Abstract

We report a monolithic adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA). The device consists of two tunable gratings and a gain section and enables the gain of the SOA to be regulated without loss of saturated output power. Gain control is achieved by adjusting the wavelength overlap of two Distributed Bragg Reflector gratings positioned at either side of the active region which can be wavelength tuned by carrier injection. Gain clamped operation with adjustable gain over a range of 4 dB has been demonstrated. A maximum saturated output power of $+$21 dBm was obtained.

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  1. L. H. Spiekman, J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, L. D. Garrett, G. N. Van Den Hoven, T. Van Dongen, M. J. H. Sander-Jochem, J. J. M. Binsma, "Transmission of 8 DWDM channels at 20 GB/s over 160 km of standard fiber using a cascade of semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon Techn. Lett. 12, 717-719 (2000).
  2. J. J. E. Reid, L. Cucala, M. Settembre, R. C. J. Smets, M. Ferreira, H. F. Haunstein, "An international field trial at 1.3 $\mu{\rm m}$ using an 800 km cascade of semiconductor optical amplifiers," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 567-568.
  3. J. G. L. Jennen, R. C. J. Smets, H. de Waardt, G. N. van den Hoven, A. J. Boot, "4 $\times$ 10 Gbit/s NRZ transmission in the 1310 nm window over 80 km of standard single mode fibre using semiconductor optical amplifiers," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 235-236.
  4. A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, "EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 9, 386-388 (1997).
  5. D. Wolfson, "Detailed theoretical investigation and comparison of the cascadability of conventional and gain-clamped SOA gates in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 11, 1494-1496 (1999).
  6. J. Park, X. Li, W. P. Huang, "Gain clamping in semiconductor optical amplifiers with second-order index-coupled DFB grating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 3666-375 (2005).
  7. L. F. Tiemeijer, N. van den Hoven, P. J. A. Thijs, T. van Dongen, J. J. M. Binsma, E. J. Jansen, "1310-nm DBR-type MQW gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers with AM-CATV-grade linearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. X, 1353-1455 (1996).
  8. P. Doussiere, A. Jourdan, G. Soulage, P. Garab, C. Dian, C. Graver, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, D. Leclerc, "Clamped gain travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing applications," Proc. IEEE 14th Semiconductor Laser Conf. (1994) pp. 185-186.
  9. J. Bryce, G. Yoffe, Y. Zhao, R. Minasian, "Tunable, gain-clamped EDFA incorporating chirped fibre Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 34, 1680-1681 (1998).
  10. T. C. Teyo, N. S. M. Shah, M. K. Leong, P. Poopalan, H. Ahmad, "Comparison between regenerative-feedback and co-feedback gain-clamped EDFA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1255-1257 (2002).
  11. M. Cai, X. Liu, J. Cui, P. Tang, J. Peng, "Study on noise characteristic of gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber-ring lasing amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1093-1095 (1997).
  12. C. Michie, A. E. Kelly, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, "An adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA)," J. Lightw Technol. 25, 1466-1473 (2007).
  13. N. Cheng, Z. Liao, S. Liu, F. Effenberger, "Gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers for reach extension of coexisted GPON and XG-PON," Proc. OSA/OFC/NFOEC (2011).
  14. J. Sugawa, H. Ikeda, "Development of OLT using semiconductor optical amplifiers as booster and preamplifier for loss-budget extension in 10.3-Gb/s PON system," OSA OFC/NFOEC Tech. Dig. (2012).
  15. R. Bonk, T. Vallaitis, J. Guetlein, C. Meuer, H. Schmeckebier, D. Bimberg, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, "The input power dynamic range of a semiconductor optical amplifier and its relevance for access network applications," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 1039-1053 (2011).
  16. D. A. Francis, S. P. Di Jaili, J. D. Walker, "A single-chip linear optical amplifier," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf.—OSA Tech. Dig. Ser. (Opt. Soc. Am.) (2001).
  17. J. T. Ahn, J. M. Lee, K. H. Kim, "Gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier based on compensating light generated from amplified spontaneous emission," Electron. Lett. 39, 1140-1141 (2003).
  18. N. Sato, K. Ota, N. Mishima, Y. Oikawa, N. Shiga, "Less than 0.19-dB transient gain excursion AGC-EDFA with digital control for 20-channel add/drop equivalent operation," Proc. OSA/OFC/NFOEC (2011).
  19. H. N. Tan, M. Matsuura, N. Kishi, "Enhancement of input power dynamic range for multiwavelength amplification and optical signal processing in a semiconductor optical amplifier using holding beam effect," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 2593-2602 (2010).
  20. N. Shiga, Y. Horiuchi, M. Takehana, Y. Tanaka, Y. Oikawa, H. Nagaeda, K.-I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, M. Tsubokawa, "Ultra-high-speed automatic level controlled optical amplifier with wide dynamic range," Proc. OSA/OFC/NFOEC (2009).
  21. L. Liu, C. Michie, A. E. Kelly, I. Andonovic, "Packet equalisation in PONs using Adjustable Gain-Clamped Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (AGC-SOA)," Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw. (ICTON) (2011) pp. 1-4.
  22. L. Liu, C. Michie, A. E. Kelly, I. Andonovic, "The dynamic gain modulation performance of adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers (AGC-SOA)," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 3483-3489 (2011).
  23. A. R. Davies, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, L. H. White, M. Glick, D. Mc Auley, P. J. Williams, "Broadband gain clamped semiconductor optical amplifier with variable gain operation using a sampled grating laser," Proc. ECOC (2002).
  24. M. Fukuda, Optical Semiconductor Devices pp. 127.
  25. S. Chelles, F. Devaux, D. Meichenin, D. Sigogne, A. Carenco, "Extinction ratio of cross-gain modulated multistage wavelength converters: Model and experiments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 758-760 (1997).
  26. J. Akbar, L. Hou, M. Haji, M. J. Strain, J. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, A. Kelly, "High power (130 mW) 40 GHz 155 $\mu{\rm m}$ mode-locked distributed Bragg reflector lasers with integrated optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 37, 344-346 (2012).
  27. A. Kelly, W. C. Michie, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, J. McGeough, B. C. Thomsen, "High performance semiconductor optical amplifier modules at 1300 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2674-2676 (2006).
  28. C. Michie, A. E. Kelly, J. McGeough, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, "Polarization-insensitive SOAs using strained bulk active regions," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3920-3927 (2006).

