Abstract

We present the design, fabrication, and measurement of a high-speed carrier-depletion silicon optical modulator based on Mach–Zehnder Interferometer structure. Based on an equivalent circuit model, the traveling-wave electrode size and doping concentration of the PN junction are optimized to achieve a large modulation bandwidth. The modulation efficiency and optical loss at different positions of the PN junction are also simulated. The device is fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) with 0.13 μm CMOS technology. An insertion loss of 3.9 dB (resp. 6.2 dB) and a $V_{\pi}L_{\pi}$ of 1.62–2.05 V·cm (resp. 1.47–1.97 V·cm) are experimentally realized for 1 mm (resp. 2 mm) long phase shifter. By small signal measurement, the modulator exhibits a 3 dB bandwidth of 30 GHz and 19 GHz for 1 mm and 2 mm long phase shifter, respectively, which agrees well with the simulation results. The optical eye diagram with data rate up to 44 Gb/s is also demonstrated, showing potential in the application of high-speed optical interconnects.

© 2013 IEEE

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2013 (3)

M. Streshinsky, A. Ayazi, Z. Xuan, A. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, "Highly linear silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder carrier depletion modulator based on differential drive," Opt. Exp. 21, 3818-3825 (2013).

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, Y. Yu, "Highly efficient silicon michelson interferometer modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 407-409 (2013).

J. Ding, R. Ji, L. Zhang, L. Yang, "Electro-optical response analysis of a 40 Gb/s silicon mach-zehnder optical modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 2434-2440 (2013).

2012 (3)

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, J. Yue, "High speed silicon mach-zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions," Opt. Exp. 20, 15093-15099 (2012).

Z. Sheng, Z. Wang, C. Qiu, L. Li, P. Albert, A. Wu, X Wang, S. Zou, F. Gan, "A compact and low-loss MMI coupler fabricated with CMOS technology," IEEE Photon . J. 4, 2272 -2277 (2012).

P. Dong, L. Chen, Y. Chen, "High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators," Opt. Exp. 20, 6163-6169 (2012).

2011 (1)

N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "30 GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Opt. Exp. 19, 7062-7067 (2011).

2010 (3)

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J. M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, "Demonstration of a low $V_{\pi}$ L modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 15618-15623 (2010).

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage," Opt. Lett. 35, 3246-3248 (2010).

M. Watts, W. Zortman, D. Trotter, R. Young, A. Lentin, "Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon mach–zehnder modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron . 16, 159- 164 (2010).

2008 (1)

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, " Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators," Nat. Photon. 2, 433-437 (2008).

2007 (1)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007).

2006 (1)

R. Soref, "The past, present and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron . 12, 1678-1687 (2006).

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).

1995 (1)

L. Soldano, E. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, Y. Yu, "Highly efficient silicon michelson interferometer modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 407-409 (2013).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron . (1)

M. Watts, W. Zortman, D. Trotter, R. Young, A. Lentin, "Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon mach–zehnder modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron . 16, 159- 164 (2010).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron . (1)

R. Soref, "The past, present and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron . 12, 1678-1687 (2006).

IEEE Photon . J. (2)

A. Brimont, A. M. Gutierrez, M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J-M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Marti, P. Sanchis, "Slow-light-enhanced silicon optical modulators under low-drive-voltage operation," IEEE Photon . J. 4, 1306-1315 (2012 ).

Z. Sheng, Z. Wang, C. Qiu, L. Li, P. Albert, A. Wu, X Wang, S. Zou, F. Gan, "A compact and low-loss MMI coupler fabricated with CMOS technology," IEEE Photon . J. 4, 2272 -2277 (2012).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

L. Soldano, E. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, "An equivalent circuit model of the traveling wave electrode for carrier-depletion-based silicon optical modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1602-1609 (2012 ).

J. Ding, R. Ji, L. Zhang, L. Yang, "Electro-optical response analysis of a 40 Gb/s silicon mach-zehnder optical modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 2434-2440 (2013).

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, " Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators," Nat. Photon. 2, 433-437 (2008).

Nature (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (1)

N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "30 GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Opt. Exp. 19, 7062-7067 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (7)

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J. M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, "Demonstration of a low $V_{\pi}$ L modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 15618-15623 (2010).

Y. Tang, H.-W. Chen, S. Jain, J. D. Peters, U. Westergren, J. E. Bowers, "50 Gb/s hybrid silicon traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5811-5816 (2011 ).

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007).

P. Dong, L. Chen, Y. Chen, "High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators," Opt. Exp. 20, 6163-6169 (2012).

M. Streshinsky, A. Ayazi, Z. Xuan, A. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, "Highly linear silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder carrier depletion modulator based on differential drive," Opt. Exp. 21, 3818-3825 (2013).

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, J. Yue, "High speed silicon mach-zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions," Opt. Exp. 20, 15093-15099 (2012).

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, "Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator," Opt. Exp. 20, 12014-12020 ( 2012).

Opt. Lett. (1)

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage," Opt. Lett. 35, 3246-3248 (2010).

Other (2)

D. A. Neamen, Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles (McGraw-Hill, 2003, ch. 7 ).

D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering (Wiley, 1998, ch. 2).

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