Abstract

In this paper, a piecewise polynomial function is proposed as a generalized model for the nonlinear transfer characteristic of the transmitter for optical wireless communications (OWC). The two general multicarrier modulation formats for OWC based on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), direct-current-biased optical OFDM (DCO-OFDM) and asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM), are studied. The nonlinear distortion of the electrical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver is derived in closed form, and it is verified by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. This flexible and accurate model allows for the application of pre-distortion and linearization of the dynamic range of the transmitter between points of minimum and maximum radiated optical power. Through scaling and DC-biasing the transmitted signal is optimally conditioned in accord with the optical power constraints of the transmitter front-end, i.e., minimum, average and maximum radiated optical power. The mutual information of the optimized optical OFDM (O-OFDM) schemes is presented as a measure of the capacity of these OWC systems under an average electrical power constraint. When the additional DC bias power is neglected, DCO-OFDM is shown to achieve the Shannon capacity when the optimization is employed, while ACO-OFDM exhibits a 3-dB gap which grows with higher information rate targets. When the DC bias power is counted towards the signal power, DCO-OFDM outperforms ACO-OFDM for the majority of average optical power levels with the increase of the information rate target or the dynamic range. The results can be considered as a lower bound on the O-OFDM system capacity.

© 2012 IEEE

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2012 (3)

S. Dimitrov, S. Sinanovic, H. Haas, "Signal shaping and modulation for optical wireless communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1319-1328 (2012).

S. Dimitrov, S. Sinanovic, H. Haas, "Clipping noise in OFDM-based optical wireless communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 1072-1081 (2012).

X. Li, J. Vucic, V. Jungnickel, J. Armstrong, "On the capacity of intensity-modulated direct-detection systems and the information rate of ACO-OFDM for indoor optical wireless applications," IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 799-809 (2012).

2010 (4)

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, J. W. Walewski, "Advanced modulation schemes for short-range optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. PP, 1-10 (2010).

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. Winzer, G. Foschini, B. Goebel, "Capacity limits of optical fibre networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662-701 (2010).

A. Farid, S. Hranilovic, "Capacity bounds for wireless optical intensity channels with gaussian noise," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 6066-6077 (2010).

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. D. Langer, J. W. Walewski, "513 Mbit/s visible light communications link based on DMT-modulation of a white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3512-3518 (2010).

2009 (1)

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, "Non-linearity effects and predistortion in optical OFDM wireless transmission using LEDs," Int. J. Ultra Wideband Commun. Syst. 1, 143-150 (2009).

2006 (1)

J. Armstrong, A. Lowery, "Power efficient optical OFDM," Electron. Lett. 42, 370-372 (2006).

2004 (1)

S. Hranilovic, F. Kschischang, "Capacity bounds for power- and band-limited optical intensity channels corrupted by gaussian noise," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 50, 784-795 (2004).

2003 (2)

J. Tellado, L. M. C. Hoo, J. M. Cioffi, "Maximum-likelihood detection of nonlinearly distorted multicarrier symbols by iterative decoding," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 218-228 (2003).

H. Chen, A. M. Haimovich, "Iterative estimation and cancellation of clipping noise for OFDM signals," IEEE Commun. Lett. 7, 305-307 (2003).

2002 (2)

H. Ochiai, H. Imai, "Performance analysis of deliberately clipped OFDM signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 89-101 (2002).

R. You, J. Kahn, "Upper-bounding the capacity of optical IM/DD channels with multiple-subcarrier modulation and fixed bias using trigonometric moment space method," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 48, 514-523 (2002).

2000 (1)

D. Dardari, V. Tralli, A. Vaccari, "A theoretical characterization of nonlinear distortion effects in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 1755-1764 (2000).

1999 (1)

D. Kim, G. L. Stueber, "Clipping noise mitigation for OFDM by decision-aided reconstruction," IEEE Commun. Lett. 3, 4-6 (1999).

1998 (1)

G. D. Forney, G. Ungerboeck, "Modulation and coding for linear gaussian channels," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 44, 2384-2415 (1998).

1997 (1)

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).

1996 (2)

Q. Pan, R. J. Green, "Bit-error-rate performance of lightwave hybrid AM/OFDM systems with comparison with AM/QAM systems in the presence of clipping impulse noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 278-280 (1996).

J. B. Carruthers, J. M. Kahn, "Multiple-subcarrier modulation for nondirected wireless infrared communication," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 538-546 (1996).

1949 (1)

C. Shannon, "Communication in the presence of noise," Proc. IRE 37, 10-21 (1949).

1948 (1)

C. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423 & 623-656 (1948).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

C. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423 & 623-656 (1948).