2012

2011

R. Bonk, T. Vallaitis, J. Guetlein, C. Meuer, H. Schmeckebier, D. Bimberg, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, "The input power dynamic range of a semiconductor optical amplifier and its relevance for access network applications," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 1039-1053 (2011).

L. Liu, C. Michie, A. E. Kelly, I. Andonovic, "The dynamic gain modulation performance of adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers (AGC-SOA)," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 3483-3489 (2011).

2010

H. N. Tan, M. Matsuura, N. Kishi, "Enhancement of input power dynamic range for multiwavelength amplification and optical signal processing in a semiconductor optical amplifier using holding beam effect," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 2593-2602 (2010).

2007

C. Michie, A. E. Kelly, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, "An adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA)," J. Lightw Technol. 25, 1466-1473 (2007).

2006

A. Kelly, W. C. Michie, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, J. McGeough, B. C. Thomsen, "High performance semiconductor optical amplifier modules at 1300 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2674-2676 (2006).

C. Michie, A. E. Kelly, J. McGeough, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, "Polarization-insensitive SOAs using strained bulk active regions," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3920-3927 (2006).

2005

J. Park, X. Li, W. P. Huang, "Gain clamping in semiconductor optical amplifiers with second-order index-coupled DFB grating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 3666-375 (2005).

2003

J. T. Ahn, J. M. Lee, K. H. Kim, "Gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier based on compensating light generated from amplified spontaneous emission," Electron. Lett. 39, 1140-1141 (2003).

2002

T. C. Teyo, N. S. M. Shah, M. K. Leong, P. Poopalan, H. Ahmad, "Comparison between regenerative-feedback and co-feedback gain-clamped EDFA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1255-1257 (2002).

2000

L. H. Spiekman, J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, L. D. Garrett, G. N. Van Den Hoven, T. Van Dongen, M. J. H. Sander-Jochem, J. J. M. Binsma, "Transmission of 8 DWDM channels at 20 GB/s over 160 km of standard fiber using a cascade of semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon Techn. Lett. 12, 717-719 (2000).

1999

D. Wolfson, "Detailed theoretical investigation and comparison of the cascadability of conventional and gain-clamped SOA gates in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 11, 1494-1496 (1999).

1998

J. Bryce, G. Yoffe, Y. Zhao, R. Minasian, "Tunable, gain-clamped EDFA incorporating chirped fibre Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 34, 1680-1681 (1998).

1997

M. Cai, X. Liu, J. Cui, P. Tang, J. Peng, "Study on noise characteristic of gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber-ring lasing amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1093-1095 (1997).

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, "EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 9, 386-388 (1997).

S. Chelles, F. Devaux, D. Meichenin, D. Sigogne, A. Carenco, "Extinction ratio of cross-gain modulated multistage wavelength converters: Model and experiments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 758-760 (1997).

1996

L. F. Tiemeijer, N. van den Hoven, P. J. A. Thijs, T. van Dongen, J. J. M. Binsma, E. J. Jansen, "1310-nm DBR-type MQW gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers with AM-CATV-grade linearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. X, 1353-1455 (1996).

Electron. Lett.

J. Bryce, G. Yoffe, Y. Zhao, R. Minasian, "Tunable, gain-clamped EDFA incorporating chirped fibre Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 34, 1680-1681 (1998).

J. T. Ahn, J. M. Lee, K. H. Kim, "Gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier based on compensating light generated from amplified spontaneous emission," Electron. Lett. 39, 1140-1141 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. Park, X. Li, W. P. Huang, "Gain clamping in semiconductor optical amplifiers with second-order index-coupled DFB grating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 3666-375 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Kelly, W. C. Michie, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, J. McGeough, B. C. Thomsen, "High performance semiconductor optical amplifier modules at 1300 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2674-2676 (2006).

