Abstract

An optical signal suffers from irradiance and phase fluctuations when propagating through the free space optical (FSO) turbulence channel, thus resulting in the degradation of the bit error rate (BER) performance. The BER performance can be improved by adopting the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scheme. In this paper, we propose a coherent binary polarization shift keying (BPOLSK) modulation scheme with MIMO employing maximum ratio combining and equal gain combining diversity techniques to mitigate the turbulence effect. The gamma–gamma statistical channel model is adopted for all the turbulence regimes. The BER performance for the proposed BPOLSK-MIMO FSO link is compared with the single-input single-output and ON–OFF-keying systems by means of computer simulation. The optical power gain is investigated and demonstrated under different turbulence regimes for a number of transmitters/receivers.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. E. Bayaki, R. Schober, R. K. Mallik, "Performance analysis of MIMO free-space optical systems in gamma-gamma fading," IEEE Trans. Commun. 57 , 3415-3424 (2009).
  2. T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, M. Uysal, "Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8 , 951-957 (2009).
  3. K. P. Peppas, "A simple, accurate approximation to the sum of gamma–gamma variates and applications in MIMO free-space optical systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 839-841 (2011).
  4. H. E. Nistazakis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. S. Tombras, "Performance analysis of free-space optical communication systems over atmospheric turbulence channels," J. IET Commun. 3, 1402-1409 (2009).
  5. V. W. S. Chan, "Free-space optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4750- 4762 (2006).
  6. L. C. Andrews, R. L. Philips, C. Y. Hopen, Laser beam scintillation with applications ( SPIE, 2001).
  7. N. D. Chatzidiamantis, G. K. Karagiannidis, M. Uysal, "Generalized maximum-likelihood sequence detection for photon-counting free space optical systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 58, 3381-3385 (2010).
  8. S. M. Aghajanzadeh, M. Uysal, "Diversity-multiplexing trade-off in coherent free-space optical systems with multiple receivers ," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, 1087-1094 (2010).
  9. E. J. Lee, V. W. S. Chan, "Part 1: Optical communication over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity ," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1896-1906 (2004).
  10. S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, M. Baedke, "Optical repetition MIMO transmission with multipulse PPM," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1901-1910 (2005).
  11. S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. H. Leveque-III, "Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402 -1412 (2005).
  12. S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, M. Kavehrad, "BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6, 2813-2819 (2007).
  13. A. O. Aladeloba, A. J. Phillips, M. S. Woolfson, "Improved bit error rate evaluation for optically pre-amplified free-space optical communication systems in turbulent atmosphere ," IET Optoelectronics 6, 26-33 (2012).
  14. X. Tang, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, C. G. Lee, " Coherent optical binary polarisation shift keying heterodyne system in the free-space optical turbulence channel ," IET Microwaves, Antennas Propag. 5, 1031-1038 (2011).
  15. X. Zhao, Y. Yao, Y. Sun, C. Liu, "Circle polarization shift keying with direct detection for free-space optical communication," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, 307-312 (2009 ).
  16. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Transceiver architecture for incoherent optical CDMA network based on polarization modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3820-3828 (2008).
  17. X. Tang, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, C. G. Lee, " Coherent polarization shift keying modulated free space optical links over a gamma-gamma turbulence channel ," Am. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 4, 520-530 (2012).
  18. N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Yu, Y.-K. Huang, T. Wang, "Polarization multiplexed optical wireless transmission with coherent detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1218-1227 (2010).
  19. T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, N. C. Sagias, "Multihop free-space optical communications over strong turbulence channels," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (2006) pp. 2755-2759.
  20. I. S. Gradshteyn, I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products (Academic, 2000).
  21. J. W. Goodman, Statistical optics (Wiley, 1985).
  22. G. D. Xie, F. X. Wang, A. Dang, H. Guo, "A novel polarization-multiplexing system for free-space optical links ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1484-1486 (2011).
  23. K. Kikuchi, Coherent optical communication systems (Elsevier, 2008).
  24. S. Betti, G. D. Marchis, E. Iannone, Coherent optical communications systems (Wiley , 1995).
  25. X. Tang, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, C. G. Lee, " Coherent heterodyne multilevel polarization shift keying with spatial diversity in a free-space optical turbulence channel," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2689 -2695 (2012).
  26. V. S. Adamchik, O. I. Marichev, "The algorithm for calculating integrals of hypergeometric type functions and its realization in REDUCE system," Proc. Int. Conf. Symbolic Algebraic (1990) pp. 212-224.
  27. W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, "BPSK subcarrier intensity modulated free-space optical communications in atmospheric turbulence ," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 967-973 (2009).
  28. N. D. Chatzidiamantis, G. K. Karagiannidis, "On the distribution of the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates and applications in RF and optical wireless communications," IEEE Trans. Commun. 59, 1298-1308 (2011).

