Abstract

We demonstrate a new type of optical saturable absorber based on the self-assembled topological insulator Bi$_{2}$Se$_{3}$ membrane fabricated by the drop-cast/evaporation approach. The strong viscosity of Bi$_{2}$Se$_{3}$ allows its attachment onto the optical fiber end-facet for practical optoelectronic applications. The balanced twin-detector technique was used to characterize the saturable absorption parameters of the device, which has a saturating intensity of 101.8 MW/cm$^{2}$ and a modulation depth of 41.2% at the telecommunication band. By deploying this device into a fiber laser cavity, we had achieved stable Q-switched pulses with a repetition rate of 8 kHz and pulse duration of 14 $\mu$s. Through fine tuning the laser pump strength and/or cavity birefringence, we could widely change the Q-switched pulse repetition rate from 4.508 kHz to 12.88 kHz, pulse duration from 13.4 $\mu$s to 36 $\mu$s, and lasing wavelength from 1545.0 nm to 1565.1 nm. A dual-wavelength passive Q-switching operation was also obtained by enhancing the intra-cavity birefringence. Our results show the effectiveness of developing Bi$_{2}$Se$_{3}$ optical saturable absorber device by the drop-cast/evaporation method and applications for pulsed laser operation.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. X. Zhang, J. Wang, S. C. Zhang, "Topological insulators for high-performance terahertz to infrared applications," Phys. Rev. B 82, 245107 (2010).
  2. J. W. Mclver, D. Hsieh, H. Steinberg, P. Jarillo-Herrero, N. Gedik, "Control over topological insulator photocurrents with light polarization," Nat. Nanotech. 7, 96-100 (2012).
  3. H. Tang, D. Liang, R. L. Qiu, X. P. Gao, "Two-dimensional transport-induced linear magneto-resistance in topological insulator Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ nanoribbons," ACS Nano 5, 7510-7516 (2011).
  4. D. A. Abanin, D. A. Pesin, "Ordering of magnetic impurities and tunable electronic properties of topological insulators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 136802 (2011).
  5. M. Z. Hossain, S. L. Rumyantsev, K. M. Shahil, D. Teweldebrhan, M. Shur, A. A. Balandin, "Low-frequency current fluctuations in Graphene-like exfoliated thin-films of bismuth selenide topological insulators," ACS Nano 5, 2657-2663 (2011).
  6. H. Yuan, H. Liu, H. Shimotani, H. Guo, M. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. Iwasa, "Liquid-gated ambipolar transport in ultrathin films of a topological insulator Bi $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ ," Nano Lett. 11, 2601-2605 (2011).
  7. Vobornik, U. Manju, J. Fujii, F. Borgatti, P. Torelli, D. Krizmancic, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, G. Panaccione, "Magnetic proximity effect as a pathway to spintronic applications of topological insulators," Nano Lett. 11, 4079-4082 (2011).
  8. H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, "Topological insulators in Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ , Bi $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ and Sb $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ with a single Dirac cone on the surface," Nat. Phys. 5, 438-442 (2011).
  9. Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, A. Yazdani, R. J. Cava, "P-type Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ for topological insulator and low-temperature thermoelectric applications," Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).
  10. S. Cho, N. P. Butch, J. Paglione, M. S. Fuhrer, "Insulating behavior in ultrathin bismuth selenide field effect transistors," Nano Lett. 11, 1925-1927 (2011).
  11. L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, "Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser with saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 161, 257-263 (1999).
  12. A. V. Kir'yanov, N. N. Il'ichev, Y. O. Barmenkov, "Excited-state absorption as a source of nonlinear thermo-induced lensing and self-Q-switching in an all-fiber Erbium laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 194-198 (2004).
  13. V. N. Filippov, A. N. Starodumov, A. V. Kir'yanov, "All-fiber passively Q-switched low-threshold Erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 343-345 (2001).
  14. L. Pan, I. Utkin, R. Fedosejevs, "Passively Q-switched ytterbium -doped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr $^{4+}$ : YAG saturable absorber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1979-1981 (2007).
  15. J. B. Lecourt, G. Martel, M. Guezo, C. Labbe, S. Loualiche, "Erbium-doped fiber laser passively Q-switched by an InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 263, 71-83 (2006).
  16. D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, W. K. Liu, "Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9-11 (2010).
  17. Z. T. Wang, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, "Switchable dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 869-876 (2012).
  18. Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y. W. Song, "Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2012).
  19. H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, Y. W. Song, "Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021104 (2011).
  20. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, "Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2012).
  21. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, "Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing," Opt. Exp. 18, 23054-23061 (2010).
  22. Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, D. D. Wu, C. C. Ye, J. Weng, J. Dong, H. Y. Xu, L. J. Chen, "Graphene-induced nonlinear four-wave-mixing and its application to multiwavelength Q-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2732-2739 (2011).
  23. S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ ," Opt. Exp. 21, 2072-2082 (2013).
  24. C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ as a mode locker," Opt. Exp. 20, 27888-27895 (2012).
  25. C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
  26. P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, D. Y. Fan, "Topological insulator: Bi $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser," IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
  27. J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. Xiong, "Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ nanoplatelets," Nano Lett. 11, 2407-2414 (2012).
  28. W. Richter, C. R. Becker, "A Raman and far-infrared investigation of phonons in the rhombohedral V $_{2}$ -VI $_{3}$ compounds Bi $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ , Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ , Sb $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ and Bi $_{2}$ (Te $_{1-{\rm x}}$ Se $_{\rm x})_{3} (0 < {\rm x} < 1)$ , (Bi $_{1-{\rm y}}$ Sb $_{\rm y})_{2}$ Te $_{3} (0 < y < 1)$ ," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 84, 619-628 (2006).
  29. D. S. Kong, Y. Cui, "Opportunities in chemistry and materials science for topological insulators and their nanostructures," Nat. Chem. 3, 845-849 (2012).
  30. A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. N. Illige, B. J. LeRoy, A. S. Sandhu, "Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051912 (2011).
  31. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, L. M. Zhao, "Multi-wavelength dissipative soliton operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 17, 12692-12697 (2009).

