Abstract

This work introduces a novel symbol time synchronization method for optical fast orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (FOFDM) systems. The first arrival path of a channel is well known to be related to the best symbol time; however, few approaches exploit this fact. In contrast, the basic idea of this study is to derive an estimate of channel-coefficient power using the periodic property of the discrete cosine transform (DCT) in FOFDM. The proposed method maximizes the effective signal power (ESP), which is defined as the signal power excluding the intersymbol interference (ISI), within the DCT window using the obtained channel-coefficient power. Simulations reveal that the proposed estimator exhibits low complexity and robustness against the presence of chromatic dispersion (CD).

© 2012 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Tan, N. C. Beaulieu, "A comparison of DCT-based OFDM and DFT-based OFDM in frequency offset and fading channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 2113-2125 (2006).
  2. J. Zhao, S. Ibrahim, D. Rafique, P. Gunning, A. Ellis, "Symbol synchronization exploiting the symmetric property in optical fast OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 594-596 (2011).
  3. Y.-H. Yeh, S.-G. Chen, "Efficient channel estimation based on discrete cosine transform," Proc. IEEE ICASSP'03 (2003).
  4. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, H. Tanaka, "121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000 km of SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 177-188 (2009).
  5. W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IET Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).
  6. A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).
  7. W. Shieh, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, "107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM transmission over 1000-km SSMF fiber using orthogonal band multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 16, 6378-6386 (2008).
  8. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. . Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).
  9. W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, Q. Yang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Has its time come?," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 234-255 (2008).
  10. S. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "Multi-gigabit real-time coherent optical OFDM receiver," Proc. IEEE OFC/NFOEC (2009).
  11. T. Omiya, H. Goto, K. Kasai, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, "24 Gbit/s, 64 QAM-OFDM coherent transmission with a bandwidth of 2.5 GHz," Proc. IEEE ECOC (2009).
  12. S.-H. Fan, J. Yu, D. Qian, G.-K. Chang, "A fast and efficient frequency offset correction technique for coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1997-2004 (2011).
  13. D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, Y. Shao, J. Hu, T. Wang, "101.7-Tb/s (370 × 294-Gb/2) PDM-128 QAM-OFDM transmission over 3 × 55-km SSMF using pilot-based phase-noise mitigation," Proc. IEEE OFC/NFOEC (2011).
  14. S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, H. Tanaka, "100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM," Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 407-413 (2009).
  15. X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 919-921 (2007).
  16. T. M. Schmidl, D. C. Cox, "Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
  17. B. Park, H. Cheon, C. Kang, D. Hong, "A novel timing offset estimation method for OFDM systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 7, 239-241 (2003).
  18. J. J. van de Beek, M. Sandell, P. O. Borjesson, "ML estimation of time and frequency offset in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 1800-1805 (1997).
  19. X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, "Optical OFDM synchronization with symbol timing offset and sampling clock offset compensation in real-time IMDD systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 187-196 (2011).
  20. N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time 2.5 GS/s coherent optical receiver for 53.3-Gb/s sub-banded OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 494-501 (2010).
  21. J. Zhao, A. Ellis, "Transmission of 4-ASK optical fast OFDM with chromatic dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 34-36 (2012).
  22. A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner, D. A. Atlas, D. G. Daut, "Chromatic dispersion limitations in coherent lightwave transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 704-709 (1988).
  23. S. Celebi, "Interblock interference (IBI) and time of reference (TOR) computation in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 1895-1900 (2001).
  24. A. D. Booth, "A signed binary multiplication technique," Quarterly J. Mech. Appl. Math. IV, 236-240 (1951).
  25. N. Boullis, A. Tisserand, "Some optimizations of hardware multiplication by constant matrices," IEEE Trans. Comput. 54, 1271-1282 (2005).

2012 (1)

J. Zhao, A. Ellis, "Transmission of 4-ASK optical fast OFDM with chromatic dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 34-36 (2012).

2011 (3)

X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, "Optical OFDM synchronization with symbol timing offset and sampling clock offset compensation in real-time IMDD systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 187-196 (2011).

J. Zhao, S. Ibrahim, D. Rafique, P. Gunning, A. Ellis, "Symbol synchronization exploiting the symmetric property in optical fast OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 594-596 (2011).

S.-H. Fan, J. Yu, D. Qian, G.-K. Chang, "A fast and efficient frequency offset correction technique for coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1997-2004 (2011).

2010 (1)

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time 2.5 GS/s coherent optical receiver for 53.3-Gb/s sub-banded OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 494-501 (2010).