IEEE Photon Techn. Lett.

L. H. Spiekman, J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, L. D. Garrett, G. N. Van Den Hoven, T. Van Dongen, M. J. H. Sander-Jochem, J. J. M. Binsma, "Transmission of 8 DWDM channels at 20 GB/s over 160 km of standard fiber using a cascade of semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon Techn. Lett. 12, 717-719 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. C. Teyo, N. S. M. Shah, M. K. Leong, P. Poopalan, H. Ahmad, "Comparison between regenerative-feedback and co-feedback gain-clamped EDFA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1255-1257 (2002).

IEEE Photon. J.

R. Bonk, T. Vallaitis, J. Guetlein, C. Meuer, H. Schmeckebier, D. Bimberg, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, "The input power dynamic range of a semiconductor optical amplifier and its relevance for access network applications," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 1039-1053 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, "EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 9, 386-388 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol.

L. F. Tiemeijer, N. van den Hoven, P. J. A. Thijs, T. van Dongen, J. J. M. Binsma, E. J. Jansen, "1310-nm DBR-type MQW gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers with AM-CATV-grade linearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. X, 1353-1455 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Cai, X. Liu, J. Cui, P. Tang, J. Peng, "Study on noise characteristic of gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber-ring lasing amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1093-1095 (1997).

S. Chelles, F. Devaux, D. Meichenin, D. Sigogne, A. Carenco, "Extinction ratio of cross-gain modulated multistage wavelength converters: Model and experiments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 758-760 (1997).

IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett.

D. Wolfson, "Detailed theoretical investigation and comparison of the cascadability of conventional and gain-clamped SOA gates in multiwavelength optical networks," IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 11, 1494-1496 (1999).

J. Lightw Technol.

C. Michie, A. E. Kelly, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, "An adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA)," J. Lightw Technol. 25, 1466-1473 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol.

H. N. Tan, M. Matsuura, N. Kishi, "Enhancement of input power dynamic range for multiwavelength amplification and optical signal processing in a semiconductor optical amplifier using holding beam effect," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 2593-2602 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol.

C. Michie, A. E. Kelly, J. McGeough, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, "Polarization-insensitive SOAs using strained bulk active regions," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3920-3927 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol.

L. Liu, C. Michie, A. E. Kelly, I. Andonovic, "The dynamic gain modulation performance of adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers (AGC-SOA)," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 3483-3489 (2011).

Opt. Lett.

Other

A. R. Davies, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, L. H. White, M. Glick, D. Mc Auley, P. J. Williams, "Broadband gain clamped semiconductor optical amplifier with variable gain operation using a sampled grating laser," Proc. ECOC (2002).

M. Fukuda, Optical Semiconductor Devices pp. 127.

N. Shiga, Y. Horiuchi, M. Takehana, Y. Tanaka, Y. Oikawa, H. Nagaeda, K.-I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, M. Tsubokawa, "Ultra-high-speed automatic level controlled optical amplifier with wide dynamic range," Proc. OSA/OFC/NFOEC (2009).

L. Liu, C. Michie, A. E. Kelly, I. Andonovic, "Packet equalisation in PONs using Adjustable Gain-Clamped Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (AGC-SOA)," Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw. (ICTON) (2011) pp. 1-4.

N. Sato, K. Ota, N. Mishima, Y. Oikawa, N. Shiga, "Less than 0.19-dB transient gain excursion AGC-EDFA with digital control for 20-channel add/drop equivalent operation," Proc. OSA/OFC/NFOEC (2011).

P. Doussiere, A. Jourdan, G. Soulage, P. Garab, C. Dian, C. Graver, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, D. Leclerc, "Clamped gain travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing applications," Proc. IEEE 14th Semiconductor Laser Conf. (1994) pp. 185-186.

D. A. Francis, S. P. Di Jaili, J. D. Walker, "A single-chip linear optical amplifier," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf.—OSA Tech. Dig. Ser. (Opt. Soc. Am.) (2001).

N. Cheng, Z. Liao, S. Liu, F. Effenberger, "Gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers for reach extension of coexisted GPON and XG-PON," Proc. OSA/OFC/NFOEC (2011).

J. Sugawa, H. Ikeda, "Development of OLT using semiconductor optical amplifiers as booster and preamplifier for loss-budget extension in 10.3-Gb/s PON system," OSA OFC/NFOEC Tech. Dig. (2012).

J. J. E. Reid, L. Cucala, M. Settembre, R. C. J. Smets, M. Ferreira, H. F. Haunstein, "An international field trial at 1.3 $\mu{\rm m}$ using an 800 km cascade of semiconductor optical amplifiers," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 567-568.

J. G. L. Jennen, R. C. J. Smets, H. de Waardt, G. N. van den Hoven, A. J. Boot, "4 $\times$ 10 Gbit/s NRZ transmission in the 1310 nm window over 80 km of standard single mode fibre using semiconductor optical amplifiers," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 235-236.

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