Abstract

This paper analyzes an indoor positioning system that uses white lighting LEDs. Modulated signals transmitted by the LEDs are used as the basis of time-of-arrival-based distance estimation. The theoretical limits on the accuracy of estimation are calculated by deriving the Cramer–Rao bound for intensity modulated windowed sinusoidal signals. Calculations for a typical indoor scenario, assuming perfect synchronization between transmitter and receiver, but using realistic values for other parameters show that very accurate distance estimates are achievable, with typical errors being in the order of centimeters depending on the frequency and power of the sinusoidal signals, the distance from the LED and the properties of the LED and the photoreceiver.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. H. Liu, H. Darabi, P. Banerjee, J. Liu, "Survey of wireless indoor positioning techniques and systems," IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. C: Appl. Rev. 37, 1067-1080 (2007).
  2. K. Pahlavan, X. Li, J. Makela, "Indoor geolocation science and technology," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 112-118 (2002).
  3. J. R. Barry, J. M. Kahn, E. A. Lee, D. G. Messerschmitt, "High speed nondirective optical communication for wireless networks ," IEEE Netw. Mag. 5, 44-54 (1991).
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  17. Y. Kim, J. Hwang, J. Lee, M. Yoo, "Position estimation algorithm based on tracking of received light intensity for indoor visible light communication systems," Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Ubiquitous Future Netw. (2011 ) pp. 131-134.
  18. S.-Y. Jung, S. Hann, S. Park, C.-S. Park, "Optical wireless indoor positioning system using light emitting diode ceiling lights ," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 54, 1622-1626 (2012).
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  22. L. Giugno, M. Luise, " Optimum pulse shaping for delay estimation in satellite positioning," Proc. 13th Eur. Signal Process. Conf. (2005) pp. 760-765.
  23. F. Antreich, J. A. Nossek, "Optimum chip pulse shape design for timing synchronization," Proc. Int. Conf. Acoust., Speech Signal Process. (2011) pp. 3524-3527 .
  24. S. C. White, N. C. Beaulieu, "On the application of the Cramer–Rao and detection theory bounds to mean square error of symbol timing recovery," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1635-1643 (1992 ).
  25. M. Moeneclaey, "On the true and the modified Cramer–Rao bounds for the estimation of a scalar parameter in the presence of nuisance parameters," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 1536-1544 (1998).

2013 (1)

H.-S. Kim, D.-R. Kim, S.-H. Yang, Y.-H. Son, S.-K Han, "An indoor visible light communication positioning system using a RF carrier allocation technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 134- 144 (2013).

2012 (5)

K. Panta, J. Armstrong, "Indoor localization using white LEDs," Electron. Lett. 48, 228-230 (2012).

S.-Y. Jung, S. Hann, S. Park, C.-S. Park, "Optical wireless indoor positioning system using light emitting diode ceiling lights ," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 54, 1622-1626 (2012).

J. Armstrong, R. J. Green, M. D. Higgins, "Comparison of three receiver designs for optical wireless communications using white LEDs," IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 748-751 (2012).

X. Li, J. Vucic, V. Jungnickel, J. Armstrong, "On the capacity of intensity-modulated direct-detection systems and the information rate of ACO-OFDM for indoor optical wireless applications," IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 799-809 (2012).

Z. Zhou, M. Kavehrad, P. Deng, "Indoor positioning algorithm using light-emitting diode visible light communications," J. Opt. Eng. 51, (2012).

2011 (1)

S.-Y. Jung, S. Hann, C.-S Park, "TDOA-based optical wireless indoor localization using LED ceiling lamps," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 1592-1597 (2011).

2009 (1)

L. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, E. T. Won, "High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654-1662 (2009).

2008 (1)

J. Grubor, S. Randel, K. D. Langer, J. W. Waleski, "Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting ," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3883-3892 (2008).

2007 (1)

H. Liu, H. Darabi, P. Banerjee, J. Liu, "Survey of wireless indoor positioning techniques and systems," IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. C: Appl. Rev. 37, 1067-1080 (2007).

2004 (1)

T. Komine, M. Nakagawa, "Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 50, 100-107 (2004).

2002 (1)

K. Pahlavan, X. Li, J. Makela, "Indoor geolocation science and technology," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 112-118 (2002).

1998 (1)

M. Moeneclaey, "On the true and the modified Cramer–Rao bounds for the estimation of a scalar parameter in the presence of nuisance parameters," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 1536-1544 (1998).

