Abstract

We report a long-range and high-spatial-resolution distributed measurement of the birefringence of a polarization-maintaining fiber based on Brillouin dynamic grating (BDG) through optimizing the pump and probe scheme in the time-domain. The optimal scheme includes a CW pump1, a long pump2 pulse, and a short probe pulse, where the long pump2 pulse can effectively excite a BDG with a relatively low power to avoid other nonlinear effects in a long-length fiber, and the short probe pulse is used to improve the spatial resolution. The numerical simulations verify that with this scheme the spatial resolution is determined by the duration of the probe pulse, while the BDG reflection spectrum width increases with shorting the duration of the probe pulse. In experiment, a measurement of a 500-m Panda polarization-maintaining fiber with a 20-cm resolution is realized by using a 20-ns pump2 pulse and a 2-ns probe pulse. The results clearly show the 49-cm spatial period of the birefringence variation caused by the uneven stress as winding the fiber around a spool. Besides, longer spatial periods of the birefringence variation are also observed, which could be caused by the residual stress during the fiber drawing and coating processes or the nonuniformity of fiber preform.

© 2013 IEEE

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2012 (5)

R. K. Yamashita, W. Zou, Z. He, K. Hotate, "Measurement range elongation based on temporal gating in Brillouin optical correlation domain distributed simultaneous sensing of strain and temperature," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1006-1008 (2012).

Y. Antman, N. Primerov, J. Sancho, L. Thevenaz, Zadok, "Localized and stationary dynamic gratings via stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulated pumps," Opt. Express 20, 7808-7821 (2012).

S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Thevenaz, "Sub-centimeter spatial resolution in distributed fiber sensing based on dynamic Brillouin grating in optical fibers," IEEE Sens. J. 12, 189-194 (2012).

M. Santagiustina, L. Ursini, "Dynamic Brillouin gratings permanently sustained by chaotic lasers," Opt. Lett. 37, 893-895 (2012).

W. Gao, X. Hu, D. Sun, J. Li, "Simultaneous generation and Brillouin amplification of a dark hollow beam with a liquid-core optical fiber," Opt. Express 20, 20715-20720 (2012).

2011 (4)

2010 (6)

K. Y. Song, S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Thevenaz, "Time-domain distributed fiber sensor with 1 cm spatial resolution based on Brillouin dynamic grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2062-2067 (2010).

K. Y. Song, H. J. Yoon, "Observation of narrowband intrinsic spectra of Brillouin dynamic gratings," Opt. Lett. 35, 2958-2960 (2010).

Y. Dong, L. Chen, X. Bao, "Truly distributed birefringence measurement of polarization-maintaining fibers based on transient Brillouin grating," Opt. Lett. 35, 193-195 (2010).

Y. Dong, L. Chen, X. Bao, "High-spatial-resolution simultaneous strain and temperature sensor using Brillouin scattering and birefringence in a polarization-maintaining fibre," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1364-1366 (2010).

K. Y. Song, H. J. Yoon, "High-resolution Brillouin optical time domain analysis based on Brillouin dynamic grating," Opt. Lett. 35, 52-54 (2010).

Y. Dong, L. Chen, X. Bao, "Characterization of the Brillouin grating spectra in a polarization-maintaining fiber," Opt. Express 18, 18960-18967 (2010).

2009 (5)

W. Zou, Z. He, K. Hotate, "Complete discrimination of strain and temperature using Brillouin frequency shift and birefringence in a polarization-maintaining fiber," Opt. Express 17, 1248-1255 (2009).

K. Y. Song, K. Lee, S. B. Lee, "Tunable optical delays based on Brillouin dynamic grating in optical fibers," Opt. Express 17, 10344-10349 (2009).

Y. Dong, X. Bao, L. Chen, "Distributed temperature sensing based on birefringence effect on transient Brillouin grating in a polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 34, 2590-2592 (2009).

K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, K. Hotate, "Optical time-domain measurement of Brillouin dynamic grating spectrum in a polarization-maintaining fiber," Opt. Lett. 34, 1381-1383 (2009).

W. Zou, Z. He, K. Y. Song, K. Hotate, "Correlation-based distributed measurement of a dynamic grating spectrum generated in stimulated Brillouin scattering in a polarization-maintaining optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 34, 1126-1128 (2009).

2008 (2)

K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, K. Hotate, "All-optical dynamic grating generation based on Brillouin scattering in polarization-maintaining fiber," Opt. Lett. 33, 926-928 (2008).

V. P. Kalosha, W. Li, F. Wang, L. Chen, X. Bao, "Frequency-shifted light storage via stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 33, 2848-2850 (2008).

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, T. P. Newson, P. C. Wait, A. H. Hartog, "Influence of modulation instability on distributed optical fiber sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1156-1160 (2004).

2002 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

1995 (1)

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin-scattering," Lightw. Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. K. Yamashita, W. Zou, Z. He, K. Hotate, "Measurement range elongation based on temporal gating in Brillouin optical correlation domain distributed simultaneous sensing of strain and temperature," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1006-1008 (2012).

Y. Dong, L. Chen, X. Bao, "High-spatial-resolution simultaneous strain and temperature sensor using Brillouin scattering and birefringence in a polarization-maintaining fibre," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1364-1366 (2010).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Thevenaz, "Sub-centimeter spatial resolution in distributed fiber sensing based on dynamic Brillouin grating in optical fibers," IEEE Sens. J. 12, 189-194 (2012).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

K. Y. Song, S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Thevenaz, "Time-domain distributed fiber sensor with 1 cm spatial resolution based on Brillouin dynamic grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2062-2067 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, T. P. Newson, P. C. Wait, A. H. Hartog, "Influence of modulation instability on distributed optical fiber sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1156-1160 (2004).

Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin-scattering," Lightw. Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).

Opt. Lett. (6)

K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, K. Hotate, "All-optical dynamic grating generation based on Brillouin scattering in polarization-maintaining fiber," Opt. Lett. 33, 926-928 (2008).

K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, K. Hotate, "Optical time-domain measurement of Brillouin dynamic grating spectrum in a polarization-maintaining fiber," Opt. Lett. 34, 1381-1383 (2009).

Y. Dong, L. Chen, X. Bao, "Truly distributed birefringence measurement of polarization-maintaining fibers based on transient Brillouin grating," Opt. Lett. 35, 193-195 (2010).

K. Y. Song, H. J. Yoon, "Observation of narrowband intrinsic spectra of Brillouin dynamic gratings," Opt. Lett. 35, 2958-2960 (2010).

M. Santagiustina, L. Ursini, "Dynamic Brillouin gratings permanently sustained by chaotic lasers," Opt. Lett. 37, 893-895 (2012).

W. Zou, Z. He, K. Y. Song, K. Hotate, "Correlation-based distributed measurement of a dynamic grating spectrum generated in stimulated Brillouin scattering in a polarization-maintaining optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 34, 1126-1128 (2009).

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Photon. Sensors (1)

X. Bao, L. Chen, "Recent progress in optical fiber sensors based on Brillouin scattering at University of Ottawa," Photon. Sensors 1, 102-117 (2011).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).

Other (2)

Y. Dong, H. Zhang, Z. Lu, L. Chen, X. Bao, "Impacts of Kerr effect and fiber dispersion on long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis," Proc. SPIE (2012) pp. 84219Z.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

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