Abstract

Compared with optical resonant structures, current plasmonic waveguides have the advantage of enhancing optical forces in a broad range of wavelengths, but the enhancement can only be maintained for several dozens of microns at 1.55 μm. Here, a hybrid long-range plasmonic waveguide, consisting of two identical dielectric nanowires symmetrically placed on each side of a thin metal film, is proposed for optical forces. Strong optical coupling between the dielectric waveguide mode and long-range plasmonic mode leads to enhanced optical forces on the dielectric nanowire at low input optical power due to the deep subwavelength optical energy confinement. The enhancement can be maintained for distances of 1∼2 orders of magnitude larger than that of previous plasmonic waveguides. The deep subwavelength optical confinement as well as enhanced field gradient also allows eff icient trapping of single nanoscale particle, while the smaller propagation loss ensures a much larger trapping region at the same input optical power. The present results enable the potential applications of precisely controlling the positions of dielectric nanowires as well as manipulating a single nanoparticle such as a biomolecule and one quantum dot.

© 2013 IEEE

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2013 (2)

H. Hu, D. Ji, X. Zeng, K. Liu, Q. Gan, "Rainbow trapping in hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide," Sci. Rep. 3 , 1249 (2013).

L. Chen, X. Li, G. P. Wang, "A hybrid long-range plasmonic waveguide with sub-wavelength confinement," Opt. Commun. 291, 400-404 (2013).

2012 (5)

L. Chen, X. Li, G. P. Wang, W. Li, S. H. Chen, L. Xiao, D. S. Gao, "A silicon-based 3-D hybrid long-range plasmonic waveguide for nanophotonic integration ," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 163 -168 (2012).

L. Chen, T. Zhang, X. Li, W. P. Huang, "Novel hybrid plasmonic waveguide consisting of two identical dielectric nanowires symmetrically placed on each side of a thin metal film," Opt. Exp. 20, 20535-20544 (2012).

Y. Pang, R. Gordon, " Optical trapping of a single protein," Nano Lett. 12, 402-406 (2012).

Z. Kang, H. Zhang, H. Lu, J. Xu, H.-C. Ong, P. Shum, H.-P. Ho, "Plasmonic optical trap having very large active volume realized with nano-ring structure ," Opt. Lett. 37, 1748-1750 (2012).

J. Ma, M. L. Povinelli, "Applications of optomechanical effects for on-chip manipulation of light signals," Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 16, 82-90 (2012).

2011 (6)

H. Wong, M. Righini, J. Gates, P. Smith, V. Pruneri, R. Quidant, "On-a-chip surface plasmon tweezers ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061107 (2011).

X. Yang, Y. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. Yin, X. Zhang, "Optical forces in hybrid plasmonic waveguides," Nano Lett. 11, 321-328 (2011).

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, H. D. Sun, "Wide-range coupling between surface plasmon polariton and cylindrical dielectric waveguide mode," Opt. Exp. 19, 13598-13603 (2011).

Y. Zheng, H. Liu, S. Wang, T. Li, J. Cao, L. Li, C. Zhu, Y. Wang, S. Zhu, X. Zhang, " Selective optical trapping based on strong plasmonic coupling between gold nanorods and slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 083117 (2011).

B. Liu, L. Yang, Y. Wang, "Optical trapping force combining an optical fiber probe and an AFM metallic probe," Opt. Exp. 19 , 3703-3714 (2011).

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, X. Li, W. Li, Y. Shen, J. Lai, S. Chen, "Broadband slow-light in graded-grating-loaded plasmonic waveguides at telecom frequencies ," Appl. Phys. B 104, 653-657 (2011).

2010 (3)

X. Y. Zhang, A. Hu, J. Wen, T. Zhang, X. J. Xue, Y. Zhou, W. Duley, "Numerical analysis of deep sub-wavelength integrated plasmonic devices based on semiconductor-insulator-metal strip waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18 , 18945-18959 (2010).

W. Zhang, L. Huang, C. Santschi, O. J. Martin, "Trapping and sensing 10 nm metal nanoparticles using plasmonic dipole antennas," Nano Lett. 10, 1006 -1011 (2010).

C. Huang, L. Zhu, " Enhanced optical forces in 2-D hybrid and plasmonic waveguides," Opt. Lett. 35, 1563-1565 (2010).

2009 (9)

L. Huang, S. J. Maerkl, O. J. Martin, "Integration of plasmonic trapping in a microfluidic environment," Opt. Exp. 17, 6018-6024 (2009).

D. Woolf, M. Loncar, F. Capasso, "The forces from coupled surface plasmon polaritons in planar waveguides," Opt. Exp. 17, 19996-20011 (2009).

D. X. Dai, S. L. He, " A silicon-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide with a metal cap for a nano-scale light confinement," Opt. Exp. 17, 16646-16653 (2009).

