Abstract

Survivability is one of the most important requirements in design of communications networks, since we as a society are increasingly relying on the Internet, and service interruptions are very costly. Unfortunately, submarine fibre-optic networks are vulnerable to unpredictable disasters, such as earthquakes or nuclear explosions, which pose significant large-scale threats to the submarine cables of modern telecommunication networks.In this paper, we formulate an optimization problem on the plane to minimize the total cable cost under the survivability constraints. We consider at first a simple example of a network of two nodes located on two different islands and propose a rectangular topology network to reduce the probability that all the cables are damaged simultaneously by a single disaster. Then we consider cases of multiple cables, rectangular with rounded corners and rhombus network topologies. Analytical results, validated by simulations, for the survivability of all topology cases are presented including a comparison of the various topologies. Finally, we extend the discussion to a network with an arbitrary number of nodes and a general geography, and to various scenarios of different disaster and cable break probability functions. Overall, this paper provides a methodology for discussing and solving a real world problem.

© 2012 IEEE

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  2. C. Barras, “Why the Mediterranean is the Achilles' Heel of the Web,” (2009) http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn16394.
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  8. S. Huang, M. Xia, C. Martel, B. Mukherjee, "A multistate multipath provisioning scheme for combating node failures in telecom mesh networks," Proc. IEEE MILCOM 2009 (2009) pp. 1-5.
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  17. I. Ouveysi, F. Shu, W. Chen, G. Shen, M. Zukerman, "Topology and routing optimization for congestion minimization in optical wireless networks," Opt. Switching Netw. 7, 95-107 (2010).
  18. P. Pacharintanakul, D. Tipper, "Differentiated crosslayer network mapping in multilayered network architectures," Proc. NETWORKS 2010 (2010).
  19. E. Modiano, A. Narula-Tam, "Survivable routing of logical topologies in WDM networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2001 (2001) pp. 348-357.
  20. I. Ouveysi, A. Wirth, A. Yeh, O. Oguz, "Large scale linear programs and heuristics for the design of survivable telecommunication networks," Ann. Oper. Res. 124, 285-293 (2003).
  21. I. Ouveysi, A. Wirth, "Fast heuristics for protection networks for dynamic routing," J. Oper. Res. Soc. 50, 262-267 (1999).
  22. I. Ouveysi, A. Wirth, "On design of a survivable network architecture for dynamic routing: Optimal solution strategy and an efficient heuristic," Eur. J. Oper. Res. 117, 30-44 (1999).
  23. G. Shen, W. D. Grover, "Extending the p-cycle concept to path segment protection for span and node failure recovery," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1306-1319 (2003).
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  25. G. Mohan, C. S. R. Murthy, A. K. Somani, "Efficient algorithms for routing dependable connections in WDM optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 9, 553-566 (2001).
  26. M. F. Habib, M. Trnatore, M. D. Leenheer, F. Dikbiyik, B. Mukherjee, "A disaster-resilient multi-content optical datacenter network architecture," Proc. IEEE ICTON 2011 (2011).
  27. J. P. G. Sterbenz, E. K. Cetinkaya, M. A. Hameed, A. Jabbar, S. Qian, J. P. Rohrer, "Evaluation of network resilience, survivability, and disruption tolerance: Analysis, topology generation, simulation, and experimentation (invited paper)," Springer Telecommun. Syst. J. (2011).
  28. E. K. Cetinkaya, D. Broyles, A. Dandekar, S. Srinivasan, J. P. G. Sterbenz, "Modelling communication network challenges for future internet resilience, survivability, and disruption tolerance: A simulation-based approach," Springer Telecommun. Syst. J. (2011).
  29. P. Agarwal, A. Efrat, S. Ganjugunte, D. Hay, S. Sankararaman, G. Zussman, "The resilience of WDM networks to probabilistic geographical failures," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2011 (2011) pp. 1521-1529.
  30. P. Agarwal, A. Efrat, S. Ganjugunte, D. Hay, S. Sankararaman, G. Zussman, "Network vulnerability to single, multiple, and probabilistic physical attacks," Proc. IEEE MILCOM 2010 (2010) pp. 1824-1829.
  31. S. Neumayer, E. Modiano, "Network reliability with geographically correlated failures," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2010 (2010) pp. 1-9.
  32. S. Neumayer, G. Zussman, R. Cohen, E. Modiano, "Assessing the vulnerability of the fiber infrastructure to disasters," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 19, 1610-1623 (2009).
  33. S. Neumayer, G. Zussman, R. Cohen, E. Modiano, "Assessing the impact of geographically correlated network failures," Proc. IEEE MILCOM 2008 (2008) pp. 1-6.
  34. S. Neumayer, E. Modiano, "Network reliability under random circular cuts," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM 2011 (2011) pp. 1-6.
  35. X. Wang, X. Jiang, A. Pattavina, "Assessing network vulnerability under probabilistic region failure model," Proc. 12th IEEE Int. Conf. High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR 2011) (2011) pp. 164-170.
  36. J. Liu, X. Jiang, H. Nishiyama, N. Kato, "Reliability assessment for wireless mesh networks under probabilistic region failure model," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 60, 2253-2264 (2011).
  37. B. Lavallee, Intelligent Undersea Optical Infrastructures (2012) http://www.ptc.org/ptc12/images/papers/upload/PTC12_Tues_FS4_Brian%20Lavallee.pdf.
  38. “Ciena,” “Ciena Submarine Networking Overview,” (2012) http://www.slideshare.net/CienaCorp/ciena-submarine-networking-overview.
  39. J. Zik, Survivable Optical Networks: Intelligent Control Planes Enable Self-Healing Networks, (2008) http://www.convergedigest.com/bp/bp1.asp?ID=519.
  40. W. Wu, B. Moran, J. H. Manton, M. Zukerman, "Topology design of undersea cables considering survivability under major disasters," Proc. Int. Conf. Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops 2009 (2009) pp. 1154-1159.
  41. P. R. Trischitta, W. C. Marra, "Global undersea communication networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 34, 20 (1996).
  42. T. L. Weems, "How far is ‘far enough’," Disaster Recovery J. 16, (2003) Spring.
  43. D. O. Williams, "An oversimplified overview of undersea cable systems," European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), pp. 174 (1999).
  44. G. A. Papadopoulos, A. Plessa, "Magnitude-distance relations for earthquake-induced landslides in Greece," Eng. Geol. 58, 377-386 (2000).
  45. B. Gutenberg, C. F. Richter, "Frequency of earthquakes in California," Bull. Seismolog. Soci. Amer. 34, 185-188 (1944).
  46. G. Purcaur, D. Zorilescu, "A magnitude-frequency relation for the lognormal distribution of earthquake magnitude," Pure Appl. Geophys. 87, 43-53 (1971).

