Abstract

We propose an all-optical logical gate based in a triple-core photonic fiber crystal operating with two ultrashort fundamental soliton pulses of 100 fs, with pulse amplitude modulation in the modality of amplitude shift keying (PAM-ASK) with binary amplitude modulation. In particular, we examine the performance of a triple-core PCF coupler to execute two-input logical functions. The pulse propagation is modelled by an extended nonlinear Schroedinger equation including the terms associated with the anomalous group-velocity dispersion (GVD) and the third-order dispersion β<sub>3</sub>, as well as the nonlinear effects of self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), self-steepening, and intrapulse Raman scattering (IRS) in a lossless configuration. Our results indicate the possibility of getting logical operations by controlling the phase difference between the input pulses.

© 2012 IEEE

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  38. N. González-Baquedano, N. Arzate, I. Torres-Gómez, A. Ferrando, D. E. Ceballos-Herrera, C. Milián, "Femtosecond pulse compression in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber by tuning its cross section," Photon. Nanostruc 10, 594-601 (2012).
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  44. A. C. Ferreira, C. S. Sobrinho, J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. Fraga, H. H. B. Rocha, A. W. Lima, JrK. D. A. Sabóia, G. F. Guimarães, J. M. S. Filho, A. S. B. Sombra, "A performance study of an all-optical logic gate based in PAM-ASK," J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1004-1013 (2009).
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2012 (1)

N. González-Baquedano, N. Arzate, I. Torres-Gómez, A. Ferrando, D. E. Ceballos-Herrera, C. Milián, "Femtosecond pulse compression in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber by tuning its cross section," Photon. Nanostruc 10, 594-601 (2012).

2010 (2)

M. Liu, K. S. Chiang, "Propagation of ultrashort pulses in a nonlinear two-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 18, 21261-21268 (2010).

S. Zeng, Y. Zhang, B. Li, E. Y. Pun, "Ultrasmall optical logic gates based on silicon periodic dielectric waveguides," Photon. Nanostruc 8, 32-37 (2010).

2009 (1)

A. C. Ferreira, C. S. Sobrinho, J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. Fraga, H. H. B. Rocha, A. W. Lima, JrK. D. A. Sabóia, G. F. Guimarães, J. M. S. Filho, A. S. B. Sombra, "A performance study of an all-optical logic gate based in PAM-ASK," J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1004-1013 (2009).

2007 (3)

H. J. Caulfield, R. A. Soref, C. S. Vikram, "Universal reconfigurable optical logic with silicon-on-insulator resonant structures," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 14-20 (2007).

J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. de Fraga, G. F. Guimarães, A. C. Ferreira, H. H. B. Rocha, M. G. da Silva, A. S. B. Sombra, "Optical switches and all-fiber logical devices based on triangular and planar three-core nonlinear optical fiber couplers," Opt. Commun. 276, 107-115 (2007).

J. S. Almeida, J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. Fraga, J. C. Sales, A. C. Ferreira, S. P. Marciano, A. F. G. Furtado Filho, M. G. Silva, A. S. B. Sombra, "Logic gates based in asymmetric couplers: Numerical analysis," Fiber Integr. Opt. 26, 217-228 (2007).

2006 (3)

W. B. Fraga, J. W. M. Menezes, M. G. da Silva, C. S. Sobrinho, A. S. B. Sombra, "All optical logic gates based in an asymmetric nonlinear directional coupler," Opt. Commun. 262, 32-37 (2006).

M. G. da Silva, A. M. Bastos, C. S. Sobrinho, E. F. de Almeida, A. S. B. Sombra, "Analytical and numerical studies of the performance of a periodically modulated nonlinear dispersion directional fiber coupler," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 148-161 (2006).

K. E. Zoiros, G. Papadopoulos, T. Houbavlis, G. T. Kanellos, "Theoretical analysis and performance investigation of ultrafast all-optical Boolean XOR gate with semiconductor optical amplifier-assisted Sagnac interferometer," Opt. Commun. 258, 114-134 (2006).

