S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Third
order nonlinear optical property of Bi
$_{2}$
Se
$_{3}$
," Opt. Exp. 21, 2072-2082 (2013).

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, D. Y. Fan, "Topological insulator: Bi
$_{2}$
Te
$_{3}$
saturable absorber for the passive
Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser," IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. Xiong, "Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer
topological insulator Bi
$_{2}$
Se
$_{3}$
nanoplatelets," Nano Lett. 11, 2407-2414 (2012).

C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Wavelength-tunable
picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi
$_{2}$
Se
$_{3}$
as a mode locker," Opt. Exp. 20, 27888-27895 (2012).

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Ultra-short
pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).

Z. T. Wang, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, "Switchable dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched erbium-doped
fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber," IEEE
Photon. J. 4, 869-876 (2012).

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y. W. Song, "Multilayered graphene efficiently formed
by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked
lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2012).

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, "Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the
passive mode-locking of fiber lasers," Appl.
Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2012).

D. S. Kong, Y. Cui, "Opportunities in chemistry and materials
science for topological insulators and their nanostructures," Nat. Chem. 3, 845-849 (2012).

J. W. Mclver, D. Hsieh, H. Steinberg, P. Jarillo-Herrero, N. Gedik, "Control over topological insulator photocurrents with light
polarization," Nat. Nanotech. 7, 96-100 (2012).

H. Tang, D. Liang, R. L. Qiu, X. P. Gao, "Two-dimensional transport-induced linear
magneto-resistance in topological insulator Bi
$_{2}$
Se
$_{3}$
nanoribbons," ACS Nano 5, 7510-7516 (2011).

D. A. Abanin, D. A. Pesin, "Ordering of magnetic impurities
and tunable electronic properties of topological insulators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 136802 (2011).

M. Z. Hossain, S. L. Rumyantsev, K. M. Shahil, D. Teweldebrhan, M. Shur, A. A. Balandin, "Low-frequency current fluctuations in Graphene-like
exfoliated thin-films of bismuth selenide topological insulators," ACS Nano 5, 2657-2663 (2011).

H. Yuan, H. Liu, H. Shimotani, H. Guo, M. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. Iwasa, "Liquid-gated ambipolar transport
in ultrathin films of a topological insulator Bi
$_{2}$
Te
$_{3}$
," Nano
Lett. 11, 2601-2605 (2011).

Vobornik, U. Manju, J. Fujii, F. Borgatti, P. Torelli, D. Krizmancic, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, G. Panaccione, "Magnetic proximity effect as a pathway to spintronic applications
of topological insulators," Nano Lett. 11, 4079-4082 (2011).

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, "Topological
insulators in Bi
$_{2}$
Se
$_{3}$
, Bi
$_{2}$
Te
$_{3}$
and Sb
$_{2}$
Te
$_{3}$
with a single Dirac cone on the surface," Nat.
Phys. 5, 438-442 (2011).

S. Cho, N. P. Butch, J. Paglione, M. S. Fuhrer, "Insulating behavior in ultrathin
bismuth selenide field effect transistors," Nano
Lett. 11, 1925-1927 (2011).

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. N. Illige, B. J. LeRoy, A. S. Sandhu, "Response of graphene to femtosecond
high-intensity laser irradiation," Appl. Phys.
Lett. 99, 051912 (2011).

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, D. D. Wu, C. C. Ye, J. Weng, J. Dong, H. Y. Xu, L. J. Chen, "Graphene-induced nonlinear four-wave-mixing
and its application to multiwavelength Q-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2732-2739 (2011).

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, Y. W. Song, "Deformation-immunized optical deposition
of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers," Appl.
Phys. Lett. 98, 021104 (2011).

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, "Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a
fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing," Opt.
Exp. 18, 23054-23061 (2010).

X. Zhang, J. Wang, S. C. Zhang, "Topological insulators for high-performance
terahertz to infrared applications," Phys. Rev.
B 82, 245107 (2010).

