Abstract

Bismuth-doped optical glasses emit NIR luminescence in an ultrabroad spectral region of 1000–2000 nm. It makes Bi-doped glasses and glass optical fibers a promising active medium for the creation of Bi-doped fiber lasers and broadband optical amplifiers for this spectral region. Since the first fabrication of Bi-doped fibers in 2005 a large number of papers devoted to the development of Bi-doped fiber lasers and optical amplifiers have been published. It has been shown that Bi-doped fibers are a new breakthrough in active laser materials.But there still remains one important problem—up to now the nature of the Bi-related NIR emitting centers is not clear. This prevents one to optimize the technology and compositions of Bi-doped fibers to improve the parameters of Bi-doped fiber devices.This paper reviews the recent results on the luminescence properties of various Bi-doped optical fibers and the development of Bi-doped fiber lasers and optical amplifiers for the 1150–1550 nm spectral region.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. T. Morioka, "New generation optical infrastructure technologies: “EXAT initiative” towards 2020 and beyond," Proc. Optoelectron Commun. Conf. (2009).
  2. Y. Fujimoto, M. Nakatsuka, "Infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silica glass," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L279-L281 (2001).
  3. E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, "CW bismuth fiber laser," Quantum Electron. 35, 1083-1084 (2005).
  4. M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, J. Qiu, "Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 2241-2245 (2011).
  5. E. M. Dianov, "Bi-doped glass optical fibers: Is it a new breakthrough in laser materials?," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1861-1864 (2009).
  6. T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, "Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191912-1-191912-3 (2006).
  7. M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, D. W. Hewak, "Ultrabroadband emission from a bismuth-doped chalcogenide glass," Opt. Exp. 17, 19345-19355 (2009).
  8. Sh. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, "Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061919-1-061919-3 (2007).
  9. R. W. Douglas, P. Nath, A. Paul, "Oxigen ion activity and its influence on the redox equilibrium in glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 216-223 (1965).
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  11. S. Khonthon, Sh. Morimoto, Y. Arai, Y. Ohishi, "Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses," Opt. Mater. 31, 1262-1268 (2009).
  12. S. Parke, R. S. Webb, "The optical properties of thallium, lead and bismuth in oxide glasses," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 85-95 (1973).
  13. R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, "Optical properties of bismuth in germanate, borax and phosphate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 16, 83-92 (1974).
  14. M. A. Hamstra, H. F. Folkerts, G. Blasse, "Red bismuth emission in alkaline-earth-metal sulfates," J. Mater. Chem. 4, 1349-1350 (1994).
  15. A. M. Srivastava, "Luminescence of divalent bismuth in (M2+BPO5 M2+ = Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+)," J. Lumin. 78, 239-243 (1998).
  16. O. Sanz, E. Haro-Ponitovski, J. Gonzalo, J. M. F. Navarro, "Influence of the melting conditions of heavy metal oxide glasses containing bismuth oxide on their optical absorption," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 761-768 (2006).
  17. E. M. Dianov, "On the nature of new IR emitting Bi centers in glass," Quantum Electron. 40, 283-285 (2010).
  18. V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, E. M. Dianov, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, "Absorption, fluorescence and optical amplification in MCVD bismuth-doped silica glass optical fibers," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2005).
  19. T. Haruna, M. Kakui, T. Taru, Sh. Ishikawa, M. Onishi, "Silica-based bismuth-doped fiber for ultra broad band light source and optical amplification around 1.1 µm," Proc. Opt. Amplifiers Their Appl. Topical Meeting (2005).
  20. I. A. Bufetov, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Velmiskin, S. V. Firstov, G. A. Bufetova, E. M. Dianov, "Optical properties of active bismuth centers in silica fibers containing no other dopants," Quantum Electron. 40, 639-641 (2010).
  21. A. S. Zlenko, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. N. Denisov, L. D. Iskhakova, M. S. Mayorova, O. I. Medvedkov, S. L. Semenov, S. A. Vasiliev, E. M. Dianov, "Furnace chemical vapor deposition bismuth-doped silica-core holey fiber," Opt. Lett. 36, 2599-2601 (2011).
  22. E. M. Dianov, "Bi-doped optical fibers: A new active medium for NIR lasers and amplifiers," Proc. SPIE (2008) pp. 6890H-1-6890H-11.
  23. I. A. Bufetov, E. M. Dianov, "Bi-doped fiber lasers," Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 487-504 (2009).
  24. I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, M. Douay, "Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031103-1-031103-3 (2007).
  25. M. P. Kalita, S. Yoo, J. Sahu, "Bismuth-doped fiber laser and study of unsaturable loss and pump induced absorption in laser performance," Opt. Exp. 16, 21032-21038 (2008).
  26. V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, I. Razdobreev, "Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041908-1-041908-3 (2008).
  27. S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 19, 19551-19561 (2011).
  28. A. A. Krasnovsky, N. N. Drozdova, A. V. Ivanov, R. V. Ambartsumian, "Activation of molecular oxygen by infrared radiation in pigment-free aerobic systems," Biochemistry (Moscow) 68, 963-966 (2003).
  29. I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, M. A. Melkumov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "High-power cw 1. 27 µm Bi-doped fiber laser," Proc. CLEO/EQEC. (2011).
  30. S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "The 20 W cw fiber laser at 1460 nm based on Si-associated bismuth active centers in germanosilicate fibers," Proc. CLEO/EQEC. (2011).
  31. E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, O. I. Medvedkov, M. A. Melkumov, "Bismuth-doped silica-based fiber lasers operating near 1460 nm," Proc. Europ. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2011).
  32. S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fiber laser with 20 W output power at 1460 nm," Quantum Electron. 41, 581-583 (2011).
  33. I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, V. F. Khopin, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "Efficient Bi-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers for the spectral region 1300–1500 nm," Proc. SPIE (2010) pp. 758014-1-758014-9.
  34. M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "LD pumped bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for 1430 nm band," Opt. Lett. 36, 2408-2410 (2011).

