Abstract

In this paper, we describe a technique to characterize long period fiber gratings (LPG) by use of a correlation between the measured transmission spectrum and a theoretical model. The model is robust enough to require only a-priori knowledge of the fiber design and the inscription period. We demonstrate the application of this technique on an example LPG resulting in the calculation of the dispersive core index, length, and strength of the grating to better than experimental error. The technique is further expanded to allow for the modeling of metal jacketed long period gratings by use of an extended version of Erdogan's model.

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996 ).
  2. S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
  3. T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Investigations of the spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in three-layered optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 264- 268 (2003).
  4. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings ," Opt. Exp. 14, 19-34 (2006).
  5. S. W. James, C. S. Cheung, R. P. Tatam, "Experimental observations on the response of 1 $^{\rm st}$ and 2 $^{\rm nd}$ order fibre optic long period grating coupling bands to the deposition of nanostructured coatings," Opt. Exp. 15, 13096-13107 (2007).
  6. D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, "Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458-1460 (1999).
  7. R. R. J. Maier, B. J. S. Jones, J. S. Barton, "Fibre optics in palladium-based hydrogen sensing," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9 , S45-S59 (2007).
  8. V. Bhatia, D. K. Campbell, D. Sherr, "Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period grating sensors for smart structures," Opt. Eng. 36, 1872-1876 (1997).
  9. K. Gao, J. X. Geng, A. B. Yu, "Characteristics of metal-coated long-period fiber gratings," Proc. SPIE—Opt. Fiber Planar Waveguide Technol. II (2002) pp. 166-170.
  10. L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, "Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensors ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1373-1378 (1999 ).
  11. R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, "Modeling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709-1713 (2001).
  12. T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, "A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702-1705 ( 2002).
  13. F. Abrishamian, N. Dragomir, K. Morishita, "Refractive index profile changes caused by arc discharge in long-period fiber gratings fabricated by a point-by-point method," Appl. Opt. 51, 8271-8276 (2012).
  14. O. V. Ivanov, "Reconstruction of parameters of an optical fiber from the transmission spectrum of long-period gratings induced in this fiber," Opt. Commun. 272, 395-402 (2007).
  15. A. Rosenthal, M. Horowitz, "Reconstruction of long-period fiber gratings from their core-to-core transmission function ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 23, 57-68 (2006).
  16. T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).
  17. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).
  18. T. Erdogan, "Cladding mode resonances in short- and long-period fibre grating filters: Errata," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 17, 2113 (2000).
  19. I. H. Malitson, "Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 1205-1208 (1965).
  20. (2011). Corning® SMF-28e+® Optical Fiber. Corning, Inc., Corning, NY, USA. [Product Datasheet]. [Online]. Available: http://www.corning.com/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=41261.
  21. C. Tsao, Optical Fibre Waveguide Analysis (Oxford Univ. Press, 1992) pp. 298-366.
  22. R. M. Carter, P. Morrall, R. R. J. Maier, "Optical characterisation of RF sputter coated palladium thin films for hydrogen sensing," SPIE 21st Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors presented at theOttowaONCanada (2011).

2012 (1)

2007 (3)

O. V. Ivanov, "Reconstruction of parameters of an optical fiber from the transmission spectrum of long-period gratings induced in this fiber," Opt. Commun. 272, 395-402 (2007).

S. W. James, C. S. Cheung, R. P. Tatam, "Experimental observations on the response of 1 $^{\rm st}$ and 2 $^{\rm nd}$ order fibre optic long period grating coupling bands to the deposition of nanostructured coatings," Opt. Exp. 15, 13096-13107 (2007).

R. R. J. Maier, B. J. S. Jones, J. S. Barton, "Fibre optics in palladium-based hydrogen sensing," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9 , S45-S59 (2007).

2006 (2)

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings ," Opt. Exp. 14, 19-34 (2006).

A. Rosenthal, M. Horowitz, "Reconstruction of long-period fiber gratings from their core-to-core transmission function ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 23, 57-68 (2006).

2003 (2)

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Investigations of the spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in three-layered optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 264- 268 (2003).

2001 (1)

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, "Modeling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709-1713 (2001).

2000 (1)

T. Erdogan, "Cladding mode resonances in short- and long-period fibre grating filters: Errata," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 17, 2113 (2000).

1999 (1)

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, "Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458-1460 (1999).

1997 (3)

V. Bhatia, D. K. Campbell, D. Sherr, "Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period grating sensors for smart structures," Opt. Eng. 36, 1872-1876 (1997).

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

1965 (1)

I. H. Malitson, "Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 1205-1208 (1965).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, "Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensors ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1373-1378 (1999 ).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. M. Costantini, C. A. P. Muller, S. A. Vasiliev, "Tunable loss filter based on metal-coated long-period fiber grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1458-1460 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Investigations of the spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in three-layered optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 264- 268 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996 ).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. R. J. Maier, B. J. S. Jones, J. S. Barton, "Fibre optics in palladium-based hydrogen sensing," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9 , S45-S59 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

I. H. Malitson, "Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 1205-1208 (1965).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (3)

T. Erdogan, "Cladding mode resonances in short- and long-period fibre grating filters: Errata," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 17, 2113 (2000).

A. Rosenthal, M. Horowitz, "Reconstruction of long-period fiber gratings from their core-to-core transmission function ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 23, 57-68 (2006).

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, "Modeling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709-1713 (2001).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).

Opt. Commun. (1)

O. V. Ivanov, "Reconstruction of parameters of an optical fiber from the transmission spectrum of long-period gratings induced in this fiber," Opt. Commun. 272, 395-402 (2007).

Opt. Eng. (1)

V. Bhatia, D. K. Campbell, D. Sherr, "Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period grating sensors for smart structures," Opt. Eng. 36, 1872-1876 (1997).

Opt. Exp. (2)

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings ," Opt. Exp. 14, 19-34 (2006).

S. W. James, C. S. Cheung, R. P. Tatam, "Experimental observations on the response of 1 $^{\rm st}$ and 2 $^{\rm nd}$ order fibre optic long period grating coupling bands to the deposition of nanostructured coatings," Opt. Exp. 15, 13096-13107 (2007).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, "A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702-1705 ( 2002).

Other (4)

K. Gao, J. X. Geng, A. B. Yu, "Characteristics of metal-coated long-period fiber gratings," Proc. SPIE—Opt. Fiber Planar Waveguide Technol. II (2002) pp. 166-170.

(2011). Corning® SMF-28e+® Optical Fiber. Corning, Inc., Corning, NY, USA. [Product Datasheet]. [Online]. Available: http://www.corning.com/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=41261.

C. Tsao, Optical Fibre Waveguide Analysis (Oxford Univ. Press, 1992) pp. 298-366.

R. M. Carter, P. Morrall, R. R. J. Maier, "Optical characterisation of RF sputter coated palladium thin films for hydrogen sensing," SPIE 21st Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors presented at theOttowaONCanada (2011).

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