2012

I. Seoane, E. Calle, J. A. Hernadez, J. Segovia, R. Romeral, P. Vila, M. Uruena, M. Manzano, "Failure propagation in GMPLS optical rings: CTMC model and performance analysis," Opt. Switching Netw. 9, 39-51 (2012).

2011

J. P. G. Sterbenz, E. K. Cetinkaya, M. A. Hameed, A. Jabbar, S. Qian, J. P. Rohrer, "Evaluation of network resilience, survivability, and disruption tolerance: Analysis, topology generation, simulation, and experimentation (invited paper)," Springer Telecommun. Syst. J. (2011).

E. K. Cetinkaya, D. Broyles, A. Dandekar, S. Srinivasan, J. P. G. Sterbenz, "Modelling communication network challenges for future internet resilience, survivability, and disruption tolerance: A simulation-based approach," Springer Telecommun. Syst. J. (2011).

J. Liu, X. Jiang, H. Nishiyama, N. Kato, "Reliability assessment for wireless mesh networks under probabilistic region failure model," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 60, 2253-2264 (2011).

2010

I. Ouveysi, F. Shu, W. Chen, G. Shen, M. Zukerman, "Topology and routing optimization for congestion minimization in optical wireless networks," Opt. Switching Netw. 7, 95-107 (2010).

2009

S. Neumayer, G. Zussman, R. Cohen, E. Modiano, "Assessing the vulnerability of the fiber infrastructure to disasters," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 19, 1610-1623 (2009).

2007

K. S. Ho, K. W. Cheung, "Generalized survivable network," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, 750-760 (2007).

2005

N. F. Maxemchuk, I. Ouveysi, M. Zukerman, "A quantitative measure for telecommunications networks topology design," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 13, 731-742 (2005).

2004

A. Narula-Tam, E. Modiano, A. Brzezinski, "Physical topology design for survivable routing of logical rings in WDM-based networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1525-1538 (2004).

2003

A. Lakhina, J. W. Byers, M. Crovella, I. Matta, "On the geographic location of Internet resources," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 934-948 (2003).

I. Ouveysi, A. Wirth, A. Yeh, O. Oguz, "Large scale linear programs and heuristics for the design of survivable telecommunication networks," Ann. Oper. Res. 124, 285-293 (2003).

T. L. Weems, "How far is ‘far enough’," Disaster Recovery J. 16, (2003) Spring.

G. Shen, W. D. Grover, "Extending the p-cycle concept to path segment protection for span and node failure recovery," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1306-1319 (2003).

2002

M. Sridharan, M. Salapaka, A. K. Somani, "A practical approach to operating survivable WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 34-46 (2002).

W. Ben-Ameur, "Multi-hour design of survivable classical IP networks," Int. J. Commun. Syst. 15, 553-572 (2002).

2001

P. Francis, S. Jamin, C. Jin, Y. Jin, D. Raz, Y. Shavitt, L. Zhang, "Idmaps: A global Internet host distance estimation service," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 9, 525-540 (2001).