2011 (5)

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, J. Qiu, "Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 2241-2245 (2011).

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 19, 19551-19561 (2011).

S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fiber laser with 20 W output power at 1460 nm," Quantum Electron. 41, 581-583 (2011).

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "LD pumped bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for 1430 nm band," Opt. Lett. 36, 2408-2410 (2011).

A. S. Zlenko, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. N. Denisov, L. D. Iskhakova, M. S. Mayorova, O. I. Medvedkov, S. L. Semenov, S. A. Vasiliev, E. M. Dianov, "Furnace chemical vapor deposition bismuth-doped silica-core holey fiber," Opt. Lett. 36, 2599-2601 (2011).

2010 (2)

E. M. Dianov, "On the nature of new IR emitting Bi centers in glass," Quantum Electron. 40, 283-285 (2010).

I. A. Bufetov, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Velmiskin, S. V. Firstov, G. A. Bufetova, E. M. Dianov, "Optical properties of active bismuth centers in silica fibers containing no other dopants," Quantum Electron. 40, 639-641 (2010).

2009 (4)

I. A. Bufetov, E. M. Dianov, "Bi-doped fiber lasers," Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 487-504 (2009).

E. M. Dianov, "Bi-doped glass optical fibers: Is it a new breakthrough in laser materials?," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1861-1864 (2009).

M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, D. W. Hewak, "Ultrabroadband emission from a bismuth-doped chalcogenide glass," Opt. Exp. 17, 19345-19355 (2009).

S. Khonthon, Sh. Morimoto, Y. Arai, Y. Ohishi, "Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses," Opt. Mater. 31, 1262-1268 (2009).

2008 (2)

M. P. Kalita, S. Yoo, J. Sahu, "Bismuth-doped fiber laser and study of unsaturable loss and pump induced absorption in laser performance," Opt. Exp. 16, 21032-21038 (2008).

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, I. Razdobreev, "Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041908-1-041908-3 (2008).

2007 (2)

Sh. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, "Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061919-1-061919-3 (2007).

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, M. Douay, "Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031103-1-031103-3 (2007).

2006 (2)

O. Sanz, E. Haro-Ponitovski, J. Gonzalo, J. M. F. Navarro, "Influence of the melting conditions of heavy metal oxide glasses containing bismuth oxide on their optical absorption," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 761-768 (2006).

T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, "Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191912-1-191912-3 (2006).

2005 (1)

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, "CW bismuth fiber laser," Quantum Electron. 35, 1083-1084 (2005).

2003 (1)

A. A. Krasnovsky, N. N. Drozdova, A. V. Ivanov, R. V. Ambartsumian, "Activation of molecular oxygen by infrared radiation in pigment-free aerobic systems," Biochemistry (Moscow) 68, 963-966 (2003).

2001 (1)

Y. Fujimoto, M. Nakatsuka, "Infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silica glass," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L279-L281 (2001).

1998 (1)

A. M. Srivastava, "Luminescence of divalent bismuth in (M2+BPO5 M2+ = Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+)," J. Lumin. 78, 239-243 (1998).

1994 (1)

M. A. Hamstra, H. F. Folkerts, G. Blasse, "Red bismuth emission in alkaline-earth-metal sulfates," J. Mater. Chem. 4, 1349-1350 (1994).

1974 (1)

R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, "Optical properties of bismuth in germanate, borax and phosphate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 16, 83-92 (1974).

1973 (1)

S. Parke, R. S. Webb, "The optical properties of thallium, lead and bismuth in oxide glasses," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 85-95 (1973).