1997 (1)

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85 , 265-298 (1997).

1992 ()

S. C. White, N. C. Beaulieu, "On the application of the Cramer–Rao and detection theory bounds to mean square error of symbol timing recovery," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1635-1643 (1992 ).

1991 (1)

J. R. Barry, J. M. Kahn, E. A. Lee, D. G. Messerschmitt, "High speed nondirective optical communication for wireless networks ," IEEE Netw. Mag. 5, 44-54 (1991).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

H.-S. Kim, D.-R. Kim, S.-H. Yang, Y.-H. Son, S.-K Han, "An indoor visible light communication positioning system using a RF carrier allocation technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 134- 144 (2013).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Panta, J. Armstrong, "Indoor localization using white LEDs," Electron. Lett. 48, 228-230 (2012).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

J. Armstrong, R. J. Green, M. D. Higgins, "Comparison of three receiver designs for optical wireless communications using white LEDs," IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 748-751 (2012).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

K. Pahlavan, X. Li, J. Makela, "Indoor geolocation science and technology," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 112-118 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

L. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, E. T. Won, "High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white LED lighting," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654-1662 (2009).

IEEE Netw. Mag. (1)

J. R. Barry, J. M. Kahn, E. A. Lee, D. G. Messerschmitt, "High speed nondirective optical communication for wireless networks ," IEEE Netw. Mag. 5, 44-54 (1991).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

X. Li, J. Vucic, V. Jungnickel, J. Armstrong, "On the capacity of intensity-modulated direct-detection systems and the information rate of ACO-OFDM for indoor optical wireless applications," IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 799-809 (2012).

S. C. White, N. C. Beaulieu, "On the application of the Cramer–Rao and detection theory bounds to mean square error of symbol timing recovery," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1635-1643 (1992 ).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

M. Moeneclaey, "On the true and the modified Cramer–Rao bounds for the estimation of a scalar parameter in the presence of nuisance parameters," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 1536-1544 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (2)

S.-Y. Jung, S. Hann, C.-S Park, "TDOA-based optical wireless indoor localization using LED ceiling lamps," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57, 1592-1597 (2011).

T. Komine, M. Nakagawa, "Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 50, 100-107 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. C: Appl. Rev. (1)

H. Liu, H. Darabi, P. Banerjee, J. Liu, "Survey of wireless indoor positioning techniques and systems," IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. C: Appl. Rev. 37, 1067-1080 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. Grubor, S. Randel, K. D. Langer, J. W. Waleski, "Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting ," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3883-3892 (2008).

J. Opt. Eng. (1)

Z. Zhou, M. Kavehrad, P. Deng, "Indoor positioning algorithm using light-emitting diode visible light communications," J. Opt. Eng. 51, (2012).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

S.-Y. Jung, S. Hann, S. Park, C.-S. Park, "Optical wireless indoor positioning system using light emitting diode ceiling lights ," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 54, 1622-1626 (2012).

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85 , 265-298 (1997).

Other (9)

S. Hranilovic, Wireless Optical Communication Systems (Springer, 2004).

Y. Kim, J. Hwang, J. Lee, M. Yoo, "Position estimation algorithm based on tracking of received light intensity for indoor visible light communication systems," Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Ubiquitous Future Netw. (2011 ) pp. 131-134.

T. Q. Wang, Y. A. Sekercioglu, J. Armstrong, "Hemispherical lens based imaging receiver for MIMO optical wireless communications," Proc. IEEE Globecom Workshops (2012) pp. 1239-1243.

M. Rahaim, G. B. Prince, T. D. C. Little, "State estimation and motion tracking for spatially diverse VLC networks," Proc. IEEE Globecom Workshops (2012) pp. 1249-1253.

H. L. Van Trees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory (Wiley , 1968).

R. N. McDonough, A. D. Whalen, Detection of Signals in Noise (Academic, 1995).

C. W. Helstrom, Statistical Theory of Signal Detection (Pergamon, 1975).

L. Giugno, M. Luise, " Optimum pulse shaping for delay estimation in satellite positioning," Proc. 13th Eur. Signal Process. Conf. (2005) pp. 760-765.

F. Antreich, J. A. Nossek, "Optimum chip pulse shape design for timing synchronization," Proc. Int. Conf. Acoust., Speech Signal Process. (2011) pp. 3524-3527 .

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