G. Mohan, C. S. R. Murthy, A. K. Somani, "Efficient algorithms for routing dependable connections in WDM optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 9, 553-566 (2001).

2000

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, "Optical layer survivability: A services perspective," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 104-113 (2000).

D. Zhou, S. Subramaniam, "Survivability in optical networks," IEEE Network 14, 16-23 (2000).

G. A. Papadopoulos, A. Plessa, "Magnitude-distance relations for earthquake-induced landslides in Greece," Eng. Geol. 58, 377-386 (2000).

1999

I. Ouveysi, A. Wirth, "Fast heuristics for protection networks for dynamic routing," J. Oper. Res. Soc. 50, 262-267 (1999).

I. Ouveysi, A. Wirth, "On design of a survivable network architecture for dynamic routing: Optimal solution strategy and an efficient heuristic," Eur. J. Oper. Res. 117, 30-44 (1999).

1996

P. R. Trischitta, W. C. Marra, "Global undersea communication networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 34, 20 (1996).

1971

G. Purcaur, D. Zorilescu, "A magnitude-frequency relation for the lognormal distribution of earthquake magnitude," Pure Appl. Geophys. 87, 43-53 (1971).

1944

B. Gutenberg, C. F. Richter, "Frequency of earthquakes in California," Bull. Seismolog. Soci. Amer. 34, 185-188 (1944).

Ann. Oper. Res.

I. Ouveysi, A. Wirth, A. Yeh, O. Oguz, "Large scale linear programs and heuristics for the design of survivable telecommunication networks," Ann. Oper. Res. 124, 285-293 (2003).

Bull. Seismolog. Soci. Amer.

B. Gutenberg, C. F. Richter, "Frequency of earthquakes in California," Bull. Seismolog. Soci. Amer. 34, 185-188 (1944).

Disaster Recovery J.

T. L. Weems, "How far is ‘far enough’," Disaster Recovery J. 16, (2003) Spring.

Eng. Geol.

G. A. Papadopoulos, A. Plessa, "Magnitude-distance relations for earthquake-induced landslides in Greece," Eng. Geol. 58, 377-386 (2000).

Eur. J. Oper. Res.

I. Ouveysi, A. Wirth, "On design of a survivable network architecture for dynamic routing: Optimal solution strategy and an efficient heuristic," Eur. J. Oper. Res. 117, 30-44 (1999).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, "Optical layer survivability: A services perspective," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 104-113 (2000).

P. R. Trischitta, W. C. Marra, "Global undersea communication networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 34, 20 (1996).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

M. Sridharan, M. Salapaka, A. K. Somani, "A practical approach to operating survivable WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 34-46 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

A. Narula-Tam, E. Modiano, A. Brzezinski, "Physical topology design for survivable routing of logical rings in WDM-based networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1525-1538 (2004).

A. Lakhina, J. W. Byers, M. Crovella, I. Matta, "On the geographic location of Internet resources," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 934-948 (2003).

G. Shen, W. D. Grover, "Extending the p-cycle concept to path segment protection for span and node failure recovery," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1306-1319 (2003).

IEEE Network

D. Zhou, S. Subramaniam, "Survivability in optical networks," IEEE Network 14, 16-23 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.

J. Liu, X. Jiang, H. Nishiyama, N. Kato, "Reliability assessment for wireless mesh networks under probabilistic region failure model," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 60, 2253-2264 (2011).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

N. F. Maxemchuk, I. Ouveysi, M. Zukerman, "A quantitative measure for telecommunications networks topology design," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 13, 731-742 (2005).

G. Mohan, C. S. R. Murthy, A. K. Somani, "Efficient algorithms for routing dependable connections in WDM optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 9, 553-566 (2001).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

S. Neumayer, G. Zussman, R. Cohen, E. Modiano, "Assessing the vulnerability of the fiber infrastructure to disasters," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 19, 1610-1623 (2009).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

P. Francis, S. Jamin, C. Jin, Y. Jin, D. Raz, Y. Shavitt, L. Zhang, "Idmaps: A global Internet host distance estimation service," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 9, 525-540 (2001).

K. S. Ho, K. W. Cheung, "Generalized survivable network," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, 750-760 (2007).

Int. J. Commun. Syst.

W. Ben-Ameur, "Multi-hour design of survivable classical IP networks," Int. J. Commun. Syst. 15, 553-572 (2002).

J. Oper. Res. Soc.

I. Ouveysi, A. Wirth, "Fast heuristics for protection networks for dynamic routing," J. Oper. Res. Soc. 50, 262-267 (1999).

Opt. Switching Netw.

