Abstract

This paper presents theoretical and experimental study of ultra-compact Si-wire Optical Directional Couplers (ODCs) on Silicon-on-Insulator wafer for optical signal processing. The presence of the controllable evanescent light strongly confined in the region bounded by the Si nano-wires has a large impact on the optical power coupling between waveguides. The characteristics of coupling length and power transmission in ODCs based on separation, wavelength, light field propagation distance and geometry of waveguides are described in detail by the coupled mode theory, 3-D finite-difference time-domain analysis and beam propagation method, and are confirmed by experiments. The exponential dependency of coupling length on the separation of coupled waveguides and wavelength shows interesting high-sensitivity optical sensing, switching and multiplexing properties. Custom spectral properties can be achieved by the configuration of coupled nano-wire waveguides based on their separation and lengths. We show that optimization of ODCs based on the physics of the coupled waveguides will lead to short optical devices which can be integrated as building blocks within high-density photonic circuits with the desired spectral characteristics. In the end, two new systems based on Mach–Zehnder structure and Micro-Ring Resonators are proposed in which ODCs are implemented as embedded tunable devices resulting in more functional optical sensing and signal processing devices.

© 2013 IEEE

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2013 (1)

K. Xu, L.-G. Yang, J.-Y. Sung, Y. M. Chen, Z. Z. Cheng, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, H. K. Tsang, " Compatibility of silicon Mach-zehnder modulators for advanced modulation formats," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 2550- 2554 (2013).

2010 (4)

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator," Opt. Exp. 18, 10941-10946 (2010).

R. Chatterjee, C. Wong, "Nanomechanical proximity perturbation for switching in silicon-based directional couplers for high-density photonic integrated circuits," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19, 657-662 (2010).

D. Van Thourhout, J. Roels, "Optomechanical device actuation through the optical gradient force," Nat. Photon. 4, 211-217 (2010).

Y. Yue, L. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Beausoleil, A. Willner, "Silicon-on-insulator polarization splitter using two horizontally slotted waveguides ," Opt. Lett. 35, 1364-1366 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

T. Yamazaki, H. Aono, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "Coupled waveguide polarization splitter with slightly different core widths," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3528-3533 (2008).

K. Takahashi, Y. Kanamori, Y. Kokubun, K. Hane, "A wavelength-selective add-drop switch using silicon microring resonator with a submicron-comb electrostatic actuator," Opt. Exp. 16, 14421-14428 (2008).

2007 (3)

I. De Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, "Detection of nanomechanical motion by evanescent light wave coupling ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233116-233116 (2007).

L. Augustin, J. van der Tol, R. Hanfoug, W. de Laat, M. van de Moosdijk, P. van Dijk, Y. Oei, M. Smit, "A single etch-step fabrication-tolerant polarization splitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 740- 746 (2007).

P. Luan, K. Chang, "Periodic dielectric waveguide beam splitter based on co-directional coupling," Opt. Exp. 15, 4536-4545 (2007).

2006 (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, R. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

2005 (6)

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, N. Dagli, "A compact silicon-on-insulator polarization splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 100-102 (2005).

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).

M. Povinelli, M. Loncar, M. Ibanescu, E. Smythe, S. Johnson, F. Capasso, J. Joannopoulos, "Evanescent-wave bonding between optical waveguides ," Opt. Lett. 30, 3042-3044 (2005).

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Compact 1 $\times$ n thermo-optic switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 10109-10114 (2005).

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Optical directional coupler based on si-wire waveguides ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 585-587 (2005).

1996 (1)

B. Luff, R. Harris, J. Wilkinson, R. Wilson, D. Schiffrin, "Integrated-optical directional coupler biosensor," Opt. Lett. 21, 618-620 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. De Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, "Detection of nanomechanical motion by evanescent light wave coupling ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233116-233116 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36 , 321-322 (2000 ).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, R. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, N. Dagli, "A compact silicon-on-insulator polarization splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 100-102 (2005).

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Optical directional coupler based on si-wire waveguides ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 585-587 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

K. Xu, L.-G. Yang, J.-Y. Sung, Y. M. Chen, Z. Z. Cheng, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, H. K. Tsang, " Compatibility of silicon Mach-zehnder modulators for advanced modulation formats," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 2550- 2554 (2013).

L. Augustin, J. van der Tol, R. Hanfoug, W. de Laat, M. van de Moosdijk, P. van Dijk, Y. Oei, M. Smit, "A single etch-step fabrication-tolerant polarization splitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 740- 746 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

T. Yamazaki, H. Aono, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "Coupled waveguide polarization splitter with slightly different core widths," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3528-3533 (2008).

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

R. Chatterjee, C. Wong, "Nanomechanical proximity perturbation for switching in silicon-based directional couplers for high-density photonic integrated circuits," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19, 657-662 (2010).

Nat. Photon. (1)

D. Van Thourhout, J. Roels, "Optomechanical device actuation through the optical gradient force," Nat. Photon. 4, 211-217 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (1)

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator," Opt. Exp. 18, 10941-10946 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (2)

K. Takahashi, Y. Kanamori, Y. Kokubun, K. Hane, "A wavelength-selective add-drop switch using silicon microring resonator with a submicron-comb electrostatic actuator," Opt. Exp. 16, 14421-14428 (2008).

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Compact 1 $\times$ n thermo-optic switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 10109-10114 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (2)

P. Luan, K. Chang, "Periodic dielectric waveguide beam splitter based on co-directional coupling," Opt. Exp. 15, 4536-4545 (2007).

T. Ikeda, K. Takahashi, Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, "Phase-shifter using submicron silicon waveguide couplers with ultra-small electro-mechanical actuator," Opt. Exp. 18 , 7031-7037 (2010 ).

Opt. Lett. (1)

B. Luff, R. Harris, J. Wilkinson, R. Wilson, D. Schiffrin, "Integrated-optical directional coupler biosensor," Opt. Lett. 21, 618-620 (1996).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sensors (1)

V. Passaro, F. DellOlio, C. Ciminelli, M. Armenise, "Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot soi waveguides," Sensors 9 , 1012-1032 (2009 ).

Other (5)

S. Bakhtiari Gorajoobi, M. M. Kaykisiz, and E. Bulgan, “Principal and experimental demonstration of nano-scale sensing with highly-confined guided evanescent lightwave,” presented at the Optical Sensors, Rio Grande, PR, USA, 2013, Paper ST5B.3..

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: Polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” presented at the Light: Science Application, vol. 1, no. 3, Mar. 2012, Paper. e1..

I. Park, H. Lee, H. Kim, K. Moon, S. Lee, S. Park, and E. Lee, “Photonic crystal power-splitter based on directional coupling,” Opt. Exp. , vol. 12, no. 15, pp. 3599–3604, 2004..

K. Ebeling, Integrated Optoelectronics: Waveguide Optics, Photonics, Semiconductors (Springer-Verlag, 1993).

T. Ikeda, Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, "Submicron silicon waveguide Mach-zehnder interferometer using micro electro-mechanical phase-shifter," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS Nanophoton. (2010) pp. 97-98.

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