1965 (1)

R. W. Douglas, P. Nath, A. Paul, "Oxigen ion activity and its influence on the redox equilibrium in glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 216-223 (1965).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, "Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191912-1-191912-3 (2006).

Sh. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, "Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061919-1-061919-3 (2007).

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, M. Douay, "Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031103-1-031103-3 (2007).

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, I. Razdobreev, "Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041908-1-041908-3 (2008).

Biochemistry (Moscow) (1)

A. A. Krasnovsky, N. N. Drozdova, A. V. Ivanov, R. V. Ambartsumian, "Activation of molecular oxygen by infrared radiation in pigment-free aerobic systems," Biochemistry (Moscow) 68, 963-966 (2003).

J. Lumin. (1)

A. M. Srivastava, "Luminescence of divalent bismuth in (M2+BPO5 M2+ = Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+)," J. Lumin. 78, 239-243 (1998).

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

M. A. Hamstra, H. F. Folkerts, G. Blasse, "Red bismuth emission in alkaline-earth-metal sulfates," J. Mater. Chem. 4, 1349-1350 (1994).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (4)

O. Sanz, E. Haro-Ponitovski, J. Gonzalo, J. M. F. Navarro, "Influence of the melting conditions of heavy metal oxide glasses containing bismuth oxide on their optical absorption," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 761-768 (2006).

R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, "Optical properties of bismuth in germanate, borax and phosphate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 16, 83-92 (1974).

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, J. Qiu, "Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 2241-2245 (2011).

E. M. Dianov, "Bi-doped glass optical fibers: Is it a new breakthrough in laser materials?," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1861-1864 (2009).

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

S. Parke, R. S. Webb, "The optical properties of thallium, lead and bismuth in oxide glasses," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 85-95 (1973).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Fujimoto, M. Nakatsuka, "Infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silica glass," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L279-L281 (2001).

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

I. A. Bufetov, E. M. Dianov, "Bi-doped fiber lasers," Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 487-504 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (3)

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 19, 19551-19561 (2011).

M. P. Kalita, S. Yoo, J. Sahu, "Bismuth-doped fiber laser and study of unsaturable loss and pump induced absorption in laser performance," Opt. Exp. 16, 21032-21038 (2008).

M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, D. W. Hewak, "Ultrabroadband emission from a bismuth-doped chalcogenide glass," Opt. Exp. 17, 19345-19355 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Khonthon, Sh. Morimoto, Y. Arai, Y. Ohishi, "Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses," Opt. Mater. 31, 1262-1268 (2009).

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

R. W. Douglas, P. Nath, A. Paul, "Oxigen ion activity and its influence on the redox equilibrium in glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 216-223 (1965).

Quantum Electron. (4)

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, "CW bismuth fiber laser," Quantum Electron. 35, 1083-1084 (2005).

E. M. Dianov, "On the nature of new IR emitting Bi centers in glass," Quantum Electron. 40, 283-285 (2010).

S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fiber laser with 20 W output power at 1460 nm," Quantum Electron. 41, 581-583 (2011).

I. A. Bufetov, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Velmiskin, S. V. Firstov, G. A. Bufetova, E. M. Dianov, "Optical properties of active bismuth centers in silica fibers containing no other dopants," Quantum Electron. 40, 639-641 (2010).

Other (9)

E. M. Dianov, "Bi-doped optical fibers: A new active medium for NIR lasers and amplifiers," Proc. SPIE (2008) pp. 6890H-1-6890H-11.

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, V. F. Khopin, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "Efficient Bi-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers for the spectral region 1300–1500 nm," Proc. SPIE (2010) pp. 758014-1-758014-9.

I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, M. A. Melkumov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "High-power cw 1. 27 µm Bi-doped fiber laser," Proc. CLEO/EQEC. (2011).

S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, "The 20 W cw fiber laser at 1460 nm based on Si-associated bismuth active centers in germanosilicate fibers," Proc. CLEO/EQEC. (2011).

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, O. I. Medvedkov, M. A. Melkumov, "Bismuth-doped silica-based fiber lasers operating near 1460 nm," Proc. Europ. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2011).

V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, E. M. Dianov, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, "Absorption, fluorescence and optical amplification in MCVD bismuth-doped silica glass optical fibers," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2005).

T. Haruna, M. Kakui, T. Taru, Sh. Ishikawa, M. Onishi, "Silica-based bismuth-doped fiber for ultra broad band light source and optical amplification around 1.1 µm," Proc. Opt. Amplifiers Their Appl. Topical Meeting (2005).

T. Morioka, "New generation optical infrastructure technologies: “EXAT initiative” towards 2020 and beyond," Proc. Optoelectron Commun. Conf. (2009).

J. D. Corbett, Progress in Inorganic Chemistry (Wiley, 1976) pp. 129-158.

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