Abstract

The dynamic properties of a nonlinear directional coupler made of Kerr materials are investigated using a normal-mode theory based on even and odd supermodes. This analysis provides a good platform to study the pulse propagation in nonlinear multimode waveguides, since the device is simple and can be regarded as a bimodal waveguide. Although the nonlinear directional coupler has already been well investigated using the standard coupled-mode theory, this paper presents new knowledge concerning the device operation from the standpoint of supermodes. Under the normal-mode model, power exchange between the two supermodes is performed through non-phase-matched four-wave mixing (FWM) and new frequency components are created on propagation, leading to spectral broadening of optical pulses. It is found that the group-delay mismatch between the two modes induces instability in collaboration to the nonlinearity when the duration of input pulses is of the order of sub-picoseconds. The dynamic properties of the nonlinear directional coupler are quite similar to those of the nonlinear MMI coupler that were more recently investigated by the present authors.

© 2013 IEEE

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2012 (1)

K. Ogusu, "All-optical switching in nonlinear multimode interference couplers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 082503-1-082503-5 (2012).

2011 (1)

J. H. Li, K. S. Chiang, K. W. Chow, "Modulation instabilities in two-core optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 28, 1693-1701 (2011).

2009 (1)

F. Poletti, P. Horak, "Dynamics of femtosecond supercontinuum generation in multimode fibers," Opt. Exp. 17, 6134-6147 (2009).

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

T. Chaipiboonwong, P. Horak, J. D. Mills, W. S. Brocklesby, "Numerical study of nonlinear interactions in a multimode waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 9040-9047 (2007).

2006 (1)

A.-P. Luo, W.-C. Xu, W.-C. Chen, H. Cui, "Switching dynamic analysis for twin-core fiber coupler using supermode theory," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 381-384 (2006).

2005 (1)

G.-J. Liu, B.-M. Liang, Q. Li, G.-L. Jin, "Beam propagation in nonlinear multimode interference waveguide," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 457-462 (2005).

2004 (2)

S. Droulias, M. Manousakis, K. Hizanidis, "Switching dynamics in nonlinear directional fiber couplers with intermodal dispersion," Opt. Commun. 240, 209-219 (2004).

K. Ogusu, J. Yamasaki, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, M. Minakata, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag–As–Se chalcogenide glasses for all-optical switching," Opt. Lett. 29, 265-267 (2004).

2003 (1)

A. J. Whang, S.-M. Chao, "Multimode interference all-optical logic gates via partially nonlinear propagation region," Opt. Rev. 10, 346-351 (2003).

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

P. M. Ramos, C. R. Paiva, "All-optical pulse switching in twin-core fiber couplers with intermodal dispersion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 983-989 (1999).

1997 (3)

M. Shamonin, M. Lohmeyer, P. Hertel, "Analysis of power-dependent switching between radiatively coupled planar waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 983-989 (1997).

K. S. Chiang, "Propagation of short optical pulses in directional couplers with Kerr nonlinearity," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 14, 1437-1443 (1997).

K. S. Chiang, "Coupled-mode equations for pulse switching in parallel waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 950-954 (1997).

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

1993 (1)

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, "Novel soliton states and bifurcation phenomena in nonlinear fiber couplers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2395-2398 (1993).

1990 (2)

J. E. Rothenberg, "Modulational instability for normal dispersion," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 42, 682-685 (1990).

P. D. Drummond, T. A. B. Kennedy, J. M. Dudley, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, "Cross-phase modulational instability in high-birefringence fibers," Opt. Commun. 78, 137-142 (1990).

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

Y. Silberberg, G. I. Stegeman, "Nonlinear coupling of waveguide modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 801-803 (1987).

1982 (2)

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1062-1072 (1982).

S. M. Jensen, "The nonlinear coherent coupler," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580-1583 (1982).

1974 (1)

H. Kogelnik, H. P. Weber, "Rays, stored energy, power flow in dielectric waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 64, 174-185 (1974).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Silberberg, G. I. Stegeman, "Nonlinear coupling of waveguide modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 801-803 (1987).

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

A.-P. Luo, W.-C. Xu, W.-C. Chen, H. Cui, "Switching dynamic analysis for twin-core fiber coupler using supermode theory," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 381-384 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. S. Chiang, "Coupled-mode equations for pulse switching in parallel waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 950-954 (1997).

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1062-1072 (1982).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. M. Ramos, C. R. Paiva, "All-optical pulse switching in twin-core fiber couplers with intermodal dispersion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 983-989 (1999).

S. M. Jensen, "The nonlinear coherent coupler," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580-1583 (1982).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

K. S. Chiang, "Propagation of short optical pulses in directional couplers with Kerr nonlinearity," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 14, 1437-1443 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

K. Ogusu, H. Li, "Pulse response of nonlinear multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. .

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

M. Shamonin, M. Lohmeyer, P. Hertel, "Analysis of power-dependent switching between radiatively coupled planar waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 983-989 (1997).

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G.-J. Liu, B.-M. Liang, Q. Li, G.-L. Jin, "Beam propagation in nonlinear multimode interference waveguide," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 457-462 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

H. Kogelnik, H. P. Weber, "Rays, stored energy, power flow in dielectric waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 64, 174-185 (1974).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

J. H. Li, K. S. Chiang, K. W. Chow, "Modulation instabilities in two-core optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 28, 1693-1701 (2011).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Ogusu, "All-optical switching in nonlinear multimode interference couplers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 082503-1-082503-5 (2012).

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Droulias, M. Manousakis, K. Hizanidis, "Switching dynamics in nonlinear directional fiber couplers with intermodal dispersion," Opt. Commun. 240, 209-219 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (1)

K. Ogusu, J. Yamasaki, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, M. Minakata, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag–As–Se chalcogenide glasses for all-optical switching," Opt. Lett. 29, 265-267 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. D. Drummond, T. A. B. Kennedy, J. M. Dudley, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, "Cross-phase modulational instability in high-birefringence fibers," Opt. Commun. 78, 137-142 (1990).

Opt. Exp. (2)

T. Chaipiboonwong, P. Horak, J. D. Mills, W. S. Brocklesby, "Numerical study of nonlinear interactions in a multimode waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 9040-9047 (2007).

F. Poletti, P. Horak, "Dynamics of femtosecond supercontinuum generation in multimode fibers," Opt. Exp. 17, 6134-6147 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

A. J. Whang, S.-M. Chao, "Multimode interference all-optical logic gates via partially nonlinear propagation region," Opt. Rev. 10, 346-351 (2003).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, "Novel soliton states and bifurcation phenomena in nonlinear fiber couplers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2395-2398 (1993).

Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. (1)

J. E. Rothenberg, "Modulational instability for normal dispersion," Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys. 42, 682-685 (1990).

Other (2)

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, 2006).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2006).

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