M. Fujii, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, "Dispersion relation and loss of subwavelength confined mode of metal-dielectric-gap optical waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 362-364 (2009).

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457 , 71-75 (2009).

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, O. Painter, "A picogram-and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity," Nature 459, 550-555 (2009).

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, M. Lipson, "Controlling photonic structures using optical forces," Nature 462, 633-636 (2009).

J. Rosenberg, Q. Lin, O. Painter, "Static and dynamic wavelength routing via the gradient optical force," Nat. Photon. 3, 478-483 (2009).

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, "Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale," Nature 461, 629 -632 (2009).

2008 (6)

T. Kippenberg, K. Vahala, " Cavity optomechanics: Back-action at the mesoscale," Science 321 , 1172-1176 (2008).

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, H. X. Tang, "Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits," Nature 456, 480 -484 (2008).

H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Yoshikawa, Y. Torii, T. Kuga, "Strong radiation force induced in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab cavities ," Phys. Rev. B 78, 165129 (2008).

R. Sainidou, F. J. García de Abajo, "Optically tunable surfaces with trapped particles in microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 136802 (2008).

A. Grigorenko, N. Roberts, M. Dickinson, Y. Zhang, "Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates ," Nat. Photon. 2, 365-370 (2008).

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. Genov, D. Pile, X. Zhang, "A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation," Nat. Photon. 2, 496-500 (2008).

2007 (1)

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popović, M. Soljači, E. P. Ippen, "Trapping, corralling and spectral bonding of optical resonances through optically induced potentials," Nat. Photon. 1 , 658-665 (2007).

2006 (1)

M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, "Optomechanical wavelength and energy conversion in high-Q double-layer cavities of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023903 (2006).

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

M. Povinelli, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, J. Joannopoulos, "Slow-light enhancement of radiation pressure in an omnidirectional-reflector waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1466-1468 (2004).

T. Kuykendall, P. J. Pauzauskie, Y. Zhang, J. Goldberger, D. Sirbuly, J. Denlinger, P. Yang, "Crystallographic alignment of high-density gallium nitride nanowire arrays ," Nat. Mater. 3, 524-528 (2004).

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics ," Nature 424, 824- 830 (2003).

1991 (1)

S. Chu, "Laser manipulation of atoms and particles," Science 253, 861-866 (1991).

1986 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, R. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure ," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156-159 (1970).

Nature (1)

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, O. Painter, "A picogram-and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity," Nature 459, 550-555 (2009).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Xu, M. Käll, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced optical forces in silver nanoaggregates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 246802 (2002 ).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. Chen, G. Wang, " Nanofocusing of light energy by ridged metal heterostructures," Appl. Phys. B 89, 573-577 (2007 ).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, X. Li, W. Li, Y. Shen, J. Lai, S. Chen, "Broadband slow-light in graded-grating-loaded plasmonic waveguides at telecom frequencies ," Appl. Phys. B 104, 653-657 (2011).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Povinelli, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, J. Joannopoulos, "Slow-light enhancement of radiation pressure in an omnidirectional-reflector waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1466-1468 (2004).

Y. Zheng, H. Liu, S. Wang, T. Li, J. Cao, L. Li, C. Zhu, Y. Wang, S. Zhu, X. Zhang, " Selective optical trapping based on strong plasmonic coupling between gold nanorods and slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 083117 (2011).

H. Wong, M. Righini, J. Gates, P. Smith, V. Pruneri, R. Quidant, "On-a-chip surface plasmon tweezers ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061107 (2011).

Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1)

J. Ma, M. L. Povinelli, "Applications of optomechanical effects for on-chip manipulation of light signals," Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 16, 82-90 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Fujii, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, "Dispersion relation and loss of subwavelength confined mode of metal-dielectric-gap optical waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 362-364 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

L. Chen, X. Li, G. P. Wang, W. Li, S. H. Chen, L. Xiao, D. S. Gao, "A silicon-based 3-D hybrid long-range plasmonic waveguide for nanophotonic integration ," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 163 -168 (2012).

J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

T. Čižmár, L. D. Romero, K. Dholakia, D. Andrews, "Multiple optical trapping and binding: New routes to self-assembly," J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43 , pp. 102001 (25 pp.), 2010.

Nano Lett. (3)

Y. Pang, R. Gordon, " Optical trapping of a single protein," Nano Lett. 12, 402-406 (2012).

W. Zhang, L. Huang, C. Santschi, O. J. Martin, "Trapping and sensing 10 nm metal nanoparticles using plasmonic dipole antennas," Nano Lett. 10, 1006 -1011 (2010).

X. Yang, Y. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. Yin, X. Zhang, "Optical forces in hybrid plasmonic waveguides," Nano Lett. 11, 321-328 (2011).

Nat. Photon. (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. Genov, D. Pile, X. Zhang, "A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation," Nat. Photon. 2, 496-500 (2008).