2012 (3)

A. O. Aladeloba, A. J. Phillips, M. S. Woolfson, "Improved bit error rate evaluation for optically pre-amplified free-space optical communication systems in turbulent atmosphere ," IET Optoelectronics 6, 26-33 (2012).

X. Tang, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, C. G. Lee, " Coherent polarization shift keying modulated free space optical links over a gamma-gamma turbulence channel ," Am. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 4, 520-530 (2012).

X. Tang, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, C. G. Lee, " Coherent heterodyne multilevel polarization shift keying with spatial diversity in a free-space optical turbulence channel," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2689 -2695 (2012).

2011 (4)

N. D. Chatzidiamantis, G. K. Karagiannidis, "On the distribution of the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates and applications in RF and optical wireless communications," IEEE Trans. Commun. 59, 1298-1308 (2011).

G. D. Xie, F. X. Wang, A. Dang, H. Guo, "A novel polarization-multiplexing system for free-space optical links ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1484-1486 (2011).

X. Tang, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, C. G. Lee, " Coherent optical binary polarisation shift keying heterodyne system in the free-space optical turbulence channel ," IET Microwaves, Antennas Propag. 5, 1031-1038 (2011).

K. P. Peppas, "A simple, accurate approximation to the sum of gamma–gamma variates and applications in MIMO free-space optical systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 839-841 (2011).

2010 (3)

N. D. Chatzidiamantis, G. K. Karagiannidis, M. Uysal, "Generalized maximum-likelihood sequence detection for photon-counting free space optical systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 58, 3381-3385 (2010).

S. M. Aghajanzadeh, M. Uysal, "Diversity-multiplexing trade-off in coherent free-space optical systems with multiple receivers ," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, 1087-1094 (2010).

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Yu, Y.-K. Huang, T. Wang, "Polarization multiplexed optical wireless transmission with coherent detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1218-1227 (2010).

2009 (4)

X. Zhao, Y. Yao, Y. Sun, C. Liu, "Circle polarization shift keying with direct detection for free-space optical communication," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, 307-312 (2009 ).

2009 (4)

H. E. Nistazakis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. S. Tombras, "Performance analysis of free-space optical communication systems over atmospheric turbulence channels," J. IET Commun. 3, 1402-1409 (2009).

E. Bayaki, R. Schober, R. K. Mallik, "Performance analysis of MIMO free-space optical systems in gamma-gamma fading," IEEE Trans. Commun. 57 , 3415-3424 (2009).

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, M. Uysal, "Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8 , 951-957 (2009).

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, "BPSK subcarrier intensity modulated free-space optical communications in atmospheric turbulence ," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 967-973 (2009).

2008 (1)

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Transceiver architecture for incoherent optical CDMA network based on polarization modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3820-3828 (2008).

2007 (1)

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, M. Kavehrad, "BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6, 2813-2819 (2007).

2006 (1)

V. W. S. Chan, "Free-space optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4750- 4762 (2006).

2005 (2)

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, M. Baedke, "Optical repetition MIMO transmission with multipulse PPM," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1901-1910 (2005).

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. H. Leveque-III, "Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402 -1412 (2005).

