Abstract

By coating a single-mode–multimode–single-mode (SMS) structure with a complex refractive index thin-film the central wavelength of the transmission and attenuation bands of the optical spectrum can be shifted. By adequate selection of multimode segment length and diameter, the thin-film thickness and the thin-film refractive index, the sensitivity of the device to the surrounding medium refractive index, the thickness of the thin-film or the refractive index of the thin-film can be optimized. Experimental results are corroborated numerically with the transfer matrix method.

© 2013 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Silva, E. G. P. Pachon, M. A. R. Franco, J. G. Hayashi, F. X. Malcata, O. Frazão, P. Jorge, C. M. B. Cordeiro, "Ultrahigh-sensitivity temperature fiber sensor based on multimode interference," Appl. Opt. 51, 3236-3242 (2012).
  2. L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615 -627 (1995).
  3. L. L. Xue, L. Yang, " Sensitivity enhancement of RI sensor based on SMS fiber structure with high refractive index overlay," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1463-1469 (2012).
  4. W. S. Mohammed, P. W. E. Smith, "All-fiber multimode interference bandpass filter," Opt. Lett. 31, 2547-2549 (2006).
  5. J. E. Antonio-Lopez, A. Castillo-Guzman, D. A. May-Arrioja, R. Selvas-Aguilar, P. LiKamWa, "Tunable multimode-interferencebandpass fiber filter," Opt. Lett. 35, 324-326 (2010).
  6. A. Mehta, W. Mohammed, E. G. Johnson, "Multimode interference-based fiber-optic displacement sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15 , 1129-1131 (2003).
  7. Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, A. M. Hatta, G. Farrell, " Experimental demonstration of a simple displacement sensor based on a bent single-mode–multimode–single-mode fiber structure," Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 025203 (5 pp.) (2011).
  8. Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, A. M. Hatta, P. Wang, G. Farrell, " Single-mode–multimode–singlemode fiber structures for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature ," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 53, 2181 -2185 (2011).
  9. I. Ruiz-Pérez, M. A. Basurto-Pensado, P. LiKamWa, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, D. A. May-Arrioja, "Fiber optic pressure sensor using multimode interference ," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274, 012025 (7 pp.) (2011).
  10. Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, G. Farrell, "High sensitivity SMS fiber structure based refractometer—Analysis and experiment," Opt. Exp. 19, 7937 -7944 (2011).
  11. I. Del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matías, "Lossy mode resonance generation with indium tin oxide coated optical fibers for sensing applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 111-117 (2010).
  12. N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, G. J. Ashwell, "Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir—Blodgett thin-film overlays," Opt. Lett. 27, 686-688 (2002).
  13. A. B. Socorro, I. Del Villar, J. M. Corres, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, "Lossy mode resonances dependence on the geometry of a tapered monomode optical fiber ," Sens. Actuators A 180, 25-31 (2012).
  14. J. Bravo, I. R. Matías, I. Del Villar, J. M. Corres, F. J. Arregui, "Nanofilms on hollow core fiber-based structures: An optical study," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2100-2107 (2006).
  15. L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Exp. 14, 8224-8231 (2006).
  16. T. Wang, S. Korposh, S. James, R. Tatam, S.-W. Lee, "Optical fibre long period grating sensor with a polyelectrolyte alternate thin film for gas sensing of amine odors ," Sens. Actuators B 185, 117 -124 (2013).
  17. C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, "Tunable humidity sensor based on ITO-coated optical fiber," Sens. Actuators B 146, 414-417 (2010).
  18. D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, A. Wang, "Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating," Electron. Lett. 42, 324-325 (2006).
  19. A. B. Socorro, J. M. Corres, I. Del Villar, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, "Fiber-optic biosensor based on lossy mode resonances," Sens. Actuators B 164, 263-269 ( 2012).
  20. A. B. Socorro, J. M. Corres, I. Del Villar, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, "Mode transition in complex refractive index coated single-mode–multimode–single-mode structure," Opt. Exp. 21, 12668 -12682 (2013).
  21. J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. LiKamWa, D. A. May-Arrioja, "Fiber-optic sensor for liquid level measurement ," Opt. Lett. 36, 3425-3427 (2011).
  22. B. H. Lee, J. Nishii, " Self-interference of long-period fibre grating and its application as temperature sensor," Electron. Lett. 34, 2059-2060 (1998).
  23. G. W. Chern, L. A. Wang, "Transfer matrix method based on perturbation expansion for periodic and quasi-periodic binary long-period fiber gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 16, 2675-2689 (1999).
  24. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, E. Marom, "Theory of Bragg fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 1196-1201 (1978).
  25. T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short and long period fiber gratings filters ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760 -1773 (1997).
  26. G. Decher, "Fuzzy Nanoassemblies: Toward layered polymeric multicomposites ," Science 277, 1232-1237 (1997).
  27. I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, R. O. Claus, "Fiber-optic hydrogen peroxide nanosensor," IEEE Sens. J 5, 365-371 (2005).
  28. M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. M. Zamarreño, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, "Optical fiber refractometers based on lossy mode resonances supported by TiO $_{2}$ coatings," Appl. Opt. 49, 3980-3985 ( 2010).
  29. M. Giordanoa, M. Russo, A. Cusano, G. Mensitieri, G. Guerra, " Syndiotactic polystyrene thin film as sensitive layer for an optoelectronic chemical sensing device," Sens. Actuators B 109, 177-184 (2005).
  30. I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition," Opt. Exp. 13, 56 -69 (2005).
  31. I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, "Long-period fiber gratings with overlay of variable refractive index," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1893-1895 (2005).

