Abstract

Mode coupling and the control of mode <i>Q</i> factor and threshold gain are analyzed for nanocircular resonators confined by isolation and metallic layers based on solving eigenvalue equation for multiple-layer structure circular resonators. For nanocircular resonators only confined by a metallic layer, the metallic layer can enhance the mode confinement for transverse magnetic (TM) whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) and result in high <i>Q</i> TM WGMs. But transverse electric (TE) WGMs can form hybrid modes of surface plasmon polaritons and dielectric modes, with the mode <i>Q</i> factors limited by the metallic layer absorption. By introducing a low index isolation layer between the resonator and the metallic layer, we can greatly enhance the mode <i>Q</i> factors for TE WGMs. However, the mode coupling between different radial modes and the variation of the optical confinement factor in the active layer can result in the oscillation of the mode <i>Q</i> factor and threshold gain versus the isolation layer thickness. The optimization of the isolation layer thickness is important to enhance the mode <i>Q</i> factor and the optical confinement factor for realizing low threshold gain.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, M. K. Smit, "Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 589-594 (2007).
  2. M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Notzel, C. Z. Ning, M. K. Smit, "Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides," Opt. Exp. 17, 11107-11112 (2009).
  3. C. Z. Ning, "Semiconductor nanolasers," Phys. Status Solidi B 247, 774-788 (2010).
  4. S. L. Chuang, D. Bimberg, "Metal-cavity nanolasers," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 288-292 (2011).
  5. K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, C. Z. Ning, "Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection," Phys. Rev. B 85, (2012) Art. ID 041301(R).
  6. V. Krishnamurthy, B. Klein, "Theoretical investigation of metal cladding for nanowire and cylindrical micropost lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 40, 67-73 (2008).
  7. A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, Y. Fainman, "Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators," Opt. Lett 33, 1261-1263 (2008).
  8. Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, S. J. Wang, "Mode analysis for equilateral-triangle-resonator microlasers with metal confinement layers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1529-1536 (2009).
  9. K. J. Che, Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, "Mode characteristics for square resonators with a metal confinement layer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 414-420 (2010).
  10. M. Hentschel, K. Richter, "Quantum chaos in optical systems: The annular billiard," Phys. Rev. E. 66, (2002) Art. ID 056207.
  11. A. Vial, A. S. Grimault, D. Macias, D. Barchiesi, M. L. de la Chapelle, "Application to the modeling of improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method," Phys. Rev. B. 71, 085416-085422 (2005).
  12. Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, W. H. Guo, Q. Y. Lu, J. F. Donegan, "Enhancement of quality factor for TE whispering-gallery modes in microcylinder resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 13057-13062 (2010).

2012 (1)

K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, C. Z. Ning, "Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection," Phys. Rev. B 85, (2012) Art. ID 041301(R).

2011 (1)

S. L. Chuang, D. Bimberg, "Metal-cavity nanolasers," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 288-292 (2011).

2010 (3)

C. Z. Ning, "Semiconductor nanolasers," Phys. Status Solidi B 247, 774-788 (2010).

K. J. Che, Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, "Mode characteristics for square resonators with a metal confinement layer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 414-420 (2010).

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, W. H. Guo, Q. Y. Lu, J. F. Donegan, "Enhancement of quality factor for TE whispering-gallery modes in microcylinder resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 13057-13062 (2010).

2009 (2)

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, S. J. Wang, "Mode analysis for equilateral-triangle-resonator microlasers with metal confinement layers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1529-1536 (2009).

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Notzel, C. Z. Ning, M. K. Smit, "Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides," Opt. Exp. 17, 11107-11112 (2009).

2008 (2)

V. Krishnamurthy, B. Klein, "Theoretical investigation of metal cladding for nanowire and cylindrical micropost lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 40, 67-73 (2008).

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, Y. Fainman, "Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators," Opt. Lett 33, 1261-1263 (2008).

2007 (1)

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, M. K. Smit, "Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 589-594 (2007).

2005 (1)

A. Vial, A. S. Grimault, D. Macias, D. Barchiesi, M. L. de la Chapelle, "Application to the modeling of improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method," Phys. Rev. B. 71, 085416-085422 (2005).

2002 (1)

M. Hentschel, K. Richter, "Quantum chaos in optical systems: The annular billiard," Phys. Rev. E. 66, (2002) Art. ID 056207.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

V. Krishnamurthy, B. Klein, "Theoretical investigation of metal cladding for nanowire and cylindrical micropost lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 40, 67-73 (2008).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, S. J. Wang, "Mode analysis for equilateral-triangle-resonator microlasers with metal confinement layers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1529-1536 (2009).

K. J. Che, Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, "Mode characteristics for square resonators with a metal confinement layer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 414-420 (2010).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

S. L. Chuang, D. Bimberg, "Metal-cavity nanolasers," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 288-292 (2011).

Nature Photon. (1)

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, M. K. Smit, "Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 589-594 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (2)

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Notzel, C. Z. Ning, M. K. Smit, "Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides," Opt. Exp. 17, 11107-11112 (2009).

Y. D. Yang, Y. Z. Huang, W. H. Guo, Q. Y. Lu, J. F. Donegan, "Enhancement of quality factor for TE whispering-gallery modes in microcylinder resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 13057-13062 (2010).

Opt. Lett (1)

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, Y. Fainman, "Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators," Opt. Lett 33, 1261-1263 (2008).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, C. Z. Ning, "Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection," Phys. Rev. B 85, (2012) Art. ID 041301(R).

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

A. Vial, A. S. Grimault, D. Macias, D. Barchiesi, M. L. de la Chapelle, "Application to the modeling of improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method," Phys. Rev. B. 71, 085416-085422 (2005).

Phys. Rev. E. (1)

M. Hentschel, K. Richter, "Quantum chaos in optical systems: The annular billiard," Phys. Rev. E. 66, (2002) Art. ID 056207.

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

C. Z. Ning, "Semiconductor nanolasers," Phys. Status Solidi B 247, 774-788 (2010).

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