Abstract

Multimode interference devices are very versatile components that are often used as components for power splitting or combining in larger circuits. In this paper, we present a new class of multimode interference couplers that are designed to reflect all or part of the light. The components can act as on-chip mirrors with partial out-coupling, or they can act as compact mirrors with full reflection. We present an overview of such devices, the basic theory and practical design guidelines. Their simple layout makes these devices easy to fabricate and tolerant to fabrication errors. We fabricated devices of several types and present the experimental results.

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  1. M. Ettenberg. (1978). A new dielectric facet reflector for semiconductor lasers. Appl. Phys. Lett. [Online]. 32(11) , pp. 724–725. Available: http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/32/724/1.
  2. B. Docter, E. Geluk, M. Sander-Jochem, F. Karouta, M. Smit, "Deep etched DBR gratings in InP for photonic integrated circuits," Proc. IEEE 19th Int. Conf. Indium Phosphide Related Mater. (2007) pp. 226-228.
  3. Y. Huang, Y. Xiao, G. Xu, S. Chang, Y.-G. Zhao, R. Wang, B. Ooi, S. Ho, "A single-directional microcavity laser with microloop mirrors and widened medium realized with quantum-well intermixing ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 130-132 (2006).
  4. B. Docter, J. Pozo, S. Beri, I. Ermakov, J. Danckaert, M. Smit, F. Karouta, "Discretely tunable laser based on filtered feedback for telecommunication applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1405-1412 (2010).
  5. K. Kasunic, "Design equations for the reflectivity of deep-etch distributed Bragg reflector gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 18 , 425-429 (2000).
  6. T. Kleckner, D. Modotto, A. Locatelli, J. Mondia, S. Linden, R. Morandotti, C. De Angelis, C. Stanley, H. van Driel, J. Aitchison, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of deep-etched waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3832-3842 (2005).
  7. Y. Ikuma, M. Yasumoto, D. Miyamoto, J. Ito, H. Tsuda, " Small helical reflective arrayed-waveguide grating with integrated loop mirrors," Proc. 33rd Eur. Conf. Ehxibit. Opt. Commun. (2007) pp. 1-2.
  8. L. Xu, X. Leijtens, P. Urban, E. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, Y. Oei, R. Nötzel, H. de Waardt, M. Smit, "Novel reflective SOA with MMI-loop mirror based on semi-insulating InP," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Symp. (Benelux Chapter) (2008) pp. 43-46.
  9. W. Yuan, C. Seibert, D. Hall, "Single-facet teardrop laser with matched-bends design," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17 , 1662-1669 (2011).
  10. L. Xu, X. Leijtens, B. Docter, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, F. Karouta, M. Smit, "MMI-reflector: A novel on-chip reflector for photonic integrated circuits ," Proc. 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2009 ) pp. 1-2.
  11. J. Zhao, E. Kleijn, M. Smit, P. Williams, I. Knight, M. Wale, X. Leijtens, "Novel lasers using multimode interference reflector," Proc. Inf. Photon. ICO Int. Conf. (2011) pp. 1 -2.
  12. J. Zhao, E. Kleijn, P. Williams, M. Smit, X. Leijtens, "On-chip laser with multimode interference reflectors realized in a generic integration platform ," Proc. Compound Semicond. Week (CSW/IPRM), 23rd Int. Conf. Indium Phosphide Related Mater. (2011) pp. 1-4 .
  13. P. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. Soldano, M. Smit, " Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1004- 1009 (1994).
  14. L. Soldano, E. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
  15. M. Bachmann, P. Besse, H. Melchior, "General self-imaging properties in N × N multimode interference couplers including phase relations," Appl. Opt. 33, 3905-3911 (1994).
  16. M. Bachmann, P. Besse, H. Melchior, "Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting ," Appl. Opt. 34, 6898-6910 (1995).
  17. P.-A. Besse, J.-S. Gu, H. Melchior, "Reflectivity minimization of semiconductor laser amplifiers with coated and angled facets considering two-dimensional beam profiles ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1830-1836 (1991).
  18. J. Leuthold, R. Hess, J. Eckner, P. Besse, H. Melchior, "Spatial mode filters realized with multimode interference couplers," Opt. Lett. 21, 836-838 (1996).
  19. P. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, "New 2×2 and 1×3 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios," J. Lightwave Technol. 14 , 2286-2293 (1996).
  20. R. M. A. Azzam, "Phase shifts that accompany total internal reflection at a dielectric–dielectric interface," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 21, 1559-1563 (2004).
  21. Phoenix Software B.V., Enschede, The Netherlands. (2012). “FieldDesigner and OptoDesigner,” [Online]. Available: http://www.phoenixbv.com.
  22. R. Hanfoug, L. Augustin, Y. Barbarin, J. van der Tol, E. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. Oei, X. Leijtens, M. Smit, "Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers," Electron. Lett. 42, 465-466 (2006).
  23. R. Walker, "Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguides," Electron. Lett. 21, 581-583 (1985).

