Abstract

Evanescent field interactions can be used to provide a variety of sensing modalities in optical fibers with a modified cladding. However, the evanescent field interaction with the surrounding environment is strongly dependent on the refractive index of the modified cladding region. This can lead to difficulties due to dispersion in the refractive index, particularly in fluorescence based sensors where the excitation and emission wavelengths are separated. Here, a broadband supercontinuum light source has been used to characterize the refractive index dependence of the sensor response over a wide wavelength range. The critical effect of the cladding refractive index on the performance of an optical fiber evanescent wave sensor is demonstrated for both amplitude and wavelength modulated situations. In principle, this approach can be used to predict the performance of the sensor over the full wavelength range of the broadband source. The results also suggest that residues from the original cladding of the fiber cause an intrinsic loss, which reduces the sensitivity at low levels of extrinsic absorption. The integrity of the interface between the core and the modified cladding is therefore an important parameter to be addressed in practical sensing applications.

© 2013 IEEE

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  4. E. A. Mendoza, D. Robinson, R. A. Lieberman, "Miniaturized integrated optic chemical sensors for environmental monitoring and remediation," Proc. SPIE 2836, 76-87 (1996).
  5. S. R. Cordero, M. Beshay, A. Low, H. Mukamal, D. Ruiz, R. A. Lieberman, "A distributed fiber optic chemical sensor for hydrogen cyanide detection," Proc. SPIE 5993, 599302 (2005).
  6. S. R. Cordero, H. Mukamal, A. Low, E. P. Locke, R. A. Lieberman, "A fiber optic sensor for nerve agent," Proc. SPIE 6378, 63780U-63783U (2006).
  7. H. Mukamal, S. R. Cordero, D. Ruiz, M. Beshay, R. A. Lieberman, " Distributed fiber optic chemical sensor for hydrogen sulfide and chlorine detection," Proc. SPIE 6004, 600406 (2005).
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  16. M. Janotta, A. Katzir, B. Mizaikoff, "Sol–gel-coated mid-infrared fiber-optic sensors," Appl. Spectros. 57, 823-828 (2003).
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  22. S. C. Warren-Smith, E. Sinchenko, P. R. Stoddart, T. M. Monro, "Distributed fluorescence sensing using exposed core microstructured optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22 , 1385-1387 (2010).
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2010 (2)

E. Sinchenko, W. E. K. Gibbs, C. E. Davis, P. R. Stoddart, "Characterization of time-resolved fluorescence response measurements for distributed optical-fiber sensing," Appl. Opt. 49, 6385-6390 (2010).

S. C. Warren-Smith, E. Sinchenko, P. R. Stoddart, T. M. Monro, "Distributed fluorescence sensing using exposed core microstructured optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22 , 1385-1387 (2010).

2006 (2)

S. R. Cordero, H. Mukamal, A. Low, E. P. Locke, R. A. Lieberman, "A fiber optic sensor for nerve agent," Proc. SPIE 6378, 63780U-63783U (2006).

S. R. Cordero, H. Mukamal, A. Low, M. Beshay, D. Ruiz, R. A. Lieberman, "Fiber optic sensor coatings with enhanced sensitivity and longevity," Proc. SPIE 6377, 63770C (2006).

2005 (5)

S. R. Cordero, M. Beshay, A. Low, H. Mukamal, D. Ruiz, R. A. Lieberman, "A distributed fiber optic chemical sensor for hydrogen cyanide detection," Proc. SPIE 5993, 599302 (2005).

H. Mukamal, S. R. Cordero, D. Ruiz, M. Beshay, R. A. Lieberman, " Distributed fiber optic chemical sensor for hydrogen sulfide and chlorine detection," Proc. SPIE 6004, 600406 (2005).

L. Bansal, M. El-Sherif, "Intrinsic optical-fiber sensor for nerve agent sensing," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 648-655 (2005).

I. Z. Kozma, P. Krok, E. Riedle, "Direct measurement of the group-velocity mismatch and derivation of the refractive-index dispersion for a variety of solvents in the ultraviolet ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1479-1485 (2005).