Nat. Phys. (1)

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. Weig, J. Kotthaus, T. Kippenberg, "Near-field cavity optomechanics with nanomechanical oscillators," Nat. Phys. 5, 909-914 ( 2009).

Nat. Mater. (1)

T. Kuykendall, P. J. Pauzauskie, Y. Zhang, J. Goldberger, D. Sirbuly, J. Denlinger, P. Yang, "Crystallographic alignment of high-density gallium nitride nanowire arrays ," Nat. Mater. 3, 524-528 (2004).

Nat. Photon. (3)

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popović, M. Soljači, E. P. Ippen, "Trapping, corralling and spectral bonding of optical resonances through optically induced potentials," Nat. Photon. 1 , 658-665 (2007).

J. Rosenberg, Q. Lin, O. Painter, "Static and dynamic wavelength routing via the gradient optical force," Nat. Photon. 3, 478-483 (2009).

A. Grigorenko, N. Roberts, M. Dickinson, Y. Zhang, "Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates ," Nat. Photon. 2, 365-370 (2008).

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. L. Juan, R. Gordon, Y. Pang, F. Eftekhari, R. Quidant, " Self-induced back-action optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles," Nat. Phys. 5, 915-919 (2009 ).

Nature (5)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics ," Nature 424, 824- 830 (2003).

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, M. Lipson, "Controlling photonic structures using optical forces," Nature 462, 633-636 (2009).

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, H. X. Tang, "Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits," Nature 456, 480 -484 (2008).

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457 , 71-75 (2009).

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, "Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale," Nature 461, 629 -632 (2009).

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Chen, X. Li, G. P. Wang, "A hybrid long-range plasmonic waveguide with sub-wavelength confinement," Opt. Commun. 291, 400-404 (2013).

Opt. Exp. (1)

Y. S. Bian, Z. Zheng, Y. Liu, J. S. Liu, J. S. Zhu, T. Zhou, "Hybrid wedge plasmon polariton waveguide with good fabrication-error-tolerance for ultra-deep-subwavelength mode confinement," Opt. Exp. 19, 22417-22422 ( 2011).

Opt. Exp. (7)

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, H. D. Sun, "Wide-range coupling between surface plasmon polariton and cylindrical dielectric waveguide mode," Opt. Exp. 19, 13598-13603 (2011).

D. X. Dai, S. L. He, " A silicon-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide with a metal cap for a nano-scale light confinement," Opt. Exp. 17, 16646-16653 (2009).

X. Y. Zhang, A. Hu, J. Wen, T. Zhang, X. J. Xue, Y. Zhou, W. Duley, "Numerical analysis of deep sub-wavelength integrated plasmonic devices based on semiconductor-insulator-metal strip waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18 , 18945-18959 (2010).

B. Liu, L. Yang, Y. Wang, "Optical trapping force combining an optical fiber probe and an AFM metallic probe," Opt. Exp. 19 , 3703-3714 (2011).

L. Huang, S. J. Maerkl, O. J. Martin, "Integration of plasmonic trapping in a microfluidic environment," Opt. Exp. 17, 6018-6024 (2009).

D. Woolf, M. Loncar, F. Capasso, "The forces from coupled surface plasmon polaritons in planar waveguides," Opt. Exp. 17, 19996-20011 (2009).

L. Chen, T. Zhang, X. Li, W. P. Huang, "Novel hybrid plasmonic waveguide consisting of two identical dielectric nanowires symmetrically placed on each side of a thin metal film," Opt. Exp. 20, 20535-20544 (2012).

Opt. Lett. (1)

M. Z. Alam, J. S. Aitchison, M. Mojahedi, "Compact and silicon-on-insulator-compatible hybrid plasmonic TE-pass polarizer," Opt. Lett. 37, 55-57 (2012 ).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. B. Johnson, R. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).

H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Yoshikawa, Y. Torii, T. Kuga, "Strong radiation force induced in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab cavities ," Phys. Rev. B 78, 165129 (2008).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, "Optomechanical wavelength and energy conversion in high-Q double-layer cavities of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023903 (2006).

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure ," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156-159 (1970).

R. Sainidou, F. J. García de Abajo, "Optically tunable surfaces with trapped particles in microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 136802 (2008).

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. Hu, D. Ji, X. Zeng, K. Liu, Q. Gan, "Rainbow trapping in hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide," Sci. Rep. 3 , 1249 (2013).

Science (2)

S. Chu, "Laser manipulation of atoms and particles," Science 253, 861-866 (1991).

T. Kippenberg, K. Vahala, " Cavity optomechanics: Back-action at the mesoscale," Science 321 , 1172-1176 (2008).

Other (2)

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, M. Mojahedi, "Super mode propagation in low index medium," Proc. Photon. Appl. Syst. Technol. Conf. (2007) pp. 6-11.

J. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1999).

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