2013 (2)

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ ," Opt. Exp. 21, 2072-2082 (2013).

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, D. Y. Fan, "Topological insulator: Bi $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser," IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

2012 (8)

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. Xiong, "Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ nanoplatelets," Nano Lett. 11, 2407-2414 (2012).

C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ as a mode locker," Opt. Exp. 20, 27888-27895 (2012).

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).

D. S. Kong, Y. Cui, "Opportunities in chemistry and materials science for topological insulators and their nanostructures," Nat. Chem. 3, 845-849 (2012).

Z. T. Wang, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, "Switchable dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 869-876 (2012).

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y. W. Song, "Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2012).

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, "Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2012).

J. W. Mclver, D. Hsieh, H. Steinberg, P. Jarillo-Herrero, N. Gedik, "Control over topological insulator photocurrents with light polarization," Nat. Nanotech. 7, 96-100 (2012).

2011 (10)

H. Tang, D. Liang, R. L. Qiu, X. P. Gao, "Two-dimensional transport-induced linear magneto-resistance in topological insulator Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ nanoribbons," ACS Nano 5, 7510-7516 (2011).

D. A. Abanin, D. A. Pesin, "Ordering of magnetic impurities and tunable electronic properties of topological insulators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 136802 (2011).

M. Z. Hossain, S. L. Rumyantsev, K. M. Shahil, D. Teweldebrhan, M. Shur, A. A. Balandin, "Low-frequency current fluctuations in Graphene-like exfoliated thin-films of bismuth selenide topological insulators," ACS Nano 5, 2657-2663 (2011).

