Abstract

We present results of experimental and theoretical investigations of intersymbol interference in 4-PAM transmission in short-range optical communications links based on the power penalty. A test link comprised of a directly modulated 850 nm VCSEL with up to 200 m of multimode fiber and direct detection was used. The link bandwidth was below 10 GHz and the maximum achieved data rate with 4-PAM was 44 Gbps over 100 m of fiber. In the same case and at similar sensitivity, only 32 Gbps could be achieved with OOK. If typical forward error correction could be applied, the sensitivity of the 4-PAM system was improved by up to 4 dB, reaching –10 dBm at 25 Gbps.

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2013 ()

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, A. P. A., A. Larsson, "60 Gbits error-free 4-PAM operation with 850 nm VCSEL," Electron. Lett. 49, 953-955 (2013 ).

2012 (3)

P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, B. Kögel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, M. Geen, R. Lawrence, A. Joel, "High-speed 850 nm VCSELs with 28 GHz modulation bandwidth operating error-free up to 44 Gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 48, 1145-1147 (2012).

R. Safaisini, S. K., E. Haglund, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, P. A. Andrekson, "20 Gbit/s error-free operation of 850 nm oxide-confined VCSELs beyond 1 km of multimode fibre," Electron. Lett. 48, 1225 -1227 (2012).

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, E. Agrell, A. Larsson, "4-PAM for high-speed short-range optical communications," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4, 885-894 (2012).

2011 (1)

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, E. Agrell, A. Larsson, "30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using an 850 nm VCSEL," Opt. Exp 19, 203-208 (2011).

2009 (1)

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, "Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 45 , 501-503 (2009 ).

2009 (1)

D. Kam, M. Ritter, T. Beukema, J. Bulzacchelli, P. Pepeljugoski, Y. Kwark, L. Shan, X. Gu, C. Baks, R. John, G. Hougham, C. Schuster, R. Rimolo-Donadio, B. Wu, "Is 25 gb/s on-board signaling viable?," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag 32, 328-344 (2009).

2008 (1)

J. Lee, M.-S. Chen, H.-D. Wang, "Design and comparison of three 20-Gb/s backplane transceivers for duobinary, PAM4, and NRZ data," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2120-2133 (2008).

2006 (1)

J. E. Cunningham, D. Beckman, X. Zheng, D. Huang, T. Sze, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "PAM-4 signaling over VCSELs with ${\rm 0.13\;\mu{\rm m}}$ CMOS chip technology ," Opt. Exp. 14, 12 028-12 038 (2006).

2006 (1)

T. Toifl, C. Menolfi, M. Ruegg, R. Reutemann, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, J. Weiss, M. L. Schmatz, "A 22 Gb/s PAM-4 receiver in 90-nm CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 954-965 (2006 ).

1999 (1)

S. Walklin, J. Conradi, "Multilevel signaling for increasing the reach of 10 Gb/s lightwave systems," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2235-2248 (1999).

1998 (1)

H. Frazier, "The 802.3z Gigabit Ethernet standard," IEEE Netw. 12, 6-7 (1998).

1997 (1)

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85 , 265-298 (1997).

1995 (1)

W. Ebel, W. Tranter, "The performance of Reed-Solomon codes on a bursty-noise channel," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 298- 306 (1995).

1991 (1)

J. K. Pollard, "Multilevel data communication over optical fibre ," IEE Proc.-Commun. 138, 162-168 (1991).

1986 (1)

J. Gimlett, N. Cheung, "Dispersion penalty analysis for LED/single-mode fiber transmission systems," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 4, 1381 -1392 (1986).

1960 (1)

I. Reed, G. Solomon, "Polynomial codes over certain finite fields," J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 8, 300-304 (1960).

Electron. Lett. (4)

R. Safaisini, S. K., E. Haglund, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, P. A. Andrekson, "20 Gbit/s error-free operation of 850 nm oxide-confined VCSELs beyond 1 km of multimode fibre," Electron. Lett. 48, 1225 -1227 (2012).

P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, B. Kögel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, M. Geen, R. Lawrence, A. Joel, "High-speed 850 nm VCSELs with 28 GHz modulation bandwidth operating error-free up to 44 Gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 48, 1145-1147 (2012).

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, "Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 45 , 501-503 (2009 ).

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, A. P. A., A. Larsson, "60 Gbits error-free 4-PAM operation with 850 nm VCSEL," Electron. Lett. 49, 953-955 (2013 ).

IEE Proc.-Commun. (1)

J. K. Pollard, "Multilevel data communication over optical fibre ," IEE Proc.-Commun. 138, 162-168 (1991).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

S. Walklin, J. Conradi, "Multilevel signaling for increasing the reach of 10 Gb/s lightwave systems," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2235-2248 (1999).