2009 (3)

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, H. Tanaka, "121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000 km of SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 177-188 (2009).

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).

S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, H. Tanaka, "100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM," Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 407-413 (2009).

2008 (3)

W. Shieh, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, "107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM transmission over 1000-km SSMF fiber using orthogonal band multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 16, 6378-6386 (2008).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. . Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, Q. Yang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Has its time come?," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 234-255 (2008).

2007 (1)

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 919-921 (2007).

2006 (2)

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IET Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).

P. Tan, N. C. Beaulieu, "A comparison of DCT-based OFDM and DFT-based OFDM in frequency offset and fading channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 2113-2125 (2006).

2005 (1)

N. Boullis, A. Tisserand, "Some optimizations of hardware multiplication by constant matrices," IEEE Trans. Comput. 54, 1271-1282 (2005).

2003 (1)

B. Park, H. Cheon, C. Kang, D. Hong, "A novel timing offset estimation method for OFDM systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 7, 239-241 (2003).

2001 (1)

S. Celebi, "Interblock interference (IBI) and time of reference (TOR) computation in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 1895-1900 (2001).

1997 (2)

J. J. van de Beek, M. Sandell, P. O. Borjesson, "ML estimation of time and frequency offset in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 1800-1805 (1997).

T. M. Schmidl, D. C. Cox, "Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).

1988 (1)

A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner, D. A. Atlas, D. G. Daut, "Chromatic dispersion limitations in coherent lightwave transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 704-709 (1988).

1951 (1)

A. D. Booth, "A signed binary multiplication technique," Quarterly J. Mech. Appl. Math. IV, 236-240 (1951).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Zhao, A. Ellis, "Transmission of 4-ASK optical fast OFDM with chromatic dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 34-36 (2012).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

P. Tan, N. C. Beaulieu, "A comparison of DCT-based OFDM and DFT-based OFDM in frequency offset and fading channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 2113-2125 (2006).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

B. Park, H. Cheon, C. Kang, D. Hong, "A novel timing offset estimation method for OFDM systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 7, 239-241 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Zhao, S. Ibrahim, D. Rafique, P. Gunning, A. Ellis, "Symbol synchronization exploiting the symmetric property in optical fast OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 594-596 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 919-921 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

N. Boullis, A. Tisserand, "Some optimizations of hardware multiplication by constant matrices," IEEE Trans. Comput. 54, 1271-1282 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

S. Celebi, "Interblock interference (IBI) and time of reference (TOR) computation in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 1895-1900 (2001).

T. M. Schmidl, D. C. Cox, "Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

J. J. van de Beek, M. Sandell, P. O. Borjesson, "ML estimation of time and frequency offset in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 1800-1805 (1997).

IET Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IET Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).

A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner, D. A. Atlas, D. G. Daut, "Chromatic dispersion limitations in coherent lightwave transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 704-709 (1988).

J. . Technol. (1)

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. . Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, H. Tanaka, "121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000 km of SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 177-188 (2009).

X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, "Optical OFDM synchronization with symbol timing offset and sampling clock offset compensation in real-time IMDD systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 187-196 (2011).

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time 2.5 GS/s coherent optical receiver for 53.3-Gb/s sub-banded OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 494-501 (2010).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Exp. (1)

W. Shieh, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, "107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM transmission over 1000-km SSMF fiber using orthogonal band multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 16, 6378-6386 (2008).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, H. Tanaka, "100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM," Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 407-413 (2009).

Quarterly J. Mech. Appl. Math. (1)

A. D. Booth, "A signed binary multiplication technique," Quarterly J. Mech. Appl. Math. IV, 236-240 (1951).

Other (4)

S. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "Multi-gigabit real-time coherent optical OFDM receiver," Proc. IEEE OFC/NFOEC (2009).

T. Omiya, H. Goto, K. Kasai, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, "24 Gbit/s, 64 QAM-OFDM coherent transmission with a bandwidth of 2.5 GHz," Proc. IEEE ECOC (2009).

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, Y. Shao, J. Hu, T. Wang, "101.7-Tb/s (370 × 294-Gb/2) PDM-128 QAM-OFDM transmission over 3 × 55-km SSMF using pilot-based phase-noise mitigation," Proc. IEEE OFC/NFOEC (2011).

Y.-H. Yeh, S.-G. Chen, "Efficient channel estimation based on discrete cosine transform," Proc. IEEE ICASSP'03 (2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.