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, W. K. Liu, "Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with
carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber," IEEE
Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9-11 (2010).

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, A. Yazdani, R. J. Cava, "P-type Bi
$_{2}$
Se
$_{3}$
for topological insulator and low-temperature
thermoelectric applications," Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, L. M. Zhao, "Multi-wavelength dissipative soliton operation
of an erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 17, 12692-12697 (2009).

L. Pan, I. Utkin, R. Fedosejevs, "Passively Q-switched ytterbium -doped double-clad
fiber laser with a Cr
$^{4+}$
: YAG saturable absorber," IEEE Photon.
Technol. Lett. 19, 1979-1981 (2007).

J. B. Lecourt, G. Martel, M. Guezo, C. Labbe, S. Loualiche, "Erbium-doped fiber laser passively Q-switched by an InGaAs/InP
multiple quantum well saturable absorber," Opt.
Commun. 263, 71-83 (2006).

W. Richter, C. R. Becker, "A Raman and far-infrared investigation
of phonons in the rhombohedral V
$_{2}$
-VI
$_{3}$
compounds Bi
$_{2}$
Te
$_{3}$
, Bi
$_{2}$
Se
$_{3}$
, Sb
$_{2}$
Te
$_{3}$
and Bi
$_{2}$
(Te
$_{1-{\rm x}}$
Se
$_{\rm x})_{3}
(0 < {\rm x} < 1)$
, (Bi
$_{1-{\rm y}}$
Sb
$_{\rm y})_{2}$
Te
$_{3} (0 < y < 1)$
," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 84, 619-628 (2006).

A. V. Kir'yanov, N. N. Il'ichev, Y. O. Barmenkov, "Excited-state absorption as
a source of nonlinear thermo-induced lensing and self-Q-switching in an all-fiber
Erbium laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 194-198 (2004).

L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, "Passive Q-switched erbium-doped
fibre laser with saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 161, 257-263 (1999).

H. Tang, D. Liang, R. L. Qiu, X. P. Gao, "Two-dimensional transport-induced linear
magneto-resistance in topological insulator Bi
$_{2}$
Se
$_{3}$
nanoribbons," ACS Nano 5, 7510-7516 (2011).

M. Z. Hossain, S. L. Rumyantsev, K. M. Shahil, D. Teweldebrhan, M. Shur, A. A. Balandin, "Low-frequency current fluctuations in Graphene-like
exfoliated thin-films of bismuth selenide topological insulators," ACS Nano 5, 2657-2663 (2011).

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, Y. W. Song, "Deformation-immunized optical deposition
of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers," Appl.
Phys. Lett. 98, 021104 (2011).

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, "Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the
passive mode-locking of fiber lasers," Appl.
Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2012).

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. N. Illige, B. J. LeRoy, A. S. Sandhu, "Response of graphene to femtosecond
high-intensity laser irradiation," Appl. Phys.
Lett. 99, 051912 (2011).

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y. W. Song, "Multilayered graphene efficiently formed
by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked
lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2012).

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Ultra-short
pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).

Z. T. Wang, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, "Switchable dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched erbium-doped
fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber," IEEE
Photon. J. 4, 869-876 (2012).

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, W. K. Liu, "Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with
carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber," IEEE
Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9-11 (2010).

L. Pan, I. Utkin, R. Fedosejevs, "Passively Q-switched ytterbium -doped double-clad
fiber laser with a Cr
$^{4+}$
: YAG saturable absorber," IEEE Photon.
Technol. Lett. 19, 1979-1981 (2007).

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, D. Y. Fan, "Topological insulator: Bi
$_{2}$
Te
$_{3}$
saturable absorber for the passive
Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser," IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, D. D. Wu, C. C. Ye, J. Weng, J. Dong, H. Y. Xu, L. J. Chen, "Graphene-induced nonlinear four-wave-mixing
and its application to multiwavelength Q-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2732-2739 (2011).

