Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a time-division-multiplexed acoustic sensor array employing multiple low-gain Er-doped fiber amplifiers to multiplex ten compact Fabry-Perot acoustic sensors. We show that the ten sensors can be interrogated with a single laser diode at a single wavelength, and exhibit the same measured SNR within $\pm$0.95 dB of each other. We present a model to identify the dominant noise contributions, and their dependence on the number of multiplexed sensors. This model predicts that more than 350 sensors can be multiplexed with the proposed architecture.

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  1. A. D. Kersey, "Multiplexed interferometric fiber sensors," Proc. 7th Int. Optical Fiber Sensors (1990) pp. 313-19.
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  3. A. M. Yurek, Proc. OFC (1993).
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  7. C. P. Jacobson, H. K. Whitesel, "Code division multiplexing of optical fiber sensors for shipboard applications," Proc. Ship Control Syst. Symp. (1997) pp. 381-390.
  8. Y. Zhang, Z. Yin, B. Chen, H. Cui, "A novel fiber Bragg grating based seismic geophone for oil/gas prospecting," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 1112-1120.
  9. C. Chang, J. Sirkis, "Multiplexed optical fiber sensors using a single fabry-perot resonator for phase modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, (1996).
  10. P. J. Nash, G. A. Cranch, "Multi channel optical hydrophone array with time and wavelength division multiplexing," Proc. SPIE (1999) pp. 304-307.
  11. Y. J. Rao, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "In-fiber grating sensing network with a combined SDM, TDM, and WDM topology," Proc. Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. Annual Meeting (1996) pp. 244.
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  13. B. J. Vakoc, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, "A novel fiber-optic sensor array based on the sagnac interferometer," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2316- (1999).
  14. C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 197-216 (2004).
  15. A. Dandridge, "Acoustic sensor development at NRL," Acoustic Society of America Annual Meeting (1987).
  16. S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, K. Koo, "Optical techniques to solve the signal fading problem in fiber interferometers," Appl. Opt. 21, (1982).
  17. A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, "Input-polarisation scanning technique for overcoming polarisation-induced signal fading in interferometric fibre sensors," Electron. Lett. 24, 931-933 (1988).
  18. A. Dandridge, Fiber Optic Sensors (Wiley, 1991) pp. 271-280.
  19. O. C. Akkaya, O. Kilic, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, "High-sensitivity thermally stable acoustic fiber sensor," Proc. IEEE Sensors (2010) pp. 1148-1151.
  20. O. C. Akkaya, O. Kilic, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, "Fabry-perot fiber sensors with reproducible displacement sensitivities," Proc. Optical MEMS Nanophoton. (2011) pp. 191-192.
  21. O. C. Akkaya, O. Kilic, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, "Modeling and demonstration of thermally stable high-sensitivity reproducible acoustic sensors," J. Microelectomech. Syst. 21, (2012).
  22. J. L. Wagener, C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Novel fiber sensor arrays using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1681-1688 (1997).
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  24. C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Large-scale interferometric fiber sensor arrays with multiple optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 22, 1651-1653 (1997).
  25. M. J. F. Digonnet, B. J. Vakoca, C. W. Hodgson, G. S. Kino, "Acoustic fiber sensor arrays," Proc. 2nd Eur. Workshop Optical Fibre Sens. 5502, 39-50 (2004).
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  29. D. R. Hjelme, L. Bjerkan, S. Neegard, J. S. Rambech, J. V. Aarsnes, "Application of Bragg grating sensors in the characterization of scaled marine vehicle models," Appl. Opt. 36, 328-336 (1997).
  30. G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).
  31. J. Saether, K. Blotekjaer, "Noise performance of multiplexed fiber-optic sensor systems with optical amplifiers," Opt. Rev. 4, 138-144 (1997).

2012

O. C. Akkaya, O. Kilic, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, "Modeling and demonstration of thermally stable high-sensitivity reproducible acoustic sensors," J. Microelectomech. Syst. 21, (2012).

2007

C. Okawara, K. Saijyou, "Fiber optic interferometric hydrophone using fiber Bragg grating with time division multiplexing," Acoust. Sci. Tech. 28, (2007).

2004

M. J. F. Digonnet, B. J. Vakoca, C. W. Hodgson, G. S. Kino, "Acoustic fiber sensor arrays," Proc. 2nd Eur. Workshop Optical Fibre Sens. 5502, 39-50 (2004).

J. H. Cole, C. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, G. Cogdell, T. G. Giallorenzi, "Twenty-five years of interferometric fiber optic acoustic sensors at the Naval Research Laboratory," J. Washington Acad. Sci. 90, 40-57 (2004).

C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 197-216 (2004).

2001

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).

1999

B. J. Vakoc, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, "A novel fiber-optic sensor array based on the sagnac interferometer," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2316- (1999).

1998

C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers—Part II: Pump power," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 224-231 (1998).

C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers—Part I: Signal-to-noise ratio," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 218-223 (1998).

1997

C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Large-scale interferometric fiber sensor arrays with multiple optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 22, 1651-1653 (1997).

J. L. Wagener, C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Novel fiber sensor arrays using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1681-1688 (1997).

D. R. Hjelme, L. Bjerkan, S. Neegard, J. S. Rambech, J. V. Aarsnes, "Application of Bragg grating sensors in the characterization of scaled marine vehicle models," Appl. Opt. 36, 328-336 (1997).