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Armstrong, A. Lowery, "Power efficient optical OFDM," Electron. Lett. 42, 370-372 (2006).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

D. Kim, G. L. Stueber, "Clipping noise mitigation for OFDM by decision-aided reconstruction," IEEE Commun. Lett. 3, 4-6 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

J. B. Carruthers, J. M. Kahn, "Multiple-subcarrier modulation for nondirected wireless infrared communication," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 538-546 (1996).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, J. W. Walewski, "Advanced modulation schemes for short-range optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. PP, 1-10 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Q. Pan, R. J. Green, "Bit-error-rate performance of lightwave hybrid AM/OFDM systems with comparison with AM/QAM systems in the presence of clipping impulse noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 278-280 (1996).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

D. Dardari, V. Tralli, A. Vaccari, "A theoretical characterization of nonlinear distortion effects in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 1755-1764 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. Farid, S. Hranilovic, "Capacity bounds for wireless optical intensity channels with gaussian noise," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 6066-6077 (2010).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

H. Chen, A. M. Haimovich, "Iterative estimation and cancellation of clipping noise for OFDM signals," IEEE Commun. Lett. 7, 305-307 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (4)

H. Ochiai, H. Imai, "Performance analysis of deliberately clipped OFDM signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 89-101 (2002).

J. Tellado, L. M. C. Hoo, J. M. Cioffi, "Maximum-likelihood detection of nonlinearly distorted multicarrier symbols by iterative decoding," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 218-228 (2003).

S. Dimitrov, S. Sinanovic, H. Haas, "Clipping noise in OFDM-based optical wireless communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 1072-1081 (2012).

X. Li, J. Vucic, V. Jungnickel, J. Armstrong, "On the capacity of intensity-modulated direct-detection systems and the information rate of ACO-OFDM for indoor optical wireless applications," IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 799-809 (2012).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (3)

R. You, J. Kahn, "Upper-bounding the capacity of optical IM/DD channels with multiple-subcarrier modulation and fixed bias using trigonometric moment space method," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 48, 514-523 (2002).

S. Hranilovic, F. Kschischang, "Capacity bounds for power- and band-limited optical intensity channels corrupted by gaussian noise," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 50, 784-795 (2004).

G. D. Forney, G. Ungerboeck, "Modulation and coding for linear gaussian channels," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 44, 2384-2415 (1998).

Int. J. Ultra Wideband Commun. Syst. (1)

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, "Non-linearity effects and predistortion in optical OFDM wireless transmission using LEDs," Int. J. Ultra Wideband Commun. Syst. 1, 143-150 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. D. Langer, J. W. Walewski, "513 Mbit/s visible light communications link based on DMT-modulation of a white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3512-3518 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

S. Dimitrov, S. Sinanovic, H. Haas, "Signal shaping and modulation for optical wireless communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1319-1328 (2012).

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. Winzer, G. Foschini, B. Goebel, "Capacity limits of optical fibre networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662-701 (2010).

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).

Proc. IRE (1)

C. Shannon, "Communication in the presence of noise," Proc. IRE 37, 10-21 (1949).

Other (16)

A. Farid, S. Hranilovic, "Capacity of optical intensity channels with peak and average power constraints," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (2009) pp. 1-5.

J. Rice, Mathematical Statistics and Data Analysis (Duxbury, 1995).

X. Li, R. Mardling, J. Armstrong, "Channel capacity of IM/DD optical communication systems and of ACO-OFDM," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (2007) pp. 2128-2133.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, B. Pricope, "OFDM visible light wireless communication based on white LEDs," Proc. 64th IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf. (2007).

Visible Light Communication (VLC)—A Potential Solution to the Global Wireless Spectrum Shortage GBI Research Tech. Rep. (2011) http://www.gbiresearch.com/ [Online]. Available:.

H. Claussen, "Performance of macro- and co-channel femtocells in a hierarchical cell structure," Proc. 18th IEEE Int. Symp. Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Commun. (2007) pp. 1-5.

Photobiological Safety of Lamps and Lamp Systems, BSI British Standards Std. BS EN 62471:2008 (2008).

J. Campello, "Practical bit loading for DMT," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (1999) pp. 801-805.

H. E. Levin, "A complete and optimal data allocation method for practical discrete multitone systems," Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. (2001) pp. 369-374.

D. Tse, P. Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communication (Cambridge Univ., 2005).

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, "Practical considerations for indoor wireless optical system implementation using OFDM," Proc. IEEE 10th Int. Conf. Telecommun. (2009) pp. 25-29.

J. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Gao, Y. Luo, D. Gu, "Exact BEP analysis for coherent M-arry PAM and QAM over AWGN and rayleigh fading channels," Proc. IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf. (2008) pp. 390-394.

S. Dimitrov, H. Haas, "Optimum signal shaping in OFDM-based optical wireless communication systems," Proc. IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf. (2012) pp. 1-5.

I. Gutman, D. Wulich, "On achievable rate of multicarrier with practical high power amplifier," Proc. Eur. Wireless Conf. (2012) pp. 1-5.

J. Bussgang, Res. Lab. Electron.“Cross correlation function of amplitude-distorted Gaussian signals,” Mass. Inst. Technol.CambridgeMAUSA Tech. Rep. 216 (1952).

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