A. V. Kir'yanov, N. N. Il'ichev, Y. O. Barmenkov, "Excited-state absorption as
a source of nonlinear thermo-induced lensing and self-Q-switching in an all-fiber
Erbium laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 194-198 (2004).

S. Cho, N. P. Butch, J. Paglione, M. S. Fuhrer, "Insulating behavior in ultrathin
bismuth selenide field effect transistors," Nano
Lett. 11, 1925-1927 (2011).

H. Yuan, H. Liu, H. Shimotani, H. Guo, M. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. Iwasa, "Liquid-gated ambipolar transport
in ultrathin films of a topological insulator Bi
$_{2}$
Te
$_{3}$
," Nano
Lett. 11, 2601-2605 (2011).

Vobornik, U. Manju, J. Fujii, F. Borgatti, P. Torelli, D. Krizmancic, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, G. Panaccione, "Magnetic proximity effect as a pathway to spintronic applications
of topological insulators," Nano Lett. 11, 4079-4082 (2011).

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. Xiong, "Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer
topological insulator Bi
$_{2}$
Se
$_{3}$
nanoplatelets," Nano Lett. 11, 2407-2414 (2012).

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, "Topological
insulators in Bi
$_{2}$
Se
$_{3}$
, Bi
$_{2}$
Te
$_{3}$
and Sb
$_{2}$
Te
$_{3}$
with a single Dirac cone on the surface," Nat.
Phys. 5, 438-442 (2011).

D. S. Kong, Y. Cui, "Opportunities in chemistry and materials
science for topological insulators and their nanostructures," Nat. Chem. 3, 845-849 (2012).

J. W. Mclver, D. Hsieh, H. Steinberg, P. Jarillo-Herrero, N. Gedik, "Control over topological insulator photocurrents with light
polarization," Nat. Nanotech. 7, 96-100 (2012).

J. B. Lecourt, G. Martel, M. Guezo, C. Labbe, S. Loualiche, "Erbium-doped fiber laser passively Q-switched by an InGaAs/InP
multiple quantum well saturable absorber," Opt.
Commun. 263, 71-83 (2006).

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, "Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a
fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing," Opt.
Exp. 18, 23054-23061 (2010).

L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, "Passive Q-switched erbium-doped
fibre laser with saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 161, 257-263 (1999).

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Third
order nonlinear optical property of Bi
$_{2}$
Se
$_{3}$
," Opt. Exp. 21, 2072-2082 (2013).

C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Wavelength-tunable
picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi
$_{2}$
Se
$_{3}$
as a mode locker," Opt. Exp. 20, 27888-27895 (2012).

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, L. M. Zhao, "Multi-wavelength dissipative soliton operation
of an erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 17, 12692-12697 (2009).

X. Zhang, J. Wang, S. C. Zhang, "Topological insulators for high-performance
terahertz to infrared applications," Phys. Rev.
B 82, 245107 (2010).

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, A. Yazdani, R. J. Cava, "P-type Bi
$_{2}$
Se
$_{3}$
for topological insulator and low-temperature
thermoelectric applications," Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).

D. A. Abanin, D. A. Pesin, "Ordering of magnetic impurities
and tunable electronic properties of topological insulators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 136802 (2011).

W. Richter, C. R. Becker, "A Raman and far-infrared investigation
of phonons in the rhombohedral V
$_{2}$
-VI
$_{3}$
compounds Bi
$_{2}$
Te
$_{3}$
, Bi
$_{2}$
Se
$_{3}$
, Sb
$_{2}$
Te
$_{3}$
and Bi
$_{2}$
(Te
$_{1-{\rm x}}$
Se
$_{\rm x})_{3}
(0 < {\rm x} < 1)$
, (Bi
$_{1-{\rm y}}$
Sb
$_{\rm y})_{2}$
Te
$_{3} (0 < y < 1)$
," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 84, 619-628 (2006).