Abstract

We present an analytical description and experimental demonstration of inter-polarization crosstalk caused by second-order polarization-mode dispersion (PMD). Even if the first-order PMD is completely compensated for, second-order PMD leads to large transmission impairments in ultrashort optical pulse transmissions through signal depolarization, which is caused by the frequency dependence of the principal state of polarization. In particular, depolarization in a polarization-multiplexed transmission inevitably prevents the complete separation of the two channels at the polarization demultiplexing. The analytical results show that the crosstalk increases in proportion to the fourth power of the signal bandwidth and grows by the square of distance as also verified by the experiments.

© 2012 IEEE

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  7. J. P. Turkiewicz, E. Tangdiongga, G. Lehmann, H. Rohde, W. Schairer, Y. R. Zhou, E. S. R. Sikora, A. Lord, D. B. Payne, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "160 Gb/s OTDM networking using deployed fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 225-235 (2005).
  8. Y. Tomiyama, K. Harako, P. Guan, T. Hirooka, M. Nakazawa, "Comparison between polarization-multiplexed DPSK and single-polarization and DQPSK in 640 Gbaud, 1.28 Tbit/s-500 km single-channel transmission," Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 439-444 (2011).
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  14. P. Ciprut, B. Gisin, N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. P. Von der Weid, F. Prieto, C. W. Zimmer, "Second-order polarization mode dispersion: Impact on analog and digital transmissions," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 757-771 (1998).
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  21. B. L. Heffner, "Accurate, automated measurement of differential group delay dispersion and principal state variation using Jones matrix eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 814-817 (1993).
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2011 (2)

Y. Tomiyama, K. Harako, P. Guan, T. Hirooka, M. Nakazawa, "Comparison between polarization-multiplexed DPSK and single-polarization and DQPSK in 640 Gbaud, 1.28 Tbit/s-500 km single-channel transmission," Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 439-444 (2011).

P. Guan, T. Hirano, K. Harako, Y. Tomiyama, T. Hirooka, M. Nakazawa, "2.56 Tbit/s/ch polarization-multiplexed DQPSK transmission over 300 km using time-domain optical Fourier transformation," Opt. Exp. 19, B567-B573 (2011).

2010 (1)

H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel," Opt. Exp. 18, 1438-1443 (2010).

2007 (1)

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Digital equalization of chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2033-2043 (2007).

2006 (1)

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 42, 178-179 (2006).

2005 (1)

J. P. Turkiewicz, E. Tangdiongga, G. Lehmann, H. Rohde, W. Schairer, Y. R. Zhou, E. S. R. Sikora, A. Lord, D. B. Payne, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "160 Gb/s OTDM networking using deployed fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 225-235 (2005).

2004 (2)

H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, P. J. Winzer, "Second-order PMD outage of first-order compensated fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1053-1055 (2004).

M. Yoshida, T. Yaguchi, S. Harada, M. Nakazawa, "A 40 GHz regeneratively and harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser and its longitudinal-mode characteristics," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 1166-1172 (2004).

2003 (2)

H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, J. P. Gordon, "Emulation and inversion of polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 482-495 (2003).

M. Shtaif, M. Boroditsky, "The effect of the frequency dependence of PMD on the performance of optical communications systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1369-1371 (2003).

2001 (1)

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 738-740 (2001).

2000 (2)

J. P. Gordon, H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 97, 4541-4550 (2000).

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).

1999 (1)

L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Foschini, "Measurement of depolarization and scaling associated with second-order polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1614-1616 (1999).

1998 (1)

P. Ciprut, B. Gisin, N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. P. Von der Weid, F. Prieto, C. W. Zimmer, "Second-order polarization mode dispersion: Impact on analog and digital transmissions," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 757-771 (1998).

1996 (1)

F. Bruyère, "Impact of first and second order PMD in optical digital transmission systems," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 269-280 (1996).

1993 (1)

B. L. Heffner, "Accurate, automated measurement of differential group delay dispersion and principal state variation using Jones matrix eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 814-817 (1993).

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 42, 178-179 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, P. J. Winzer, "Second-order PMD outage of first-order compensated fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1053-1055 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. L. Heffner, "Accurate, automated measurement of differential group delay dispersion and principal state variation using Jones matrix eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 814-817 (1993).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Foschini, "Measurement of depolarization and scaling associated with second-order polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1614-1616 (1999).

M. Shtaif, M. Boroditsky, "The effect of the frequency dependence of PMD on the performance of optical communications systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1369-1371 (2003).

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 738-740 (2001).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

M. Yoshida, T. Yaguchi, S. Harada, M. Nakazawa, "A 40 GHz regeneratively and harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser and its longitudinal-mode characteristics," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 1166-1172 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Digital equalization of chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2033-2043 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

J. P. Turkiewicz, E. Tangdiongga, G. Lehmann, H. Rohde, W. Schairer, Y. R. Zhou, E. S. R. Sikora, A. Lord, D. B. Payne, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "160 Gb/s OTDM networking using deployed fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 225-235 (2005).

P. Ciprut, B. Gisin, N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. P. Von der Weid, F. Prieto, C. W. Zimmer, "Second-order polarization mode dispersion: Impact on analog and digital transmissions," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 757-771 (1998).

H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, J. P. Gordon, "Emulation and inversion of polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 482-495 (2003).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

F. Bruyère, "Impact of first and second order PMD in optical digital transmission systems," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 269-280 (1996).

Opt. Exp. (2)

H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel," Opt. Exp. 18, 1438-1443 (2010).

P. Guan, T. Hirano, K. Harako, Y. Tomiyama, T. Hirooka, M. Nakazawa, "2.56 Tbit/s/ch polarization-multiplexed DQPSK transmission over 300 km using time-domain optical Fourier transformation," Opt. Exp. 19, B567-B573 (2011).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

Y. Tomiyama, K. Harako, P. Guan, T. Hirooka, M. Nakazawa, "Comparison between polarization-multiplexed DPSK and single-polarization and DQPSK in 640 Gbaud, 1.28 Tbit/s-500 km single-channel transmission," Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 439-444 (2011).

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (1)

J. P. Gordon, H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 97, 4541-4550 (2000).

Other (5)

Ultrahigh-Speed Optical Transmission Technology (Springer, 2007).

T. Hirooka, K. Harako, P. Guan, M. Nakazawa, "Bandwidth and distance dependences of depolarization-induced crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," Proc. OFC (2012).

C. D. Poole, Optical Fiber Telecommunications III A (Academic, 1997).

H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV B (Academic, 2002).

T. Richter, E. Palushani, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Nölle, R. Ludwig, J. K. Fischer, C. Schubert, "Single wavelength channel 10.2 Tb/s TDM-data capacity using 16-QAM and coherent detection," Proc. OFC (2011).

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