2005 (3)

X. Sang, P. I. Chiang, C. Yu, "Applications of nonlinear effects in highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber to optical communications," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 965-994 (2005).

T. Houbavlis, K. E. Zoiros, M. Kalyvas, G. Theophilopoulos, C. Bintjas, K. Yiannopoulos, N. Pleros, K. Vlachos, H. Avramopoulos, L. Schares, L. Occhi, G. Guekos, J. R. Taylor, S. Hansmann, W. J. Miller, "All-optical signal processing and applications within the esprit project DO_ALL," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 781-801 (2005).

A. Kumar, A. K. Sarma, "Femto-second soliton switching in a three-core coupler," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8498 (2005).

2003 (3)

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, P. G. Bernasconi, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, "1-Tb/s (6 × 170.6 Gb/s) transmission over 2000-km NZDF using OTDM and RZ-DPSK format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1618-1620 (2003).

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, E. Sasaoka, "Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: Application to ultra-flattened dispersion," Opt. Exp. 11, 843-852 (2003).

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).

2002 (2)

R. Ramaswami, "Optical fiber communication: From transmission to networking," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 138-147 (2002).

S. Lee, J. Park, K. Lee, D. Eom, S. Lee, J. H. Kim, "All-optical exclusive NOR logic gate using mach-zehnder interferometer," J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1155-1157 (2002).

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

N. G. R. Broderick, T. M. Monro, P. J. Bennett, D. J. Richardson, "Nonlinearity in holey optical fibers: Measurement and future opportunities," Opt. Lett. 24, 1395-1397 (1999).

K. Z. Nóbrega, M. G. da Silva, A. S. B. Sombra, "Optical multistability on the asymmetric nonlinear directional coupler," J. Opt. Commun. 20, 210-214 (1999).

1998 (2)

M. G. Da Silva, A. S. B. Sombra, "All optical soliton switching in three core nonlinear fiber couplers," Opt. Commun. 145, 281-290 (1998).

K. Z. Nobrega, A. S. B. Sombra, "Optimum self phase modulation profile for nonlinear transmission recovery in twin core optical couplers with loss," Opt. Commun. 151, 31-34 (1998).

1997 (3)

D. J. Kaup, T. I. Lakoba, B. A. Malomed, "Asymmetric solitons in mismatched dual-core optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 14, 1199-1206 (1997).

P. A. Buah, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "Numerical study of soliton switching in active three-core nonlinear fiber coupler," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 33, 874-878 (1997).

K. S. Chiang, "Bandwidths of optical fibre directional couplers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 14, 1437-1443 (1997).

1996 (1)

H. Hatami-Hanza, P. L. Chu, "Logic operations in dispersion-mismatched nonlinear fibre couplers," Opt. Commun. 124, 90-94 (1996).

1995 (2)

H. Hatami-Hanza, P. L. Chu, "Logic operations in nonlinear fibre couplers," Opt. Commun. 124, 90-94 (1995).

K. S. Chiang, "Intermodal dispersion in two-core optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 997-999 (1995).

1994 (1)

M. L. Lyra, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, "Saturation effects on modulational instability in non-Kerr-like monomode optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 108, 117-120 (1994).

1993 (1)

J. Atai, Y. Chen, "Nonlinear mismatches between two cores of saturable nonlinear couplers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 29, 242-249 (1993).

1992 (4)

C. C. Yang, A. J. S. Wang, "Asymmetric nonlinear coupling and its applications to logic functions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 479-487 (1992).

D. Y. Zang, S. R. Forest, "Ultrafast all-optical switching using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 362-365 (1992).

A. S. B. Sombra, "Bistable pulse collisions of the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation," Opt. Commun. 94, 92-98 (1992).

D. Y. Zang, S. R. Forest, "Crystalline organic semiconductor optical directional couplers and switches using an index-matching layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 365-368 (1992).