J. Gimlett, N. Cheung, "Dispersion penalty analysis for LED/single-mode fiber transmission systems," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 4, 1381 -1392 (1986).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (2)

J. Lee, M.-S. Chen, H.-D. Wang, "Design and comparison of three 20-Gb/s backplane transceivers for duobinary, PAM4, and NRZ data," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2120-2133 (2008).

T. Toifl, C. Menolfi, M. Ruegg, R. Reutemann, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, J. Weiss, M. L. Schmatz, "A 22 Gb/s PAM-4 receiver in 90-nm CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 954-965 (2006 ).

IEEE Netw. (1)

H. Frazier, "The 802.3z Gigabit Ethernet standard," IEEE Netw. 12, 6-7 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag (1)

D. Kam, M. Ritter, T. Beukema, J. Bulzacchelli, P. Pepeljugoski, Y. Kwark, L. Shan, X. Gu, C. Baks, R. John, G. Hougham, C. Schuster, R. Rimolo-Donadio, B. Wu, "Is 25 gb/s on-board signaling viable?," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag 32, 328-344 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

W. Ebel, W. Tranter, "The performance of Reed-Solomon codes on a bursty-noise channel," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 298- 306 (1995).

IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, E. Agrell, A. Larsson, "4-PAM for high-speed short-range optical communications," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4, 885-894 (2012).

J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. (1)

I. Reed, G. Solomon, "Polynomial codes over certain finite fields," J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 8, 300-304 (1960).

Opt. Exp (1)

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, E. Agrell, A. Larsson, "30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using an 850 nm VCSEL," Opt. Exp 19, 203-208 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. E. Cunningham, D. Beckman, X. Zheng, D. Huang, T. Sze, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "PAM-4 signaling over VCSELs with ${\rm 0.13\;\mu{\rm m}}$ CMOS chip technology ," Opt. Exp. 14, 12 028-12 038 (2006).

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85 , 265-298 (1997).

Other (16)

D. Watanabe, A. Ono, T. Okayasu, "CMOS optical 4-PAM VCSEL driver with modal-dispersion equalizer for 10 Gb/s 500 m MMF transmission," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2009) pp. 106-107.

W. Hofmann, P. Moser, P. Wolf, A. Mutig, M. Kroh, D. Bimberg, "44 Gb/s VCSEL for optical interconnects," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. ( 2011) pp. 1-3.

K. Szczerba, B. Olsson, P. Westbergh, A. Rhodin, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, A. Larsson, P. A. Andrekson, "37 Gbps transmission over 200 m of MMF using single cycle subcarrier modulation and a VCSEL with 20 GHz modulation bandwidth," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2010) pp. 1-3.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, D. Cardenas, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, "Discrete multitone modulation for high-speed data transmission over multimode fibers using 850-nm VCSEL," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. (2009) pp. 1-3 .

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, "High-speed transmission over multimode optical fibers," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. (2008) pp. 1-3.

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, J. Karout, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, A. Larsson, "30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using a VCSEL," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2011) pp. 1-3.

J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "10 Gb/s & 20 Gb/s extended-reach multimode-fiber datacommunication links using multilevel modulation and transmitter-based equalization ," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. (2008) pp. 1-3.

J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, A. Larsson, "32 Gb/s multilevel modulation of an 850 nm VCSEL for next-generation datacommunication standards," Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011) pp. 1-2.

J. Proakis, M. Salehi, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2008).

IEEE Standard for Information technology Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks Specific requirements , IEEE Standard 802.3ba, 2010..

P. Westbergh, R. Safaisini, E. Haglund, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, M. Geen, R. Lawrence, and A. Joel, “High-speed oxide confined 850-nm VCSELs operating error free at 40 Gbit/s up to $85^o$ C,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 768–771, 2013..

D. Cunningham, M. Nowell, D. Hanson, and L. Kazovsky, “The IEEE 802.3z worst case link model for optical physical media dependent specification,” (1997). [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/3/z/public/presentations/mar1997/DCwpaper.pdf .

“IEEE 802.3ae 10G Ethernet optical link budget spreadsheet.” (2000). [Online]. Available: http://ieee802.org/3/10G_study/public/email_attach/All_1250v2.xls.

B. Sklar, Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications (Prentice-Hall, 2001).

IEEE Standard for Ethernet, IEEE Standard 802.3-2012, 2012..

J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, "40 gb/s carrierless amplitude and phase modulation for low-cost optical datacommunication links," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. (2011) pp. 1-3.

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