P. R. Stoddart, P. J. Cadusch, J. B. Pearce, D. Vukovic, C. R. Nagarajah, D. J. Booth, "Fibre optic distributed temperature sensor with an integrated background correction function," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1299- 1304 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. Ghandehari, C. S. Vimer, "In situ monitoring of pH level with fiber optic evanescent field spectroscopy," NDT and E Int. 37, 611-616 (2004).

2003 (2)

J. Yuan, M. A. El-Sherif, "Fiber-optic chemical sensor using polyaniline as modified cladding material," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 5-12 (2003).

M. Janotta, A. Katzir, B. Mizaikoff, "Sol–gel-coated mid-infrared fiber-optic sensors," Appl. Spectros. 57, 823-828 (2003).

1998 (2)

R. A. Potyrailo, G. M. Hieftje, "Optical time-of-flight chemical detection: Spatially resolved analyte mapping with extended-length continuous chemically modified optical fibers," Anal. Chem. 70 , 1453-1461 (1998).

R. A. Potyrailo, S. E. Hobbs, G. M. Hieftje, "Optical waveguide sensors in analytical chemistry: Today's instrumentation, applications and trends for future development ," Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 362, 349 -373 (1998).

1997 (1)

P. A. Wallace, M. Campbell, Y. Yang, A. S. Holmes-Smith, M. Uttamlal, "A distributed optical fibre fluorosensor for pH measurement," J. Lumin. 72–74, 1017-1019 (1997).

1996 (3)

C. A. Browne, D. H. Tarrant, M. S. Olteanu, J. W. Mullens, E. L. Chronister, "Intrinsic sol–gel clad fiber-optic sensors with time-resolved detection," Anal. Chem. 68, 2289-2295 (1996).

M. Shortreed, R. Kopelman, M. Kuhn, B. Hoyland, "Fluorescent fiber-optic calcium sensor for physiological measurements ," Anal. Chem. 68, 1414-1418 (1996).

E. A. Mendoza, D. Robinson, R. A. Lieberman, "Miniaturized integrated optic chemical sensors for environmental monitoring and remediation," Proc. SPIE 2836, 76-87 (1996).

1995 (1)

E. A. Mendoza, A. N. Khalil, Z. Sun, D. Robinson, S. J. Syracuse, C. O. Egalon, M. F. Gunther, R. A. Lieberman, "Embeddable distributed moisture and pH sensors for nondestructive inspection of aircraft lap joints ," Proc. SPIE 2455, 102-112 (1995).

1993 (1)

B. D. MacCraith, "Enhanced evanescent wave sensors based on sol–gel-derived porous glass coating," Sens. Actuators B Chem. 11, 29-34 (1993).

1989 (1)

L. L. Blyler, Jr.R. A. Lieberman, L. G. Cohen, J. A. Ferrara, J. B. Macchesney, "Optical fiber chemical sensors utilizing dye-doped silicone polymer claddings ," Polymer. Eng. Sci. 29, 1215-1218 (1989).

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Mukamal, S. R. Cordero, D. Ruiz, M. Beshay, R. A. Lieberman, " Distributed fiber optic chemical sensor for hydrogen sulfide and chlorine detection," Proc. SPIE 6004, 600406 (2005).

Anal. Chem. (3)

C. A. Browne, D. H. Tarrant, M. S. Olteanu, J. W. Mullens, E. L. Chronister, "Intrinsic sol–gel clad fiber-optic sensors with time-resolved detection," Anal. Chem. 68, 2289-2295 (1996).

M. Shortreed, R. Kopelman, M. Kuhn, B. Hoyland, "Fluorescent fiber-optic calcium sensor for physiological measurements ," Anal. Chem. 68, 1414-1418 (1996).

R. A. Potyrailo, G. M. Hieftje, "Optical time-of-flight chemical detection: Spatially resolved analyte mapping with extended-length continuous chemically modified optical fibers," Anal. Chem. 70 , 1453-1461 (1998).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Spectros. (1)

M. Janotta, A. Katzir, B. Mizaikoff, "Sol–gel-coated mid-infrared fiber-optic sensors," Appl. Spectros. 57, 823-828 (2003).

Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. (1)

R. A. Potyrailo, S. E. Hobbs, G. M. Hieftje, "Optical waveguide sensors in analytical chemistry: Today's instrumentation, applications and trends for future development ," Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 362, 349 -373 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. C. Warren-Smith, E. Sinchenko, P. R. Stoddart, T. M. Monro, "Distributed fluorescence sensing using exposed core microstructured optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22 , 1385-1387 (2010).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

L. Bansal, M. El-Sherif, "Intrinsic optical-fiber sensor for nerve agent sensing," IEEE Sens. J. 5, 648-655 (2005).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

J. Yuan, M. A. El-Sherif, "Fiber-optic chemical sensor using polyaniline as modified cladding material," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 5-12 (2003).

J. Lumin. (1)

P. A. Wallace, M. Campbell, Y. Yang, A. S. Holmes-Smith, M. Uttamlal, "A distributed optical fibre fluorosensor for pH measurement," J. Lumin. 72–74, 1017-1019 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

I. Z. Kozma, P. Krok, E. Riedle, "Direct measurement of the group-velocity mismatch and derivation of the refractive-index dispersion for a variety of solvents in the ultraviolet ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1479-1485 (2005).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. R. Stoddart, P. J. Cadusch, J. B. Pearce, D. Vukovic, C. R. Nagarajah, D. J. Booth, "Fibre optic distributed temperature sensor with an integrated background correction function," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1299- 1304 (2005).

NDT and E Int. (1)

M. Ghandehari, C. S. Vimer, "In situ monitoring of pH level with fiber optic evanescent field spectroscopy," NDT and E Int. 37, 611-616 (2004).

Polymer. Eng. Sci. (1)

L. L. Blyler, Jr.R. A. Lieberman, L. G. Cohen, J. A. Ferrara, J. B. Macchesney, "Optical fiber chemical sensors utilizing dye-doped silicone polymer claddings ," Polymer. Eng. Sci. 29, 1215-1218 (1989).

Proc. SPIE (5)

E. A. Mendoza, A. N. Khalil, Z. Sun, D. Robinson, S. J. Syracuse, C. O. Egalon, M. F. Gunther, R. A. Lieberman, "Embeddable distributed moisture and pH sensors for nondestructive inspection of aircraft lap joints ," Proc. SPIE 2455, 102-112 (1995).

E. A. Mendoza, D. Robinson, R. A. Lieberman, "Miniaturized integrated optic chemical sensors for environmental monitoring and remediation," Proc. SPIE 2836, 76-87 (1996).

S. R. Cordero, M. Beshay, A. Low, H. Mukamal, D. Ruiz, R. A. Lieberman, "A distributed fiber optic chemical sensor for hydrogen cyanide detection," Proc. SPIE 5993, 599302 (2005).

S. R. Cordero, H. Mukamal, A. Low, E. P. Locke, R. A. Lieberman, "A fiber optic sensor for nerve agent," Proc. SPIE 6378, 63780U-63783U (2006).

S. R. Cordero, H. Mukamal, A. Low, M. Beshay, D. Ruiz, R. A. Lieberman, "Fiber optic sensor coatings with enhanced sensitivity and longevity," Proc. SPIE 6377, 63770C (2006).

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

B. D. MacCraith, "Enhanced evanescent wave sensors based on sol–gel-derived porous glass coating," Sens. Actuators B Chem. 11, 29-34 (1993).

Struct. Health Monit. (1)

G. McAdam, P. J. Newman, I. McKenzie, C. Davis, B. R. W. Hinton, "Fiber optic sensors for detection of corrosion within Aircraft," Struct. Health Monit. 4, 47-56 (2005 ).

Other (3)

W. Grahn, P. Makedonski, J. Wichern, W. Kowalsky, S. Wiese, " Fiber optic sensors for an in-situ monitoring of moisture and pH value in reinforced concrete," Proc. SPIE (2002) pp. 395 -404.

Kaye and Laby. (2005). Tables of physical & chemical constants (16th edition 1995). 2.5.8 refractive index of optical materials. Kaye & Laby [Online]. Available: www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk.

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983, Ch. 6) pp. 126.

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