I. Ouveysi, F. Shu, W. Chen, G. Shen, M. Zukerman, "Topology and routing optimization for congestion minimization in optical wireless networks," Opt. Switching Netw. 7, 95-107 (2010).

I. Seoane, E. Calle, J. A. Hernadez, J. Segovia, R. Romeral, P. Vila, M. Uruena, M. Manzano, "Failure propagation in GMPLS optical rings: CTMC model and performance analysis," Opt. Switching Netw. 9, 39-51 (2012).

Pure Appl. Geophys.

G. Purcaur, D. Zorilescu, "A magnitude-frequency relation for the lognormal distribution of earthquake magnitude," Pure Appl. Geophys. 87, 43-53 (1971).

Springer Telecommun. Syst. J.

E. K. Cetinkaya, D. Broyles, A. Dandekar, S. Srinivasan, J. P. G. Sterbenz, "Modelling communication network challenges for future internet resilience, survivability, and disruption tolerance: A simulation-based approach," Springer Telecommun. Syst. J. (2011).

Springer Telecommun. Syst. J.

J. P. G. Sterbenz, E. K. Cetinkaya, M. A. Hameed, A. Jabbar, S. Qian, J. P. Rohrer, "Evaluation of network resilience, survivability, and disruption tolerance: Analysis, topology generation, simulation, and experimentation (invited paper)," Springer Telecommun. Syst. J. (2011).

Other

M. F. Habib, M. Trnatore, M. D. Leenheer, F. Dikbiyik, B. Mukherjee, "A disaster-resilient multi-content optical datacenter network architecture," Proc. IEEE ICTON 2011 (2011).

P. Agarwal, A. Efrat, S. Ganjugunte, D. Hay, S. Sankararaman, G. Zussman, "The resilience of WDM networks to probabilistic geographical failures," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2011 (2011) pp. 1521-1529.

P. Agarwal, A. Efrat, S. Ganjugunte, D. Hay, S. Sankararaman, G. Zussman, "Network vulnerability to single, multiple, and probabilistic physical attacks," Proc. IEEE MILCOM 2010 (2010) pp. 1824-1829.

S. Neumayer, E. Modiano, "Network reliability with geographically correlated failures," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2010 (2010) pp. 1-9.

S. Neumayer, G. Zussman, R. Cohen, E. Modiano, "Assessing the impact of geographically correlated network failures," Proc. IEEE MILCOM 2008 (2008) pp. 1-6.

S. Neumayer, E. Modiano, "Network reliability under random circular cuts," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM 2011 (2011) pp. 1-6.

X. Wang, X. Jiang, A. Pattavina, "Assessing network vulnerability under probabilistic region failure model," Proc. 12th IEEE Int. Conf. High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR 2011) (2011) pp. 164-170.

K. Vajanapoom, D. Tipper, S. Akavipat, "A risk management approach to resilient network design," Proc. ICUMT (2010) pp. 622-627.

"TeleGeography," “Earthquake Highlights Asian Dependency on Submarine Cables,” (2007) http://www.telegeography.com/press/press-releases/2007/01/08/earthquake-highlights-asian-dependency-on-submarine-cables/index.html.

C. Barras, “Why the Mediterranean is the Achilles' Heel of the Web,” (2009) http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn16394.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 1994).

J. P. Laude, DWDM Fundamentals, Components, and Applications (Artech House, 2002).

J. Herskovitz, S. E. Rhee, “Taiwan Quake Shakes Confidence in Undersea Links,” (2006) http://www.enn.com/technology/article/5740.

P. Pacharintanakul, D. Tipper, "Differentiated crosslayer network mapping in multilayered network architectures," Proc. NETWORKS 2010 (2010).

E. Modiano, A. Narula-Tam, "Survivable routing of logical topologies in WDM networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2001 (2001) pp. 348-357.

S. Huang, M. Xia, C. Martel, B. Mukherjee, "A multistate multipath provisioning scheme for combating node failures in telecom mesh networks," Proc. IEEE MILCOM 2009 (2009) pp. 1-5.

B. Lavallee, Intelligent Undersea Optical Infrastructures (2012) http://www.ptc.org/ptc12/images/papers/upload/PTC12_Tues_FS4_Brian%20Lavallee.pdf.

“Ciena,” “Ciena Submarine Networking Overview,” (2012) http://www.slideshare.net/CienaCorp/ciena-submarine-networking-overview.

J. Zik, Survivable Optical Networks: Intelligent Control Planes Enable Self-Healing Networks, (2008) http://www.convergedigest.com/bp/bp1.asp?ID=519.

W. Wu, B. Moran, J. H. Manton, M. Zukerman, "Topology design of undersea cables considering survivability under major disasters," Proc. Int. Conf. Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops 2009 (2009) pp. 1154-1159.

D. O. Williams, "An oversimplified overview of undersea cable systems," European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), pp. 174 (1999).

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