2011 (1)

W. Yuan, C. Seibert, D. Hall, "Single-facet teardrop laser with matched-bends design," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17 , 1662-1669 (2011).

2010 (1)

B. Docter, J. Pozo, S. Beri, I. Ermakov, J. Danckaert, M. Smit, F. Karouta, "Discretely tunable laser based on filtered feedback for telecommunication applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1405-1412 (2010).

2006 (2)

Y. Huang, Y. Xiao, G. Xu, S. Chang, Y.-G. Zhao, R. Wang, B. Ooi, S. Ho, "A single-directional microcavity laser with microloop mirrors and widened medium realized with quantum-well intermixing ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 130-132 (2006).

R. Hanfoug, L. Augustin, Y. Barbarin, J. van der Tol, E. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. Oei, X. Leijtens, M. Smit, "Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers," Electron. Lett. 42, 465-466 (2006).

2005 (1)

T. Kleckner, D. Modotto, A. Locatelli, J. Mondia, S. Linden, R. Morandotti, C. De Angelis, C. Stanley, H. van Driel, J. Aitchison, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of deep-etched waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3832-3842 (2005).

2004 (1)

R. M. A. Azzam, "Phase shifts that accompany total internal reflection at a dielectric–dielectric interface," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 21, 1559-1563 (2004).

2000 (1)

K. Kasunic, "Design equations for the reflectivity of deep-etch distributed Bragg reflector gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 18 , 425-429 (2000).

1996 (2)

J. Leuthold, R. Hess, J. Eckner, P. Besse, H. Melchior, "Spatial mode filters realized with multimode interference couplers," Opt. Lett. 21, 836-838 (1996).

P. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, "New 2×2 and 1×3 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios," J. Lightwave Technol. 14 , 2286-2293 (1996).

1995 (2)

M. Bachmann, P. Besse, H. Melchior, "Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting ," Appl. Opt. 34, 6898-6910 (1995).

L. Soldano, E. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

1994 (2)

M. Bachmann, P. Besse, H. Melchior, "General self-imaging properties in N × N multimode interference couplers including phase relations," Appl. Opt. 33, 3905-3911 (1994).

P. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. Soldano, M. Smit, " Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1004- 1009 (1994).

1991 (1)

P.-A. Besse, J.-S. Gu, H. Melchior, "Reflectivity minimization of semiconductor laser amplifiers with coated and angled facets considering two-dimensional beam profiles ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1830-1836 (1991).

1985 (1)

R. Walker, "Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguides," Electron. Lett. 21, 581-583 (1985).

Appl. Opt. (1)

M. Bachmann, P. Besse, H. Melchior, "General self-imaging properties in N × N multimode interference couplers including phase relations," Appl. Opt. 33, 3905-3911 (1994).

Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Leuthold, R. Hess, J. Eckner, P. Besse, H. Melchior, "Spatial mode filters realized with multimode interference couplers," Opt. Lett. 21, 836-838 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. Hanfoug, L. Augustin, Y. Barbarin, J. van der Tol, E. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. Oei, X. Leijtens, M. Smit, "Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers," Electron. Lett. 42, 465-466 (2006).

R. Walker, "Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguides," Electron. Lett. 21, 581-583 (1985).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P.-A. Besse, J.-S. Gu, H. Melchior, "Reflectivity minimization of semiconductor laser amplifiers with coated and angled facets considering two-dimensional beam profiles ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1830-1836 (1991).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Yuan, C. Seibert, D. Hall, "Single-facet teardrop laser with matched-bends design," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17 , 1662-1669 (2011).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Docter, J. Pozo, S. Beri, I. Ermakov, J. Danckaert, M. Smit, F. Karouta, "Discretely tunable laser based on filtered feedback for telecommunication applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1405-1412 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Huang, Y. Xiao, G. Xu, S. Chang, Y.-G. Zhao, R. Wang, B. Ooi, S. Ho, "A single-directional microcavity laser with microloop mirrors and widened medium realized with quantum-well intermixing ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 130-132 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

P. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. Soldano, M. Smit, " Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1004- 1009 (1994).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

L. Soldano, E. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications ," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

K. Kasunic, "Design equations for the reflectivity of deep-etch distributed Bragg reflector gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 18 , 425-429 (2000).

T. Kleckner, D. Modotto, A. Locatelli, J. Mondia, S. Linden, R. Morandotti, C. De Angelis, C. Stanley, H. van Driel, J. Aitchison, "Design, fabrication, and characterization of deep-etched waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3832-3842 (2005).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

P. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, "New 2×2 and 1×3 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios," J. Lightwave Technol. 14 , 2286-2293 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

R. M. A. Azzam, "Phase shifts that accompany total internal reflection at a dielectric–dielectric interface," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 21, 1559-1563 (2004).

Other (8)

Phoenix Software B.V., Enschede, The Netherlands. (2012). “FieldDesigner and OptoDesigner,” [Online]. Available: http://www.phoenixbv.com.

M. Ettenberg. (1978). A new dielectric facet reflector for semiconductor lasers. Appl. Phys. Lett. [Online]. 32(11) , pp. 724–725. Available: http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/32/724/1.

B. Docter, E. Geluk, M. Sander-Jochem, F. Karouta, M. Smit, "Deep etched DBR gratings in InP for photonic integrated circuits," Proc. IEEE 19th Int. Conf. Indium Phosphide Related Mater. (2007) pp. 226-228.

Y. Ikuma, M. Yasumoto, D. Miyamoto, J. Ito, H. Tsuda, " Small helical reflective arrayed-waveguide grating with integrated loop mirrors," Proc. 33rd Eur. Conf. Ehxibit. Opt. Commun. (2007) pp. 1-2.

L. Xu, X. Leijtens, P. Urban, E. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, Y. Oei, R. Nötzel, H. de Waardt, M. Smit, "Novel reflective SOA with MMI-loop mirror based on semi-insulating InP," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Symp. (Benelux Chapter) (2008) pp. 43-46.

L. Xu, X. Leijtens, B. Docter, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, F. Karouta, M. Smit, "MMI-reflector: A novel on-chip reflector for photonic integrated circuits ," Proc. 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2009 ) pp. 1-2.

J. Zhao, E. Kleijn, M. Smit, P. Williams, I. Knight, M. Wale, X. Leijtens, "Novel lasers using multimode interference reflector," Proc. Inf. Photon. ICO Int. Conf. (2011) pp. 1 -2.

J. Zhao, E. Kleijn, P. Williams, M. Smit, X. Leijtens, "On-chip laser with multimode interference reflectors realized in a generic integration platform ," Proc. Compound Semicond. Week (CSW/IPRM), 23rd Int. Conf. Indium Phosphide Related Mater. (2011) pp. 1-4 .

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