Abstract

This paper investigates the end facet roughness of multimode polymer channel waveguides fabricated on FR4 printed circuit boards, PCBs, when cut at right angles to their optical axis by milling routers for optical butt-coupling connectors and compares it with that resulting from dicing saws and polishing and proposes a novel end facet treatment. RMS surface roughness of waveguide end facets, measured by AFMs, are compared for a range of rotation speeds and translation speeds of a milling router. It was found that one-flute routers gave significantly less rough surfaces than two or three-flute routers. The best results were achieved for a one-flute router when the milling bit was inserted from the PCB side of the board with a rotation speed of 15,000 rpm and a translation speed of 0.25 m/min which minimized the waveguide core end facet RMS roughness to 183 ± 13 nm and gave input optical coupling loss of 1.7 dB ± 0.5 B and output optical coupling loss of 2.0 dB ± 0.7 dB. The lowest RMS roughness was obtained at chip loads of 16 µm/revolution. High rotation speeds should be avoided as smearing of the end facet occurs possibly due to polymer heating and softening. For the first time to our knowledge, channel waveguide optical insertion loss is shown to be linearly proportional to the ratio of the waveguide core end facet RMS roughness to its autocorrelation length. A new fabrication technique for cut waveguide end facet treatment is proposed and demonstrated which reduces the insertion loss by 2.60 dB ± 1.3 dB which is more than that achieved by the closest available index matching fluid which gave 2.23 dB ± 1.2 dB. The new fabrication method gives a more robust end facet for use in commercial products.

© 2013 EU

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2012 (1)

R. Pitwon, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, D. Selviah, "Firstlight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3316-3329 (2012).

2011 (2)

S. S. Zakariyah, P. P. Conway, D. A. Hutt, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, "Fabrication of polymer waveguides by laser ablation using a 355 nm wavelength Nd:YAG laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 3566-3576 (2011).

J. Nakayama, "Reflection, diffraction and scattering at low grazing angle of incidence: Regular and random systems," IEICE Trans. Electron. E94C, 2-9 (2011).

2010 (2)

M. E. Teitelbaum, R. Nair, D. J. O'Brien, E. D. Wetzel, K. W. Goossen, "Cost-effective integration of plastic optical fiber and total internal reflection mirrors in printed circuit boards for parallel optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 49, 456-461 (2010).

F. Morichetti, "Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, (2010).

2008 (2)

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. C. A. Pitwon, D. Milward, "Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 502-511 (2008).

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, "Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759-767 (2008).

2007 (1)

I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernandez, "Transition, radiation and propagation loss in polymer multimode waveguide bends," Opt. Expr. 15, 669-679 (2007).

2006 (1)

H. Sung-Hwan, C. Mu-Hee, K. Sae-Kyoung, P. Hyo-Hoon, S. C. Han, K. Sang-Hoon, S. Kyoung-Up, H. Sang-Won, "Passively assembled optical interconnection system based on an optical printed-circuit board," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 652-654 (2006).

2005 (1)

G. M. Gallatin, "Resist blur and line edge roughness," SPIE Optical Microlithogr. 5754, 38-52 (2005).

2000 (1)

D. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).

1994 (1)

M. Komatsu, "Machining performance of a router bit in the peripheral milling of wood . effects of the helix angle of the peripheral cutting-edge on the cutting force and machined-surface roughness," Mokuzai Gakkaishi 40, 134-141 (1994).

1993 (1)

H. Kamata, T. Kanauchi, "Analysis of machined surfaces with distal image-processing .1. Effect of grain angle in numerical control router machining," Mokuzai Gakkaishi 39, 1253-1258 (1993).

1989 (1)

J. M. Sotocrespo, M. Nietovesperinas, "Electromagnetic scattering from very rough random surfaces and deep reflection gratings," J. Optical Soc. Amer. A—Optics Image Sci. Vision 6, 367-384 (1989).

1984 (1)

D. Maystre, "Rigorous theory of light scattering from rough surfaces," Optics 15, 43-51 (1984).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Sung-Hwan, C. Mu-Hee, K. Sae-Kyoung, P. Hyo-Hoon, S. C. Han, K. Sang-Hoon, S. Kyoung-Up, H. Sang-Won, "Passively assembled optical interconnection system based on an optical printed-circuit board," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 652-654 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (2)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, "Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759-767 (2008).

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. C. A. Pitwon, D. Milward, "Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 502-511 (2008).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

J. Nakayama, "Reflection, diffraction and scattering at low grazing angle of incidence: Regular and random systems," IEICE Trans. Electron. E94C, 2-9 (2011).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

R. Pitwon, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, D. Selviah, "Firstlight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3316-3329 (2012).

S. S. Zakariyah, P. P. Conway, D. A. Hutt, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, "Fabrication of polymer waveguides by laser ablation using a 355 nm wavelength Nd:YAG laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 3566-3576 (2011).

J. Optical Soc. Amer. A—Optics Image Sci. Vision (1)

J. M. Sotocrespo, M. Nietovesperinas, "Electromagnetic scattering from very rough random surfaces and deep reflection gratings," J. Optical Soc. Amer. A—Optics Image Sci. Vision 6, 367-384 (1989).

Mokuzai Gakkaishi (2)

M. Komatsu, "Machining performance of a router bit in the peripheral milling of wood . effects of the helix angle of the peripheral cutting-edge on the cutting force and machined-surface roughness," Mokuzai Gakkaishi 40, 134-141 (1994).

H. Kamata, T. Kanauchi, "Analysis of machined surfaces with distal image-processing .1. Effect of grain angle in numerical control router machining," Mokuzai Gakkaishi 39, 1253-1258 (1993).

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. E. Teitelbaum, R. Nair, D. J. O'Brien, E. D. Wetzel, K. W. Goossen, "Cost-effective integration of plastic optical fiber and total internal reflection mirrors in printed circuit boards for parallel optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 49, 456-461 (2010).

Opt. Expr. (1)

I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernandez, "Transition, radiation and propagation loss in polymer multimode waveguide bends," Opt. Expr. 15, 669-679 (2007).

Optics (1)

D. Maystre, "Rigorous theory of light scattering from rough surfaces," Optics 15, 43-51 (1984).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Morichetti, "Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, (2010).

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).

SPIE Optical Microlithogr. (1)

G. M. Gallatin, "Resist blur and line edge roughness," SPIE Optical Microlithogr. 5754, 38-52 (2005).

Other (5)

J. Beals, IVN. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. , JrT. V. Clapp, M. Glick, "Terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics, Optical Soc. of Amer. (2008).

S. S. Zakariyah, P. P. Conway, D. A. Hutt, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, H. Baghsiahi, J. Rygate, J. Calver, W. Kandulski, "Polymer optical waveguide fabrication using laser ablation," Proc. 11th Electron. Packaging Technol. Conf. (2009) pp. 936-941.

M. Raposo, Q. Ferreira, P. Ribera, “A Guide for Atomic Force Microscopy Analysis of Soft-Condensed Matter Research and Education Topics in Microscopy,” (2007) pp. 758-769 http://www.formatex.org/microscopy3/pdf/.

Vortex Tool Ltd, Chip Load Chart and Information , (2011) http://www.vortextool.com/images/chipLoadChart.pdf.

D. R. Selviah, D. A. Hutt, A. C. Walker, K. Wang, F. A. Fernandez, P. P. Conway, D. Milward, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, "Innovative optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing research," Proc. 2nd Electron. Syst. Integration Technol. Conf., ESTC 2008 (2008) pp. 867-872.

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