Abstract

With the aim to find the best-suited host glass for radiation-resistant erbium-doped fibers (EDF), radiation-induced absorption (RIA) is measured and analyzed after γ-irradiation to 3.0–4.5 kGy in 18 silica optical fibers with various concentrations of dopants: Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, GeO<sub>2</sub> and Er<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>. The RIA dependence on the content of Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> and Er<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> in singly doped fibers is investigated. RIA of fibers codoped simultaneously with Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> are found to be significantly lower than those of singly Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-doped fibers. This is explained as the result of the formation of AlPO<sub>4</sub>-joins in the silica network. GeO<sub>2</sub> codoping of AlPO<sub>4</sub>-doped silica is shown to further reduce RIA. Nevertheless, the application of H<sub>2</sub>-loading and photobleaching of RIA by 980-nm laser radiation shows that the AlPO<sub>4</sub>- and GeO<sub>2</sub>-codoped silica is outperformed by P-free Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>- and GeO<sub>2</sub>-codoped silica, which is, therefore, concluded to be the best host glass composition for radiation resistant EDFs.

© 2012 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. V. W. S. Chan, "Optical sattelite networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2811-2827 (2003).
  2. P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interfereometric sensor applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 550-567 (1994).
  3. G. M. Williams, E. J. Friebele, "Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: Sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 1531-1536 (1998).
  4. M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, F. Berghmans, "Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibres," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 2763-2769 (2004).
  5. T. S. Rose, D. Gunn, C. G. Valley, "Gamma and proton radiation effects in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: Active and passive measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1918-1923 (2001).
  6. H. Henschel, O. Köhn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, "Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 1552-1557 (1998).
  7. K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, "Radiation-resistant erbium-doped silica fibre," Quantum Electron. 37, 946-949 (2007).
  8. K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, S. N. Klyamkin, "Radiation-resistant erbium-doped fiber for spacecraft applications," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2213-2215 (2008).
  9. K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "Radiation-resistant Er-doped fibers: Optimization of pump wavelength," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1476-1478 (2008).
  10. K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, T. Handa, "Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430-3436 (1986).
  11. B. Tortech, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Gamma radiation induced loss in erbium doped optical fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 477-480 (2007).
  12. H. Henschel, O. Kohn, H. U. Schmidt, "Optical fibres as radiation dosimeters," Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B69, 307-314 (1992).
  13. D. J. DiGiovanni, J. B. MacChesney, T. Y. Kometani, "Structure and properties of silica containing aluminum and phosphorus near the AlPO4 join," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 58-64 (1989).
  14. S. G. Kosinski, D. M. Krol, T. M. Duncan, D. C. Douglass, J. B. MacChesney, J. R. Simpson, "Raman and NMR spectroscopy of SiO2 glasses co-doped with Al2O3 and P2O5," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 45-52 (1988).
  15. M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, K. V. Zotov, D. S. Lipatov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, "Effect of the AlPO4 join on the pump-to-signal conversion efficiency in heavily Er-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 34, 3355-3357 (2009).
  16. L. V. Kotov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, O. I. Medvedkov, D. S. Lipatov, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Gur'yanov, "High-performace cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier," Quantum Electron. 42, 432-436 (2012).
  17. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, "Codoping effects in fibers for active applications," Proc. OFC'1999 .
  18. V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, A. L. Tomashuk, "The mechanism of the γ-irradiation effect on the bandwith of multimode graded-index fibers," Sov. Lightw. Commun. 2, 311-320 (1992).
  19. H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, "Radiation-induced coloring and paramagnetic centers in synthetic SiO2: Al glasses," Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B91, 395-399 (1994).
  20. D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, J. W. Fleming, "Fundamental defects centers in glass: Electronic spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3743-3762 (1983).
  21. M. E. Likhachev, S. S. Aleshkina, A. V. Shubin, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, D. S. Lipatov, A. N. Guryanov, "Large-mode-area highly Yb-doped photodarkening-free Al2O3-P2O5-SiO2-based fiber," Proc. CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2011 (2011).
  22. A. V. Shubin, A. A. Rybaltovsky, A. L. Tomashuk, M. A. Melkumov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, I. A. Bufetov, E. M. Dianov, "Photodarkening of Yb-doped fibers: The nature of the color centers and the effect of H2-loading," Proc. 18th Int. Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS'09) (2009).
  23. V. B. Neustruev, "Colour centers in germanosilicate glass and optical fibers," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6, 6901-6936 (1994).
  24. T. Wijnands, L. K. De Jonge, S. K. Hoeffgen, U. Weinand, "Optical absorption in commercial single mode optical fibers in a high energy physics radiation field," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2216-2222 (2008).

2012

L. V. Kotov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, O. I. Medvedkov, D. S. Lipatov, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Gur'yanov, "High-performace cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier," Quantum Electron. 42, 432-436 (2012).

2009

2008

T. Wijnands, L. K. De Jonge, S. K. Hoeffgen, U. Weinand, "Optical absorption in commercial single mode optical fibers in a high energy physics radiation field," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2216-2222 (2008).

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, S. N. Klyamkin, "Radiation-resistant erbium-doped fiber for spacecraft applications," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2213-2215 (2008).

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "Radiation-resistant Er-doped fibers: Optimization of pump wavelength," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1476-1478 (2008).