J. Saether, K. Blotekjaer, "Noise performance of multiplexed fiber-optic sensor systems with optical amplifiers," Opt. Rev. 4, 138-144 (1997).

1996

C. Chang, J. Sirkis, "Multiplexed optical fiber sensors using a single fabry-perot resonator for phase modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, (1996).

1995

1993

1992

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, M. A. Davis, "Low-crosstalk code-division multiplexed interferometric array," Electron. Lett. 28, 351-352 (1992).

1988

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, "Input-polarisation scanning technique for overcoming polarisation-induced signal fading in interferometric fibre sensors," Electron. Lett. 24, 931-933 (1988).

1982

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, K. Koo, "Optical techniques to solve the signal fading problem in fiber interferometers," Appl. Opt. 21, (1982).

Acoust. Sci. Tech.

C. Okawara, K. Saijyou, "Fiber optic interferometric hydrophone using fiber Bragg grating with time division multiplexing," Acoust. Sci. Tech. 28, (2007).

Appl. Opt.

D. R. Hjelme, L. Bjerkan, S. Neegard, J. S. Rambech, J. V. Aarsnes, "Application of Bragg grating sensors in the characterization of scaled marine vehicle models," Appl. Opt. 36, 328-336 (1997).

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, K. Koo, "Optical techniques to solve the signal fading problem in fiber interferometers," Appl. Opt. 21, (1982).

Electron. Lett.

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, M. A. Davis, "Low-crosstalk code-division multiplexed interferometric array," Electron. Lett. 28, 351-352 (1992).

Electron. Lett.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, "Input-polarisation scanning technique for overcoming polarisation-induced signal fading in interferometric fibre sensors," Electron. Lett. 24, 931-933 (1988).

J. Lightw. Technol.

B. J. Vakoc, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, "A novel fiber-optic sensor array based on the sagnac interferometer," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2316- (1999).

J. Microelectomech. Syst.

O. C. Akkaya, O. Kilic, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, "Modeling and demonstration of thermally stable high-sensitivity reproducible acoustic sensors," J. Microelectomech. Syst. 21, (2012).

J. Lightw. Technol.

J. L. Wagener, C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Novel fiber sensor arrays using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1681-1688 (1997).

C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers—Part I: Signal-to-noise ratio," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 218-223 (1998).

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).

C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers—Part II: Pump power," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 224-231 (1998).

C. Chang, J. Sirkis, "Multiplexed optical fiber sensors using a single fabry-perot resonator for phase modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, (1996).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.

C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 197-216 (2004).

J. Washington Acad. Sci.

J. H. Cole, C. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, G. Cogdell, T. G. Giallorenzi, "Twenty-five years of interferometric fiber optic acoustic sensors at the Naval Research Laboratory," J. Washington Acad. Sci. 90, 40-57 (2004).

Opt. Lett.

C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Large-scale interferometric fiber sensor arrays with multiple optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 22, 1651-1653 (1997).

Opt. Rev.

J. Saether, K. Blotekjaer, "Noise performance of multiplexed fiber-optic sensor systems with optical amplifiers," Opt. Rev. 4, 138-144 (1997).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. 2nd Eur. Workshop Optical Fibre Sens.

M. J. F. Digonnet, B. J. Vakoca, C. W. Hodgson, G. S. Kino, "Acoustic fiber sensor arrays," Proc. 2nd Eur. Workshop Optical Fibre Sens. 5502, 39-50 (2004).

Other

A. M. Yurek, Proc. OFC (1993).

A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, "Multiplexed interferometric fiber sensor arrays," Proc. SPIE (1991) pp. 176-183.

A. D. Kersey, Array Topologies for Implementing Serial Fiber Bragg Grating Interferometer Arrays U.S. Patent 5,987,197 (1999) .

P. J. Nash, G. A. Cranch, "Multi channel optical hydrophone array with time and wavelength division multiplexing," Proc. SPIE (1999) pp. 304-307.

Y. J. Rao, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "In-fiber grating sensing network with a combined SDM, TDM, and WDM topology," Proc. Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. Annual Meeting (1996) pp. 244.

C. P. Jacobson, H. K. Whitesel, "Code division multiplexing of optical fiber sensors for shipboard applications," Proc. Ship Control Syst. Symp. (1997) pp. 381-390.

Y. Zhang, Z. Yin, B. Chen, H. Cui, "A novel fiber Bragg grating based seismic geophone for oil/gas prospecting," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 1112-1120.

A. D. Kersey, "Multiplexed interferometric fiber sensors," Proc. 7th Int. Optical Fiber Sensors (1990) pp. 313-19.

A. Dandridge, "Acoustic sensor development at NRL," Acoustic Society of America Annual Meeting (1987).

A. Dandridge, Fiber Optic Sensors (Wiley, 1991) pp. 271-280.

O. C. Akkaya, O. Kilic, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, "High-sensitivity thermally stable acoustic fiber sensor," Proc. IEEE Sensors (2010) pp. 1148-1151.

O. C. Akkaya, O. Kilic, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, O. Solgaard, "Fabry-perot fiber sensors with reproducible displacement sensitivities," Proc. Optical MEMS Nanophoton. (2011) pp. 191-192.

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