H. Yuan, H. Liu, H. Shimotani, H. Guo, M. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. Iwasa, "Liquid-gated ambipolar transport in ultrathin films of a topological insulator Bi $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ ," Nano Lett. 11, 2601-2605 (2011).

Vobornik, U. Manju, J. Fujii, F. Borgatti, P. Torelli, D. Krizmancic, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, G. Panaccione, "Magnetic proximity effect as a pathway to spintronic applications of topological insulators," Nano Lett. 11, 4079-4082 (2011).

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, "Topological insulators in Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ , Bi $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ and Sb $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ with a single Dirac cone on the surface," Nat. Phys. 5, 438-442 (2011).

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, D. D. Wu, C. C. Ye, J. Weng, J. Dong, H. Y. Xu, L. J. Chen, "Graphene-induced nonlinear four-wave-mixing and its application to multiwavelength Q-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2732-2739 (2011).

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, Y. W. Song, "Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021104 (2011).

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. N. Illige, B. J. LeRoy, A. S. Sandhu, "Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051912 (2011).

S. Cho, N. P. Butch, J. Paglione, M. S. Fuhrer, "Insulating behavior in ultrathin bismuth selenide field effect transistors," Nano Lett. 11, 1925-1927 (2011).

2010 (3)

X. Zhang, J. Wang, S. C. Zhang, "Topological insulators for high-performance terahertz to infrared applications," Phys. Rev. B 82, 245107 (2010).

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, W. K. Liu, "Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9-11 (2010).

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, "Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing," Opt. Exp. 18, 23054-23061 (2010).

2009 (2)

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, A. Yazdani, R. J. Cava, "P-type Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ for topological insulator and low-temperature thermoelectric applications," Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, L. M. Zhao, "Multi-wavelength dissipative soliton operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 17, 12692-12697 (2009).

2007 (1)

L. Pan, I. Utkin, R. Fedosejevs, "Passively Q-switched ytterbium -doped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr $^{4+}$ : YAG saturable absorber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1979-1981 (2007).

2006 (2)

J. B. Lecourt, G. Martel, M. Guezo, C. Labbe, S. Loualiche, "Erbium-doped fiber laser passively Q-switched by an InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 263, 71-83 (2006).

W. Richter, C. R. Becker, "A Raman and far-infrared investigation of phonons in the rhombohedral V $_{2}$ -VI $_{3}$ compounds Bi $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ , Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ , Sb $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ and Bi $_{2}$ (Te $_{1-{\rm x}}$ Se $_{\rm x})_{3} (0 < {\rm x} < 1)$ , (Bi $_{1-{\rm y}}$ Sb $_{\rm y})_{2}$ Te $_{3} (0 < y < 1)$ ," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 84, 619-628 (2006).

2004 (1)

A. V. Kir'yanov, N. N. Il'ichev, Y. O. Barmenkov, "Excited-state absorption as a source of nonlinear thermo-induced lensing and self-Q-switching in an all-fiber Erbium laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 194-198 (2004).

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, "Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser with saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 161, 257-263 (1999).

ACS Nano (2)

H. Tang, D. Liang, R. L. Qiu, X. P. Gao, "Two-dimensional transport-induced linear magneto-resistance in topological insulator Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ nanoribbons," ACS Nano 5, 7510-7516 (2011).

M. Z. Hossain, S. L. Rumyantsev, K. M. Shahil, D. Teweldebrhan, M. Shur, A. A. Balandin, "Low-frequency current fluctuations in Graphene-like exfoliated thin-films of bismuth selenide topological insulators," ACS Nano 5, 2657-2663 (2011).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, Y. W. Song, "Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021104 (2011).

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, "Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. N. Illige, B. J. LeRoy, A. S. Sandhu, "Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051912 (2011).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y. W. Song, "Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2012).

