowledge base of a cognitive quality of transmission estimator for core optical networks," Proc. 16th Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM 2012) (2012).

CHRON Project. Deliverable D2.1Specification of the Network Scenario and Service Requirements (2011) http://www.ict-chron.eu.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.