Abstract

The relative merits of coherent-enabled optical access network architectures are explored, with a focus on achievable capacity, reach and split ratio. We review the progress in implementing the particular case of the ultra dense wavelength division multiplexed (UDWDM) passive optical network (PON), and discuss some challenges and solutions encountered. The applicability of digital signal processing (DSP) to coherent receivers in PONs is shown through the design and implementation of parallelized, low-complexity application-specific digital filters. In this work, we focus on mitigating the impact of local oscillator laser (LO) relative intensity noise (RIN) on receiver sensitivity, and propose an algorithm which compensates for this impairment. This phenomenon is investigated theoretically and then experimentally by evaluating the sensitivity of a coherent receiver incorporating different tunable light sources; a low-RIN external cavity laser (ECL) and a monolithically integrated digital supermode distributed Bragg reflector (DS-DBR) laser. It is shown that the RIN of the signal laser does not significantly contribute to the degradation of the receiver sensitivity. Finally, a 10 Gbit/s coherent PON is demonstrated using a DS-DBR laser as the LO laser. It is found that a receiver sensitivity of -38.8 dBm is achievable assuming the use of hard-decision forward error correction.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. D. Shea, J. Mitchell, "A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical-access network," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 685-693 (2007).
  2. Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Reach Extension Recommendation G.984.6 (2008) Telecommunication Standardization Sector Std..
  3. Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): General Characteristics Recommendation G.984.1 (2008) Telecommunication Standardization Sector Std..
  4. Z. Al-Qazwini, H. Kim, "Symmetric 10-Gb/s WDM-PON using directly modulated lasers for downlink and RSOAs for uplink," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1891-1899 (2012).
  5. K. Y. Cho, U. H. Hong, S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, T. Sano, Y. Horiuchi, M. Suzuki, Y. C. Chung, "Long-reach 10-Gb/s RSOA-based WDM PON employing QPSK signal and coherent receiver," Opt. Exp. 20, 15 353-15 358 (2012).
  6. P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. Clarke, A. Naughton, H.-G. Krimmel, Y. Chang, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. Smith, D. Nesset, R. Davey, P. Townsend, "A 135-km 8192-split carrier distributed DWDM-TDMA PON with 2 × 32 × 10 Gb/s capacity," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 463-474 (2011).
  7. P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. Naughton, A. Clarke, H.-G. Krimmel, X. Yin, X.-Z. Qiu, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. Smith, S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, D. Nesset, R. Davey, P. Townsend, "Demonstration of a 32 × 512 split, 100 km reach, 2 × 32 × 10 Gb/s hybrid DWDM-TDMA PON using tunable external cavity lasers in the ONUs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 3705-3718 (2011).
  8. H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, K. Kloppe, "Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone," Proc. ECOC (2009).
  9. S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, A. Poustie, "Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011).
  10. S. Narikawa, H. Sanjoh, N. Sakurai, K. Kumozaki, T. Imai, "Coherent WDM-PON using directly modulated local laser for simple heterodyne transceiver," Proc. ECOC (2005).
  11. H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, J. Wey, E. Gottwald, "Coherent optical access networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011).
  12. E. Ip, A. P. Lau, D. J. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems: Erratum," Opt. Exp. 16, 21 943-21 943 (2008).
