Abstract

A miniaturized short-reach active optical interconnect, taking advantage of collimated beam based optics, is presented, that features a superior structural tolerance. A receptacle type transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) are introduced, to precisely interface with a standard multimode fiber in a flexible manner while they are efficiently operating based on equivalent collimated beams. In particular, the dependence of the tolerance and optical coupling upon the alignment of constituent elements is rigorously analyzed through ray optic simulations. Plastic injection molding was used to produce crucial parts associated with the optical modules; the arrangement tolerance for the components, such as VCSEL sources, photodetectors (PDs), fibers, and collimating/focusing lenses, was intensively investigated, by monitoring the beam patterns in conjunction with the optical coupling. A compact collimated beam was observed to be generated, providing a divergence of ~ 1.5°. The measured positional shift for the focused beam was found to be only below 10 μm, in response to a misalignment of over 300 μm between the collimating and focusing lens. Thanks to the proposed collimated beam optics, the overall 3-dB alignment tolerance was substantially enhanced to ~ 25 μm. The optical interconnect was finally completed by passively aligning the Tx and Rx modules, with an optical loss of ~ 2.9 and 0.85 dB for the VCSEL-to-fiber and fiber-to-PD coupling, respectively. Its feasibility was practically ensured by delivering a high speed digital signal at 2.5 Gb/s and moreover HD-SDI video data, over a 100-m long fiber.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. D. A. B. Miller, H. M. Ozaktas, "Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of system architecture," J. Parallel Distributed Computing 41, 42-52 (1997).
  2. D. A. B. Miller, "Physical reasons for optical interconnection," Intel J. Optoelectron. 11, 155-168 (1997).
  3. S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. Z. Wu, J. S. Pan, "Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector," Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906-1-722906-10 (2009).
  4. J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, Y. S. Son, "Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1790-1792 (2010).
  5. J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. Shing, T. Wang, V. M. Ramkumar, "Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications," Trans. Adv. Packag. 33, 428-432 (2010).
  6. M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, J. A. Weirick, "Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies," IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20, 256-263 (1997).
  7. E. Palen, "Low cost optical interconnects," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 6478041-6478045.
  8. A. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, T. Ishikawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "Low-cost optical subassembly using VCSEL pre-self-aligned with optical fiber for optical interconnect applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4516-4523 (2009).
  9. S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, B. S. Rho, "Simple and high-accuracy integration for parallel optical subassembly with 120-Gbits/s data transmission," Opt. Eng. 49, 095401-1-095401-6 (2010).
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  12. K. Ishikawa, J. Zhang, A. Tuantranont, V. M. Bright, Y. C. Lee, "An integrated micro-optical system for VCSEL-to-fiber active alignment," Sens. Actuator A 103, 109-115 (2003).
  13. R. Zhang, J. Guo, F. G. Shi, "Fast fiber–laser alignment: Beam spot-size method," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1083-1087 (2005).
  14. H. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. M. Cha, S. S. Lee, G. S. Hwang, Y. S. Son, "Ribbon plastic optical fiber linked optical transmitter and receiver modules featuring a high alignment tolerance," Opt. Exp. 19, 4301-4309 (2011).
  15. T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, H. Sakata, "Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 263-265 (2002).
  16. M. F. Küchel, "Interferometric measurement of rotationally symmetric aspheric surfaces," Proc. SPIE (2009) pp. 738916.

2011 (1)

H. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. M. Cha, S. S. Lee, G. S. Hwang, Y. S. Son, "Ribbon plastic optical fiber linked optical transmitter and receiver modules featuring a high alignment tolerance," Opt. Exp. 19, 4301-4309 (2011).

2010 (3)

J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, Y. S. Son, "Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1790-1792 (2010).

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. Shing, T. Wang, V. M. Ramkumar, "Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications," Trans. Adv. Packag. 33, 428-432 (2010).

S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, B. S. Rho, "Simple and high-accuracy integration for parallel optical subassembly with 120-Gbits/s data transmission," Opt. Eng. 49, 095401-1-095401-6 (2010).

2009 (2)

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. Z. Wu, J. S. Pan, "Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector," Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906-1-722906-10 (2009).

A. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, T. Ishikawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "Low-cost optical subassembly using VCSEL pre-self-aligned with optical fiber for optical interconnect applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4516-4523 (2009).

2005 (1)

R. Zhang, J. Guo, F. G. Shi, "Fast fiber–laser alignment: Beam spot-size method," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1083-1087 (2005).

2003 (1)

K. Ishikawa, J. Zhang, A. Tuantranont, V. M. Bright, Y. C. Lee, "An integrated micro-optical system for VCSEL-to-fiber active alignment," Sens. Actuator A 103, 109-115 (2003).

2002 (1)

T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, H. Sakata, "Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 263-265 (2002).

1997 (3)

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, J. A. Weirick, "Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies," IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20, 256-263 (1997).

D. A. B. Miller, H. M. Ozaktas, "Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of system architecture," J. Parallel Distributed Computing 41, 42-52 (1997).

D. A. B. Miller, "Physical reasons for optical interconnection," Intel J. Optoelectron. 11, 155-168 (1997).

1995 (1)

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676-678 (1995).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, Y. S. Son, "Passively aligned transmit optical sub-assembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1790-1792 (2010).

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676-678 (1995).

T. Ouchi, A. Imada, T. Sato, H. Sakata, "Direct coupling of VCSELs to plastic optical fibers using guide holes patterned in a thick photoresist," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 263-265 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, Manufacturing Technol.–Part B (1)

M. S. Cohen, G. W. Johnson, J. M. Trewhella, D. L. Lacey, M. M. Oprysko, D. L. Karst, S. M. DeFoster, W. K. Hogan, M. D. Peterson, J. A. Weirick, "Low-cost fabrication of optical subassemblies," IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging, Manufacturing Technol.–Part B 20, 256-263 (1997).

Intel J. Optoelectron. (1)

D. A. B. Miller, "Physical reasons for optical interconnection," Intel J. Optoelectron. 11, 155-168 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

A. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, T. Ishikawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "Low-cost optical subassembly using VCSEL pre-self-aligned with optical fiber for optical interconnect applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4516-4523 (2009).

R. Zhang, J. Guo, F. G. Shi, "Fast fiber–laser alignment: Beam spot-size method," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1083-1087 (2005).

J. Parallel Distributed Computing (1)

D. A. B. Miller, H. M. Ozaktas, "Limit to the bit-rate capacity of electrical interconnects from the aspect ratio of system architecture," J. Parallel Distributed Computing 41, 42-52 (1997).

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, B. S. Rho, "Simple and high-accuracy integration for parallel optical subassembly with 120-Gbits/s data transmission," Opt. Eng. 49, 095401-1-095401-6 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (1)

H. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. M. Cha, S. S. Lee, G. S. Hwang, Y. S. Son, "Ribbon plastic optical fiber linked optical transmitter and receiver modules featuring a high alignment tolerance," Opt. Exp. 19, 4301-4309 (2011).

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. Z. Wu, J. S. Pan, "Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector," Proc. SPIE 7229, 722906-1-722906-10 (2009).

Sens. Actuator A (1)

K. Ishikawa, J. Zhang, A. Tuantranont, V. M. Bright, Y. C. Lee, "An integrated micro-optical system for VCSEL-to-fiber active alignment," Sens. Actuator A 103, 109-115 (2003).

Trans. Adv. Packag. (1)

J. Zhang, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, C. W. Tan, Y. Y. Chai, Y. M. Khoo, W. L. Teo, J. L. Shing, T. Wang, V. M. Ramkumar, "Development of optical subassembly for plastic optical fiber transceiver in high-speed applications," Trans. Adv. Packag. 33, 428-432 (2010).

Other (3)

S. C. Liu, R. R. Liu, W. P. Chen, C. Z. Wu, J. S. Pan, "Optical sub-assembly solution for single fiber optical HDMI connector," Proc. SPIE (2009) pp. 722906-1-722906-10.

E. Palen, "Low cost optical interconnects," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 6478041-6478045.

M. F. Küchel, "Interferometric measurement of rotationally symmetric aspheric surfaces," Proc. SPIE (2009) pp. 738916.

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