In a many-to-many session, a participant distributes and receives traffic flows to/from all others in the same session. It is desirable to achieve both high resource utilization and low power consumption when such sessions are provisioned. In wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical networks, traffic grooming has been widely applied as the key technology for aggregating sessions to improve resource utilization. However, the current many-to-many grooming approaches, the lightpath circle and hubbed light-tree, do not make an effort to reduce the power consumption of many-to-many sessions. In this paper, we formulate the green routing and aggregation of many-to-many sessions problem and prove its NP-completeness. For problem solving in WDM optical networks, we apply a rational combined method of lightpaths. Both an integer linear programming-based approach and a novel graph-based heuristic are devised. We further provide an illustrative comparison between our heuristic and the existing benchmarks in terms of power consumption. Extensive simulation results demonstrate that, compared with the benchmarks, our heuristic improves the average power efficiency in the range of 13–19%.
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