  13. D. Lavery, E. Torrengo, S. Savory, "Bidirectional 10 Gbit/s long-reach WDM-PON using digital coherent receivers," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011).
  14. S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).
  15. K. Kikuchi, S. Tsukamoto, "Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1817-1822 (2008).
  16. D. Lavery, M. Ionescu, S. Makovejs, E. Torrengo, S. J. Savory, "A long-reach ultra-dense 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Exp. 18, 25 855-25 860 (2010).
  17. C. Behrens, R. Killey, S. Savory, M. Chen, P. Bayvel, "Nonlinear transmission performance of higher-order modulation formats," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 377-379 (2011).
  18. A. Rocha, F. Domingues, M. Facao, P. Andre, "Threshold power of fiber fuse effect for different types of optical fiber," Proc. ICTON (2011).
  19. D. Lavery, C. Behrens, S. J. Savory, "On the impact of backreflections in a bidirectional 10 Gbit/s coherent WDM-PON," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).
  20. R. Maher, D. S. Millar, S. J. Savory, B. C. Thomsen, "SOA blanking and signal pre-emphasis for wavelength agile 100 Gb/s transmitters," Proc. OECC (2012) pp. 905-906.
  21. K. Piyawanno, M. Kuschnerov, M. Alfiad, B. Spinnler, B. Lankl, "Effects of mechanical disturbance on local oscillators and carrier synchronization," Proc. OECC (2010) pp. 124-125.
  22. M. Wale, "Photonic integration challenges for next-generation networks," Proc. ECOC (2009) pp. Paper 1.7.4.
  23. L. Coldren, S. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995).
  24. Spectral Grids for WDM Applications: DWDM Frequency Grid Recommendation G.694.1 (2012) Telecommunication Standardization Sector Std..
  25. R. Maher, B. Thomsen, "Dynamic linewidth measurement technique using digital intradyne coherent receivers," Opt. Exp. 19, B313-B322 (2011).
  26. B. Li, K. Larsen, D. Zibar, I. Monroy, "Over 10 dB net coding gain based on 20% overhead hard decision forward error correction in 100 G optical communication systems," Proc. ECOC (2011).
  27. F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, "Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, S48-S55 (2010).
  28. T. Mizuochi, K. Ouchi, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyata, K. Kuno, H. Tagami, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, M. Akita, K. Motoshima, "Experimental demonstration of net coding gain of 10.1 dB using 12.4 Gb/s block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2003).
  29. D. Godard, "Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in two-dimensional data communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 28, 1867-1875 (1980).
  30. R. Maher, D. Millar, S. Savory, B. C. Thomsen, "Fast switching burst mode receiver in a 24-channel 112 Gb/s DP-QPSK WDM system with 240 km transmission," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).
  31. B. C. Thomsen, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, S. J. Savory, "Burst mode receiver for 112 Gb/s DP-QPSK with parallel DSP," Opt. Exp. 19, B770-B776 (2011).
  32. M. Taylor, "Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 901-914 (2009).
  33. A. Viterbi, A. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29, 543-551 (1983).
  34. B. Zhang, C. Malouin, T. J. Schmidt, "Design of coherent receiver optical front end for unamplified applications," Opt. Exp. 20, 3225-3234 (2012).
  35. D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, S. J. Savory, "Demonstration of 10 Gbit/s colorless coherent PON incorporating tunable DS-DBR lasers and low-complexity parallel DSP," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).
  36. M. A. Newkirk, K. J. Vahala, "Large (14.5 dB) reduction of intensity noise from a semiconductor laser by amplitude-phase decorrelation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 1289-1291 (1991).
  37. L.-S. Fock, A. Kwan, R. Tucker, "Reduction of semiconductor laser intensity noise by feedforward compensation: Experiment and theory," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1919-1925 (1992).