2013 (2)

T. Wang, S. Korposh, S. James, R. Tatam, S.-W. Lee, "Optical fibre long period grating sensor with a polyelectrolyte alternate thin film for gas sensing of amine odors ," Sens. Actuators B 185, 117 -124 (2013).

A. B. Socorro, J. M. Corres, I. Del Villar, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, "Mode transition in complex refractive index coated single-mode–multimode–single-mode structure," Opt. Exp. 21, 12668 -12682 (2013).

2012 (3)

A. B. Socorro, I. Del Villar, J. M. Corres, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, "Lossy mode resonances dependence on the geometry of a tapered monomode optical fiber ," Sens. Actuators A 180, 25-31 (2012).

L. L. Xue, L. Yang, " Sensitivity enhancement of RI sensor based on SMS fiber structure with high refractive index overlay," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1463-1469 (2012).

S. Silva, E. G. P. Pachon, M. A. R. Franco, J. G. Hayashi, F. X. Malcata, O. Frazão, P. Jorge, C. M. B. Cordeiro, "Ultrahigh-sensitivity temperature fiber sensor based on multimode interference," Appl. Opt. 51, 3236-3242 (2012).

2011 (5)

J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. LiKamWa, D. A. May-Arrioja, "Fiber-optic sensor for liquid level measurement ," Opt. Lett. 36, 3425-3427 (2011).

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, A. M. Hatta, G. Farrell, " Experimental demonstration of a simple displacement sensor based on a bent single-mode–multimode–single-mode fiber structure," Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 025203 (5 pp.) (2011).

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, A. M. Hatta, P. Wang, G. Farrell, " Single-mode–multimode–singlemode fiber structures for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature ," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 53, 2181 -2185 (2011).

I. Ruiz-Pérez, M. A. Basurto-Pensado, P. LiKamWa, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, D. A. May-Arrioja, "Fiber optic pressure sensor using multimode interference ," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274, 012025 (7 pp.) (2011).

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, G. Farrell, "High sensitivity SMS fiber structure based refractometer—Analysis and experiment," Opt. Exp. 19, 7937 -7944 (2011).

2010 (3)

I. Del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matías, "Lossy mode resonance generation with indium tin oxide coated optical fibers for sensing applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 111-117 (2010).

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, "Tunable humidity sensor based on ITO-coated optical fiber," Sens. Actuators B 146, 414-417 (2010).

J. E. Antonio-Lopez, A. Castillo-Guzman, D. A. May-Arrioja, R. Selvas-Aguilar, P. LiKamWa, "Tunable multimode-interferencebandpass fiber filter," Opt. Lett. 35, 324-326 (2010).

2006 (4)

W. S. Mohammed, P. W. E. Smith, "All-fiber multimode interference bandpass filter," Opt. Lett. 31, 2547-2549 (2006).

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, A. Wang, "Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating," Electron. Lett. 42, 324-325 (2006).

J. Bravo, I. R. Matías, I. Del Villar, J. M. Corres, F. J. Arregui, "Nanofilms on hollow core fiber-based structures: An optical study," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2100-2107 (2006).

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Exp. 14, 8224-8231 (2006).

2005 (4)

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, R. O. Claus, "Fiber-optic hydrogen peroxide nanosensor," IEEE Sens. J 5, 365-371 (2005).

M. Giordanoa, M. Russo, A. Cusano, G. Mensitieri, G. Guerra, " Syndiotactic polystyrene thin film as sensitive layer for an optoelectronic chemical sensing device," Sens. Actuators B 109, 177-184 (2005).

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition," Opt. Exp. 13, 56 -69 (2005).

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, "Long-period fiber gratings with overlay of variable refractive index," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1893-1895 (2005).