1991 (3)

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, "Nonlinear refractive index in erbium doped optical fiber: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 27, 908-913 (1991).

J. M. Soto-Crespo, E. M. Wright, "All-optical of solitons in two and three-core nonlinear fiber couplers," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 7240-7243 (1991).

J. Wilson, G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, "Soliton switching in an erbium-doped nonlinear fiber coupler," Opt. Lett. 16, 1653-1655 (1991).

1990 (1)

G. I. Stegman, E. M. Wright, "All-optical switching," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95-122 (1990).

1985 (1)

P. L. K. Wa, J. E. Stich, N. J. Mason, J. S. Roberts, P. N. Robson, "All optical multiple-quantum well waveguide switch," Electron. Lett. 21, 26-28 (1985).

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. L. K. Wa, J. E. Stich, N. J. Mason, J. S. Roberts, P. N. Robson, "All optical multiple-quantum well waveguide switch," Electron. Lett. 21, 26-28 (1985).

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

J. S. Almeida, J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. Fraga, J. C. Sales, A. C. Ferreira, S. P. Marciano, A. F. G. Furtado Filho, M. G. Silva, A. S. B. Sombra, "Logic gates based in asymmetric couplers: Numerical analysis," Fiber Integr. Opt. 26, 217-228 (2007).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

R. Ramaswami, "Optical fiber communication: From transmission to networking," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 138-147 (2002).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (3)

P. A. Buah, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "Numerical study of soliton switching in active three-core nonlinear fiber coupler," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 33, 874-878 (1997).

J. Atai, Y. Chen, "Nonlinear mismatches between two cores of saturable nonlinear couplers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 29, 242-249 (1993).

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, "Nonlinear refractive index in erbium doped optical fiber: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 27, 908-913 (1991).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. C. Yang, A. J. S. Wang, "Asymmetric nonlinear coupling and its applications to logic functions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 479-487 (1992).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. Y. Zang, S. R. Forest, "Ultrafast all-optical switching using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 362-365 (1992).

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, P. G. Bernasconi, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, "1-Tb/s (6 × 170.6 Gb/s) transmission over 2000-km NZDF using OTDM and RZ-DPSK format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1618-1620 (2003).

D. Y. Zang, S. R. Forest, "Crystalline organic semiconductor optical directional couplers and switches using an index-matching layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 365-368 (1992).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. M. Soto-Crespo, E. M. Wright, "All-optical of solitons in two and three-core nonlinear fiber couplers," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 7240-7243 (1991).

S. Lee, J. Park, K. Lee, D. Eom, S. Lee, J. H. Kim, "All-optical exclusive NOR logic gate using mach-zehnder interferometer," J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1155-1157 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Houbavlis, K. E. Zoiros, M. Kalyvas, G. Theophilopoulos, C. Bintjas, K. Yiannopoulos, N. Pleros, K. Vlachos, H. Avramopoulos, L. Schares, L. Occhi, G. Guekos, J. R. Taylor, S. Hansmann, W. J. Miller, "All-optical signal processing and applications within the esprit project DO_ALL," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 781-801 (2005).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. C. Ferreira, C. S. Sobrinho, J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. Fraga, H. H. B. Rocha, A. W. Lima, JrK. D. A. Sabóia, G. F. Guimarães, J. M. S. Filho, A. S. B. Sombra, "A performance study of an all-optical logic gate based in PAM-ASK," J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1004-1013 (2009).

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Z. Nóbrega, M. G. da Silva, A. S. B. Sombra, "Optical multistability on the asymmetric nonlinear directional coupler," J. Opt. Commun. 20, 210-214 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (2)

D. J. Kaup, T. I. Lakoba, B. A. Malomed, "Asymmetric solitons in mismatched dual-core optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 14, 1199-1206 (1997).

K. S. Chiang, "Bandwidths of optical fibre directional couplers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 14, 1437-1443 (1997).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Kumar, A. K. Sarma, "Femto-second soliton switching in a three-core coupler," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8498 (2005).