2012

Z. Al-Qazwini, H. Kim, "Symmetric 10-Gb/s WDM-PON using directly modulated lasers for downlink and RSOAs for uplink," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1891-1899 (2012).

K. Y. Cho, U. H. Hong, S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, T. Sano, Y. Horiuchi, M. Suzuki, Y. C. Chung, "Long-reach 10-Gb/s RSOA-based WDM PON employing QPSK signal and coherent receiver," Opt. Exp. 20, 15 353-15 358 (2012).

B. Zhang, C. Malouin, T. J. Schmidt, "Design of coherent receiver optical front end for unamplified applications," Opt. Exp. 20, 3225-3234 (2012).

2011

B. C. Thomsen, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, S. J. Savory, "Burst mode receiver for 112 Gb/s DP-QPSK with parallel DSP," Opt. Exp. 19, B770-B776 (2011).

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. Clarke, A. Naughton, H.-G. Krimmel, Y. Chang, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. Smith, D. Nesset, R. Davey, P. Townsend, "A 135-km 8192-split carrier distributed DWDM-TDMA PON with 2 × 32 × 10 Gb/s capacity," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 463-474 (2011).

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. Naughton, A. Clarke, H.-G. Krimmel, X. Yin, X.-Z. Qiu, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. Smith, S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, D. Nesset, R. Davey, P. Townsend, "Demonstration of a 32 × 512 split, 100 km reach, 2 × 32 × 10 Gb/s hybrid DWDM-TDMA PON using tunable external cavity lasers in the ONUs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 3705-3718 (2011).

C. Behrens, R. Killey, S. Savory, M. Chen, P. Bayvel, "Nonlinear transmission performance of higher-order modulation formats," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 377-379 (2011).

R. Maher, B. Thomsen, "Dynamic linewidth measurement technique using digital intradyne coherent receivers," Opt. Exp. 19, B313-B322 (2011).

2010

F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, "Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, S48-S55 (2010).

D. Lavery, M. Ionescu, S. Makovejs, E. Torrengo, S. J. Savory, "A long-reach ultra-dense 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Exp. 18, 25 855-25 860 (2010).

2009

M. Taylor, "Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 901-914 (2009).

2008

E. Ip, A. P. Lau, D. J. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems: Erratum," Opt. Exp. 16, 21 943-21 943 (2008).

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

K. Kikuchi, S. Tsukamoto, "Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1817-1822 (2008).

2007

D. Shea, J. Mitchell, "A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical-access network," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 685-693 (2007).

1992

L.-S. Fock, A. Kwan, R. Tucker, "Reduction of semiconductor laser intensity noise by feedforward compensation: Experiment and theory," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1919-1925 (1992).

1991

M. A. Newkirk, K. J. Vahala, "Large (14.5 dB) reduction of intensity noise from a semiconductor laser by amplitude-phase decorrelation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 1289-1291 (1991).

1983

A. Viterbi, A. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29, 543-551 (1983).

1980

D. Godard, "Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in two-dimensional data communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 28, 1867-1875 (1980).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. A. Newkirk, K. J. Vahala, "Large (14.5 dB) reduction of intensity noise from a semiconductor laser by amplitude-phase decorrelation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 1289-1291 (1991).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, "Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, S48-S55 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Behrens, R. Killey, S. Savory, M. Chen, P. Bayvel, "Nonlinear transmission performance of higher-order modulation formats," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 377-379 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Commun.

D. Godard, "Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in two-dimensional data communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 28, 1867-1875 (1980).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory

A. Viterbi, A. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29, 543-551 (1983).

J. Lightw. Technol.

L.-S. Fock, A. Kwan, R. Tucker, "Reduction of semiconductor laser intensity noise by feedforward compensation: Experiment and theory," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1919-1925 (1992).

K. Kikuchi, S. Tsukamoto, "Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1817-1822 (2008).

D. Shea, J. Mitchell, "A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical-access network," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 685-693 (2007).

Z. Al-Qazwini, H. Kim, "Symmetric 10-Gb/s WDM-PON using directly modulated lasers for downlink and RSOAs for uplink," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1891-1899 (2012).

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. Clarke, A. Naughton, H.-G. Krimmel, Y. Chang, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. Smith, D. Nesset, R. Davey, P. Townsend, "A 135-km 8192-split carrier distributed DWDM-TDMA PON with 2 × 32 × 10 Gb/s capacity," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 463-474 (2011).

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. Naughton, A. Clarke, H.-G. Krimmel, X. Yin, X.-Z. Qiu, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. Smith, S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, D. Nesset, R. Davey, P. Townsend, "Demonstration of a 32 × 512 split, 100 km reach, 2 × 32 × 10 Gb/s hybrid DWDM-TDMA PON using tunable external cavity lasers in the ONUs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 3705-3718 (2011).

