Abstract

We design and demonstrate a new microring modulator geometry utilizing low-resistance interior ridge contacts and a hard outer waveguide wall to achieve high-speed operation in a device with a large free spectral range (FSR). The depletion-mode silicon microring modulator utilizes a hybrid vertical–horizontal junction to maximize the frequency response for a given voltage within a compact 2.5 μm radius. The 2.5-μm radius microring modulator demonstrates low energy (4.5 fJ/bit) error-free (bit error rate <10 $^{-12}$ ) operation for 30 Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero data transmission without utilizing preemphasis or equalization. The modulator exhibits single mode operation over a wide, uncorrupted FSR of 5.3 THz, the largest reported in a high-speed (>25 Gb/s) modulator. The resulting combination of high-speed, low-energy operation, and a wide FSR offers the potential for very high bandwidth densities in future femtojoule-class communication links.

© 2013 IEEE

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2013 (1)

2012 (3)

E. S. Hosseini, S. Yegnanarayanan, A. H. Atabaki, M. Soltani, A. Adibi, "Systematic design and fabrication of high-Q single-mode pulley-coupled planar silicon nitride microdisk resonators at visible wavelengths," Opt. Exp. 20, 26411-26423 (2012).

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, "A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction," Opt. Exp. 20, 26411-26423 (2012).

W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Lentine, G. Robertson, A. Hsia, M. R. Watts, "Monolithic and two-dimensional integration of silicon photonic microdisks with microelectronics," IEEE Photonics J. 4, 242-249 (2012).

2011 (3)

J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, H. Li, J. Sun, T. Bonifield, R. Hollingsworth, F. Kartner, H. Smith, V. Stojanovic, R. Ram, "Nanophotonic integration in state-of-the-art CMOS foundries," Opt Exp. 19, 2335-2346 (2011).

S. Borkar, A. A. Chien, "The future of microprocessors," Commun. ACM 54 , 67-77 (2011).

2011 (3)

M. Asghari, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "Silicon photonics: Energy-efficient communication," Nature Photon 5, 268-270 (2011 ).

2011 (3)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, "Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches," Opt Exp. 19, 21989-22003 (2011).

2010 (4)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, "Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 159-164 (2010).

M. R. Watts, "Adiabatic microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 35, 3231-3233 (2010).

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, "High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors," Nat. Photon 4, 527-534 (2010).

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, "Silicon optical modulators," Nature Photon. 4, 518-526 (2010).

2009 (1)

J. Torrellas, "Architectures for extreme-scale computing," Computer 42, 28-35 (2009).

2006 (1)

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, G. Reed, "Silicon photonics," IEEE Microw. Mag. 7, 56 -68 (2006).

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nico- laescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ," Nature 427, 615- 618 (2004).

1998 (1)

G. E. Moore, "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits," Proc. IEEE 86, 82-85 (1998).

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

Commun. ACM (1)

S. Borkar, A. A. Chien, "The future of microprocessors," Commun. ACM 54 , 67-77 (2011).

Computer (1)

J. Torrellas, "Architectures for extreme-scale computing," Computer 42, 28-35 (2009).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, "Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 159-164 (2010).

IEEE Microw. Mag. (1)

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, G. Reed, "Silicon photonics," IEEE Microw. Mag. 7, 56 -68 (2006).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Lentine, G. Robertson, A. Hsia, M. R. Watts, "Monolithic and two-dimensional integration of silicon photonic microdisks with microelectronics," IEEE Photonics J. 4, 242-249 (2012).

Nat. Photon (1)

J. Michel, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, "High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors," Nat. Photon 4, 527-534 (2010).

Nature (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nico- laescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ," Nature 427, 615- 618 (2004).

Nature Photon (1)

M. Asghari, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "Silicon photonics: Energy-efficient communication," Nature Photon 5, 268-270 (2011 ).

Nature Photon. (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, "Silicon optical modulators," Nature Photon. 4, 518-526 (2010).

Opt Exp. (1)

J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, H. Li, J. Sun, T. Bonifield, R. Hollingsworth, F. Kartner, H. Smith, V. Stojanovic, R. Ram, "Nanophotonic integration in state-of-the-art CMOS foundries," Opt Exp. 19, 2335-2346 (2011).

Opt Exp. (1)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, "Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches," Opt Exp. 19, 21989-22003 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (3)

A. Biberman, E. Timurdogan, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, "Adiabatic microring modulators," Opt. Exp. 20 , 29223-29236 ( 2012).

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, "A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction," Opt. Exp. 20, 26411-26423 (2012).

E. S. Hosseini, S. Yegnanarayanan, A. H. Atabaki, M. Soltani, A. Adibi, "Systematic design and fabrication of high-Q single-mode pulley-coupled planar silicon nitride microdisk resonators at visible wavelengths," Opt. Exp. 20, 26411-26423 (2012).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

G. E. Moore, "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits," Proc. IEEE 86, 82-85 (1998).

Other (10)

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, P. Chang, "Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2009) pp. 468 -469.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. R. Watts, "L-Shaped Resonant Microring (LRM) Modulator," presented at the IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf. Santa FeNMUSA (2013) Paper MC2 .

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, A. Biberman, M. R. Watts, "Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators at 25 Gb/s ," presented at the Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. National Fiber Optics. Eng. Conf. (2013) Paper OTh3 H.2 2013.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, "Ultralow power silicon microdisk modulators and switches ," Proc. IEEE 2008 Int. Meeting Group IV Photon. () pp. 4 -6.

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator ," Proc. IEEE Int. Meeting Group IV Photon. (2012) pp. 1-3.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, R. W. Young, "Adiabatic resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics," Proc. Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf. (2009) pp. 1-2.

E. Timurdogan, E. S. Hosseini, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, M. R. Watts, "L-Shaped resonant microring (LRM) filter with integrated thermal tuner," Proc. Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf. (2013).

D. H. Staelin, A. W. Morgenthaler, J. A. Kong, Electromagnetic Waves ( Prentice–Hall, 1994).

S. M. Sze, K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2007).

M. Popovic, "Complex-Frequency Leaky Mode Computations Using PML Boundary Layers for Dielectric Resonant Structures," Proc. Integrated Photon. Res. ( 2003).

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