2004 (1)

E. J. Lee, V. W. S. Chan, "Part 1: Optical communication over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity ," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1896-1906 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

N. D. Chatzidiamantis, G. K. Karagiannidis, M. Uysal, "Generalized maximum-likelihood sequence detection for photon-counting free space optical systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 58, 3381-3385 (2010).

Am. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. (1)

X. Tang, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, C. G. Lee, " Coherent polarization shift keying modulated free space optical links over a gamma-gamma turbulence channel ," Am. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 4, 520-530 (2012).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

E. J. Lee, V. W. S. Chan, "Part 1: Optical communication over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity ," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1896-1906 (2004).

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, M. Baedke, "Optical repetition MIMO transmission with multipulse PPM," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1901-1910 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. P. Peppas, "A simple, accurate approximation to the sum of gamma–gamma variates and applications in MIMO free-space optical systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 839-841 (2011).

G. D. Xie, F. X. Wang, A. Dang, H. Guo, "A novel polarization-multiplexing system for free-space optical links ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1484-1486 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (3)

N. D. Chatzidiamantis, G. K. Karagiannidis, "On the distribution of the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates and applications in RF and optical wireless communications," IEEE Trans. Commun. 59, 1298-1308 (2011).

E. Bayaki, R. Schober, R. K. Mallik, "Performance analysis of MIMO free-space optical systems in gamma-gamma fading," IEEE Trans. Commun. 57 , 3415-3424 (2009).

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. H. Leveque-III, "Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402 -1412 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (2)

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, M. Kavehrad, "BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6, 2813-2819 (2007).

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, M. Uysal, "Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8 , 951-957 (2009).

IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

S. M. Aghajanzadeh, M. Uysal, "Diversity-multiplexing trade-off in coherent free-space optical systems with multiple receivers ," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, 1087-1094 (2010).

X. Zhao, Y. Yao, Y. Sun, C. Liu, "Circle polarization shift keying with direct detection for free-space optical communication," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, 307-312 (2009 ).

IET Microwaves, Antennas Propag. (1)

X. Tang, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, C. G. Lee, " Coherent optical binary polarisation shift keying heterodyne system in the free-space optical turbulence channel ," IET Microwaves, Antennas Propag. 5, 1031-1038 (2011).

IET Optoelectronics (1)

A. O. Aladeloba, A. J. Phillips, M. S. Woolfson, "Improved bit error rate evaluation for optically pre-amplified free-space optical communication systems in turbulent atmosphere ," IET Optoelectronics 6, 26-33 (2012).

J. IET Commun. (1)

H. E. Nistazakis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. S. Tombras, "Performance analysis of free-space optical communication systems over atmospheric turbulence channels," J. IET Commun. 3, 1402-1409 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

V. W. S. Chan, "Free-space optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4750- 4762 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Yu, Y.-K. Huang, T. Wang, "Polarization multiplexed optical wireless transmission with coherent detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1218-1227 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, "BPSK subcarrier intensity modulated free-space optical communications in atmospheric turbulence ," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 967-973 (2009).

X. Tang, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, C. G. Lee, " Coherent heterodyne multilevel polarization shift keying with spatial diversity in a free-space optical turbulence channel," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2689 -2695 (2012).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Transceiver architecture for incoherent optical CDMA network based on polarization modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3820-3828 (2008).

Other (7)

K. Kikuchi, Coherent optical communication systems (Elsevier, 2008).

S. Betti, G. D. Marchis, E. Iannone, Coherent optical communications systems (Wiley , 1995).

V. S. Adamchik, O. I. Marichev, "The algorithm for calculating integrals of hypergeometric type functions and its realization in REDUCE system," Proc. Int. Conf. Symbolic Algebraic (1990) pp. 212-224.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, N. C. Sagias, "Multihop free-space optical communications over strong turbulence channels," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (2006) pp. 2755-2759.

I. S. Gradshteyn, I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products (Academic, 2000).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical optics (Wiley, 1985).

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Philips, C. Y. Hopen, Laser beam scintillation with applications ( SPIE, 2001).

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