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Z. T. Wang, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, "Switchable dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 869-876 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, W. K. Liu, "Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9-11 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Pan, I. Utkin, R. Fedosejevs, "Passively Q-switched ytterbium -doped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr $^{4+}$ : YAG saturable absorber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1979-1981 (2007).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, D. Y. Fan, "Topological insulator: Bi $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser," IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, D. D. Wu, C. C. Ye, J. Weng, J. Dong, H. Y. Xu, L. J. Chen, "Graphene-induced nonlinear four-wave-mixing and its application to multiwavelength Q-switched rare-earth-doped fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2732-2739 (2011).

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

A. V. Kir'yanov, N. N. Il'ichev, Y. O. Barmenkov, "Excited-state absorption as a source of nonlinear thermo-induced lensing and self-Q-switching in an all-fiber Erbium laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 194-198 (2004).

Nano Lett. (2)

S. Cho, N. P. Butch, J. Paglione, M. S. Fuhrer, "Insulating behavior in ultrathin bismuth selenide field effect transistors," Nano Lett. 11, 1925-1927 (2011).

H. Yuan, H. Liu, H. Shimotani, H. Guo, M. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. Iwasa, "Liquid-gated ambipolar transport in ultrathin films of a topological insulator Bi $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ ," Nano Lett. 11, 2601-2605 (2011).

Nano Lett. (2)

Vobornik, U. Manju, J. Fujii, F. Borgatti, P. Torelli, D. Krizmancic, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, G. Panaccione, "Magnetic proximity effect as a pathway to spintronic applications of topological insulators," Nano Lett. 11, 4079-4082 (2011).

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. Xiong, "Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ nanoplatelets," Nano Lett. 11, 2407-2414 (2012).

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, "Topological insulators in Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ , Bi $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ and Sb $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ with a single Dirac cone on the surface," Nat. Phys. 5, 438-442 (2011).

Nat. Chem. (1)

D. S. Kong, Y. Cui, "Opportunities in chemistry and materials science for topological insulators and their nanostructures," Nat. Chem. 3, 845-849 (2012).

Nat. Nanotech. (1)

J. W. Mclver, D. Hsieh, H. Steinberg, P. Jarillo-Herrero, N. Gedik, "Control over topological insulator photocurrents with light polarization," Nat. Nanotech. 7, 96-100 (2012).

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. B. Lecourt, G. Martel, M. Guezo, C. Labbe, S. Loualiche, "Erbium-doped fiber laser passively Q-switched by an InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 263, 71-83 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (1)

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, "Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing," Opt. Exp. 18, 23054-23061 (2010).

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. G. Luo, P. L. Chu, "Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser with saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 161, 257-263 (1999).

Opt. Exp. (3)

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ ," Opt. Exp. 21, 2072-2082 (2013).

C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, "Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ as a mode locker," Opt. Exp. 20, 27888-27895 (2012).

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, L. M. Zhao, "Multi-wavelength dissipative soliton operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 17, 12692-12697 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

X. Zhang, J. Wang, S. C. Zhang, "Topological insulators for high-performance terahertz to infrared applications," Phys. Rev. B 82, 245107 (2010).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, A. Yazdani, R. J. Cava, "P-type Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ for topological insulator and low-temperature thermoelectric applications," Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. A. Abanin, D. A. Pesin, "Ordering of magnetic impurities and tunable electronic properties of topological insulators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 136802 (2011).

Phys. Stat. Sol. B (1)

W. Richter, C. R. Becker, "A Raman and far-infrared investigation of phonons in the rhombohedral V $_{2}$ -VI $_{3}$ compounds Bi $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ , Bi $_{2}$ Se $_{3}$ , Sb $_{2}$ Te $_{3}$ and Bi $_{2}$ (Te $_{1-{\rm x}}$ Se $_{\rm x})_{3} (0 < {\rm x} < 1)$ , (Bi $_{1-{\rm y}}$ Sb $_{\rm y})_{2}$ Te $_{3} (0 < y < 1)$ ," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 84, 619-628 (2006).

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