2007

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, "Radiation-resistant erbium-doped silica fibre," Quantum Electron. 37, 946-949 (2007).

B. Tortech, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Gamma radiation induced loss in erbium doped optical fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 477-480 (2007).

2004

M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, F. Berghmans, "Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibres," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 2763-2769 (2004).

2003

V. W. S. Chan, "Optical sattelite networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2811-2827 (2003).

2001

T. S. Rose, D. Gunn, C. G. Valley, "Gamma and proton radiation effects in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: Active and passive measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1918-1923 (2001).

1998

H. Henschel, O. Köhn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, "Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 1552-1557 (1998).

G. M. Williams, E. J. Friebele, "Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: Sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 1531-1536 (1998).

1994

P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interfereometric sensor applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 550-567 (1994).

H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, "Radiation-induced coloring and paramagnetic centers in synthetic SiO2: Al glasses," Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B91, 395-399 (1994).

V. B. Neustruev, "Colour centers in germanosilicate glass and optical fibers," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6, 6901-6936 (1994).

1992

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, A. L. Tomashuk, "The mechanism of the γ-irradiation effect on the bandwith of multimode graded-index fibers," Sov. Lightw. Commun. 2, 311-320 (1992).

H. Henschel, O. Kohn, H. U. Schmidt, "Optical fibres as radiation dosimeters," Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B69, 307-314 (1992).

1989

D. J. DiGiovanni, J. B. MacChesney, T. Y. Kometani, "Structure and properties of silica containing aluminum and phosphorus near the AlPO4 join," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 58-64 (1989).

1988

S. G. Kosinski, D. M. Krol, T. M. Duncan, D. C. Douglass, J. B. MacChesney, J. R. Simpson, "Raman and NMR spectroscopy of SiO2 glasses co-doped with Al2O3 and P2O5," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 45-52 (1988).

1986

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, T. Handa, "Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430-3436 (1986).

1983

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, J. W. Fleming, "Fundamental defects centers in glass: Electronic spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3743-3762 (1983).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "Radiation-resistant Er-doped fibers: Optimization of pump wavelength," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1476-1478 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

G. M. Williams, E. J. Friebele, "Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: Sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 1531-1536 (1998).

M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, F. Berghmans, "Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibres," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 2763-2769 (2004).

H. Henschel, O. Köhn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, "Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 1552-1557 (1998).

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, S. N. Klyamkin, "Radiation-resistant erbium-doped fiber for spacecraft applications," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2213-2215 (2008).

T. Wijnands, L. K. De Jonge, S. K. Hoeffgen, U. Weinand, "Optical absorption in commercial single mode optical fibers in a high energy physics radiation field," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2216-2222 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys.

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, J. W. Fleming, "Fundamental defects centers in glass: Electronic spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3743-3762 (1983).

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, T. Handa, "Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430-3436 (1986).

J. Lightw. Technol.

T. S. Rose, D. Gunn, C. G. Valley, "Gamma and proton radiation effects in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: Active and passive measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1918-1923 (2001).

V. W. S. Chan, "Optical sattelite networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2811-2827 (2003).

P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interfereometric sensor applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 550-567 (1994).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

B. Tortech, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Gamma radiation induced loss in erbium doped optical fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 477-480 (2007).

D. J. DiGiovanni, J. B. MacChesney, T. Y. Kometani, "Structure and properties of silica containing aluminum and phosphorus near the AlPO4 join," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 58-64 (1989).

S. G. Kosinski, D. M. Krol, T. M. Duncan, D. C. Douglass, J. B. MacChesney, J. R. Simpson, "Raman and NMR spectroscopy of SiO2 glasses co-doped with Al2O3 and P2O5," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 45-52 (1988).

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter

V. B. Neustruev, "Colour centers in germanosilicate glass and optical fibers," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6, 6901-6936 (1994).

Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res.

H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, "Radiation-induced coloring and paramagnetic centers in synthetic SiO2: Al glasses," Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B91, 395-399 (1994).

H. Henschel, O. Kohn, H. U. Schmidt, "Optical fibres as radiation dosimeters," Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B69, 307-314 (1992).

Opt. Lett.

Quantum Electron.

L. V. Kotov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, O. I. Medvedkov, D. S. Lipatov, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Gur'yanov, "High-performace cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier," Quantum Electron. 42, 432-436 (2012).

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, "Radiation-resistant erbium-doped silica fibre," Quantum Electron. 37, 946-949 (2007).

Sov. Lightw. Commun.

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, A. L. Tomashuk, "The mechanism of the γ-irradiation effect on the bandwith of multimode graded-index fibers," Sov. Lightw. Commun. 2, 311-320 (1992).

Other

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, "Codoping effects in fibers for active applications," Proc. OFC'1999 .

M. E. Likhachev, S. S. Aleshkina, A. V. Shubin, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, D. S. Lipatov, A. N. Guryanov, "Large-mode-area highly Yb-doped photodarkening-free Al2O3-P2O5-SiO2-based fiber," Proc. CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2011 (2011).

A. V. Shubin, A. A. Rybaltovsky, A. L. Tomashuk, M. A. Melkumov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, I. A. Bufetov, E. M. Dianov, "Photodarkening of Yb-doped fibers: The nature of the color centers and the effect of H2-loading," Proc. 18th Int. Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS'09) (2009).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.