Abstract

We demonstrate a robust, compact and low-loss four-channel wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) filter based on cascaded double-ring resonators (2RR) in silicon. The flat-top channel response obtained by the second-order filter design is exploited to compensate for the detrimental effects of local fabrication variations and their associated phase errors on the ring-based filter response. Full wafer-scale characterization of a cascaded, four-channel 2RR filter with channel spacing of 300 GHz shows an average worst-case insertion loss below 1.5 dB and an average worst-case crosstalk below $-$ 18 dB across the wafer, representing a substantial improvement over a first-order based ring (1RR) design. The robust 2RR filter design enables the use of a simple collective thermal tuning mechanism to compensate for global fabrication variations as well as for global temperature fluctuations of the WDM filter, the WDM laser source, or both. Highly uniform collective heating is demonstrated using integrated doped silicon heaters. The compact filter footprint of less than $50\times 50\ \mu{\rm m}^{2}$ per channel enables straightforward scaling of the WDM channel count to 8 channels and beyond. Such low-loss collectively tuned ring-based WDM filters can prove beneficial in scaling the bandwidth density of chip-level silicon optical interconnects.

© 2013 IEEE

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