Nature (1)

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).

Opt. Commun. (9)

M. G. Da Silva, A. S. B. Sombra, "All optical soliton switching in three core nonlinear fiber couplers," Opt. Commun. 145, 281-290 (1998).

H. Hatami-Hanza, P. L. Chu, "Logic operations in nonlinear fibre couplers," Opt. Commun. 124, 90-94 (1995).

J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. de Fraga, G. F. Guimarães, A. C. Ferreira, H. H. B. Rocha, M. G. da Silva, A. S. B. Sombra, "Optical switches and all-fiber logical devices based on triangular and planar three-core nonlinear optical fiber couplers," Opt. Commun. 276, 107-115 (2007).

W. B. Fraga, J. W. M. Menezes, M. G. da Silva, C. S. Sobrinho, A. S. B. Sombra, "All optical logic gates based in an asymmetric nonlinear directional coupler," Opt. Commun. 262, 32-37 (2006).

A. S. B. Sombra, "Bistable pulse collisions of the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation," Opt. Commun. 94, 92-98 (1992).

K. Z. Nobrega, A. S. B. Sombra, "Optimum self phase modulation profile for nonlinear transmission recovery in twin core optical couplers with loss," Opt. Commun. 151, 31-34 (1998).

K. E. Zoiros, G. Papadopoulos, T. Houbavlis, G. T. Kanellos, "Theoretical analysis and performance investigation of ultrafast all-optical Boolean XOR gate with semiconductor optical amplifier-assisted Sagnac interferometer," Opt. Commun. 258, 114-134 (2006).

H. Hatami-Hanza, P. L. Chu, "Logic operations in dispersion-mismatched nonlinear fibre couplers," Opt. Commun. 124, 90-94 (1996).

M. L. Lyra, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, "Saturation effects on modulational instability in non-Kerr-like monomode optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 108, 117-120 (1994).

Opt. Exp. (2)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, E. Sasaoka, "Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: Application to ultra-flattened dispersion," Opt. Exp. 11, 843-852 (2003).

M. Liu, K. S. Chiang, "Propagation of ultrashort pulses in a nonlinear two-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 18, 21261-21268 (2010).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

M. G. da Silva, A. M. Bastos, C. S. Sobrinho, E. F. de Almeida, A. S. B. Sombra, "Analytical and numerical studies of the performance of a periodically modulated nonlinear dispersion directional fiber coupler," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 148-161 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

X. Sang, P. I. Chiang, C. Yu, "Applications of nonlinear effects in highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber to optical communications," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 965-994 (2005).

G. I. Stegman, E. M. Wright, "All-optical switching," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95-122 (1990).

Photon. Nanostruc (2)

S. Zeng, Y. Zhang, B. Li, E. Y. Pun, "Ultrasmall optical logic gates based on silicon periodic dielectric waveguides," Photon. Nanostruc 8, 32-37 (2010).

N. González-Baquedano, N. Arzate, I. Torres-Gómez, A. Ferrando, D. E. Ceballos-Herrera, C. Milián, "Femtosecond pulse compression in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber by tuning its cross section," Photon. Nanostruc 10, 594-601 (2012).

Photon. Nanostruct. (1)

H. J. Caulfield, R. A. Soref, C. S. Vikram, "Universal reconfigurable optical logic with silicon-on-insulator resonant structures," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 14-20 (2007).

Other (5)

D. J. G. Mestdagh, Fundamentals of Multiaccess Optical Fiber Networks (Artech House, 1995).

C. Schubert, Interferometric Gates for All-optical Signal Processing Ph.D. dissertation Technical University of BerlinGermany (2004).

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks—A Practical Perspective (Academic Press, 2002).

A. Hasegawa, Y. Kodama, Soliton in Optical Communications (Oxford Press, 1995).

G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave Technology—Telecommunication Systems (Wiley, 2005).

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