M. Taylor, "Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 901-914 (2009).

Opt. Exp.

K. Y. Cho, U. H. Hong, S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, T. Sano, Y. Horiuchi, M. Suzuki, Y. C. Chung, "Long-reach 10-Gb/s RSOA-based WDM PON employing QPSK signal and coherent receiver," Opt. Exp. 20, 15 353-15 358 (2012).

D. Lavery, M. Ionescu, S. Makovejs, E. Torrengo, S. J. Savory, "A long-reach ultra-dense 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Exp. 18, 25 855-25 860 (2010).

E. Ip, A. P. Lau, D. J. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems: Erratum," Opt. Exp. 16, 21 943-21 943 (2008).

R. Maher, B. Thomsen, "Dynamic linewidth measurement technique using digital intradyne coherent receivers," Opt. Exp. 19, B313-B322 (2011).

B. Zhang, C. Malouin, T. J. Schmidt, "Design of coherent receiver optical front end for unamplified applications," Opt. Exp. 20, 3225-3234 (2012).

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

B. C. Thomsen, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, S. J. Savory, "Burst mode receiver for 112 Gb/s DP-QPSK with parallel DSP," Opt. Exp. 19, B770-B776 (2011).

Other

R. Maher, D. Millar, S. Savory, B. C. Thomsen, "Fast switching burst mode receiver in a 24-channel 112 Gb/s DP-QPSK WDM system with 240 km transmission," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, S. J. Savory, "Demonstration of 10 Gbit/s colorless coherent PON incorporating tunable DS-DBR lasers and low-complexity parallel DSP," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).

B. Li, K. Larsen, D. Zibar, I. Monroy, "Over 10 dB net coding gain based on 20% overhead hard decision forward error correction in 100 G optical communication systems," Proc. ECOC (2011).

T. Mizuochi, K. Ouchi, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyata, K. Kuno, H. Tagami, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, M. Akita, K. Motoshima, "Experimental demonstration of net coding gain of 10.1 dB using 12.4 Gb/s block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2003).

D. Lavery, E. Torrengo, S. Savory, "Bidirectional 10 Gbit/s long-reach WDM-PON using digital coherent receivers," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011).

Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Reach Extension Recommendation G.984.6 (2008) Telecommunication Standardization Sector Std..

Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): General Characteristics Recommendation G.984.1 (2008) Telecommunication Standardization Sector Std..

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, K. Kloppe, "Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone," Proc. ECOC (2009).

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, A. Poustie, "Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011).

S. Narikawa, H. Sanjoh, N. Sakurai, K. Kumozaki, T. Imai, "Coherent WDM-PON using directly modulated local laser for simple heterodyne transceiver," Proc. ECOC (2005).

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, J. Wey, E. Gottwald, "Coherent optical access networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011).

A. Rocha, F. Domingues, M. Facao, P. Andre, "Threshold power of fiber fuse effect for different types of optical fiber," Proc. ICTON (2011).

D. Lavery, C. Behrens, S. J. Savory, "On the impact of backreflections in a bidirectional 10 Gbit/s coherent WDM-PON," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).

R. Maher, D. S. Millar, S. J. Savory, B. C. Thomsen, "SOA blanking and signal pre-emphasis for wavelength agile 100 Gb/s transmitters," Proc. OECC (2012) pp. 905-906.

K. Piyawanno, M. Kuschnerov, M. Alfiad, B. Spinnler, B. Lankl, "Effects of mechanical disturbance on local oscillators and carrier synchronization," Proc. OECC (2010) pp. 124-125.

M. Wale, "Photonic integration challenges for next-generation networks," Proc. ECOC (2009) pp. Paper 1.7.4.

L. Coldren, S. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995).

Spectral Grids for WDM Applications: DWDM Frequency Grid Recommendation G.694.1 (2012) Telecommunication Standardization Sector Std..

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