2003 (1)

A. Mehta, W. Mohammed, E. G. Johnson, "Multimode interference-based fiber-optic displacement sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15 , 1129-1131 (2003).

2002 (1)

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, G. J. Ashwell, "Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir—Blodgett thin-film overlays," Opt. Lett. 27, 686-688 (2002).

1999 (1)

G. W. Chern, L. A. Wang, "Transfer matrix method based on perturbation expansion for periodic and quasi-periodic binary long-period fiber gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 16, 2675-2689 (1999).

1998 (1)

B. H. Lee, J. Nishii, " Self-interference of long-period fibre grating and its application as temperature sensor," Electron. Lett. 34, 2059-2060 (1998).

1997 (2)

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short and long period fiber gratings filters ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760 -1773 (1997).

G. Decher, "Fuzzy Nanoassemblies: Toward layered polymeric multicomposites ," Science 277, 1232-1237 (1997).

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615 -627 (1995).

1978 (1)

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, E. Marom, "Theory of Bragg fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 1196-1201 (1978).

IEEE Sens. J (1)

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, R. O. Claus, "Fiber-optic hydrogen peroxide nanosensor," IEEE Sens. J 5, 365-371 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, A. Wang, "Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating," Electron. Lett. 42, 324-325 (2006).

B. H. Lee, J. Nishii, " Self-interference of long-period fibre grating and its application as temperature sensor," Electron. Lett. 34, 2059-2060 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Mehta, W. Mohammed, E. G. Johnson, "Multimode interference-based fiber-optic displacement sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15 , 1129-1131 (2003).

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, "Long-period fiber gratings with overlay of variable refractive index," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1893-1895 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

J. Bravo, I. R. Matías, I. Del Villar, J. M. Corres, F. J. Arregui, "Nanofilms on hollow core fiber-based structures: An optical study," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2100-2107 (2006).

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615 -627 (1995).

L. L. Xue, L. Yang, " Sensitivity enhancement of RI sensor based on SMS fiber structure with high refractive index overlay," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1463-1469 (2012).

I. Del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matías, "Lossy mode resonance generation with indium tin oxide coated optical fibers for sensing applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 111-117 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, E. Marom, "Theory of Bragg fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 1196-1201 (1978).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (2)

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short and long period fiber gratings filters ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760 -1773 (1997).

G. W. Chern, L. A. Wang, "Transfer matrix method based on perturbation expansion for periodic and quasi-periodic binary long-period fiber gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 16, 2675-2689 (1999).

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

I. Ruiz-Pérez, M. A. Basurto-Pensado, P. LiKamWa, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, D. A. May-Arrioja, "Fiber optic pressure sensor using multimode interference ," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274, 012025 (7 pp.) (2011).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, A. M. Hatta, G. Farrell, " Experimental demonstration of a simple displacement sensor based on a bent single-mode–multimode–single-mode fiber structure," Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 025203 (5 pp.) (2011).

Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. (1)

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, A. M. Hatta, P. Wang, G. Farrell, " Single-mode–multimode–singlemode fiber structures for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature ," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 53, 2181 -2185 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (4)

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, G. Farrell, "High sensitivity SMS fiber structure based refractometer—Analysis and experiment," Opt. Exp. 19, 7937 -7944 (2011).

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Exp. 14, 8224-8231 (2006).

A. B. Socorro, J. M. Corres, I. Del Villar, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, "Mode transition in complex refractive index coated single-mode–multimode–single-mode structure," Opt. Exp. 21, 12668 -12682 (2013).

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition," Opt. Exp. 13, 56 -69 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

G. Decher, "Fuzzy Nanoassemblies: Toward layered polymeric multicomposites ," Science 277, 1232-1237 (1997).

Sens. Actuators A (1)

A. B. Socorro, I. Del Villar, J. M. Corres, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, "Lossy mode resonances dependence on the geometry of a tapered monomode optical fiber ," Sens. Actuators A 180, 25-31 (2012).

Sens. Actuators B (4)

A. B. Socorro, J. M. Corres, I. Del Villar, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, "Fiber-optic biosensor based on lossy mode resonances," Sens. Actuators B 164, 263-269 ( 2012).

T. Wang, S. Korposh, S. James, R. Tatam, S.-W. Lee, "Optical fibre long period grating sensor with a polyelectrolyte alternate thin film for gas sensing of amine odors ," Sens. Actuators B 185, 117 -124 (2013).

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, "Tunable humidity sensor based on ITO-coated optical fiber," Sens. Actuators B 146, 414-417 (2010).

M. Giordanoa, M. Russo, A. Cusano, G. Mensitieri, G. Guerra, " Syndiotactic polystyrene thin film as sensitive layer for an optoelectronic chemical sensing device," Sens. Actuators B 109, 177-184 (2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.