Abstract

The characterisation of dual-output Mach-Zehnder interferometers operating with long-range surface plasmon-polaritons at a free-space wavelength of $\sim$1370 nm is reported. The devices were constructed by embedding Au stripes in Cytop claddings, and consist of a symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer in cascade with a 50:50 coupler. By injecting electric current via probes to generate heat in the active region in one arm of the interferometer, a phase difference between the arms was thermo-optically induced, modulating the optical power of the two outputs. The outputs were complementary as expected theoretically, thus demonstrating the switching abilities of the structure. The advantages for sensing applications of a dual-output interferometer over a single-output one are a 2X larger dynamic range and the ability to cancel common noise and source fluctuations. The larger dynamic range and noise cancellation produced a minimum detectable phase shift 4X lower than obtained by monitoring a single output. The smallest value of $\Delta\phi_{\min}$ obtained was $\sim$3 mrad. The structure is especially promising for (bio)chemical sensing applications.

© 2013 IEEE

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2012 (2)

J. Ptasinski, L. Pang, P.-C. Sun, B. Slutsky, Y. Fainman, "Differential detection for nanoplasmonic resonance sensors," IEEE Sensors J. 12, 384-388 (2012).

H. Fan, R. Buckley, P. Berini, "Passive long-range surface plasmon-polariton devices in Cytop," Appl. Opt. 51, 1459-1467 (2012).

2010 (1)

C. Chiu, E. Lisicka-Shrzek, R. Niall Tait, P. Berini, "Fabrication of surface plasmon waveguides and devices in Cytop with integrated microfluidic channels," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 729-735 (2010).

2009 (1)

2006 (5)

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).

K. Leosson, T. Nikolajsen, A. Boltasseva, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Longrange surface plasmon polariton nanowire waveguides for device applications," Opt. Exp. 14, 314-319 (2006).

S. Park, S. H. Song, "Polymeric variable optical attenuator based on long range surface plasmon polaritons," Electron. Lett. 42, 402-404 (2006).

G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Thermally activated variable attenuation of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waves," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4391-4402 (2006).

I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation in embedded strip waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043104 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 413-422 (2005).

2004 (2)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).

S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, "Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration," Opt. Lett. 29, 2378-2380 (2004).

2002 (1)

P. Hua, B. Jonathan Luff, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, K. Kawaguchi, "Integrated optical dual Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor," Sensors and Actuators B 87, 250-257 (2002).

2000 (1)

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).

1999 (1)

R. G. Heideman, P. V. Lambeck, "Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: Design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phase-modulated Mach–Zehnder interferometer system," Sensors and Actuators B 61, 100-127 (1999).

1998 (1)

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, "Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 583-592 (1998).

1997 (1)

B. Drapp, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Ingenhoff, "Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers as simazine immunoprobes," Sensors and Actuators B 38–39, 277-282 (1997).

1994 (1)

1982 (1)

K. P. Koo, A. B. Tveten, A. Dandridge, "Passive stabilization scheme for fiber interferometers using (3 $\times$ 3) fiber directional couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 616 (1982).

1981 (1)

S. K. Sheem, "Optical fiber interferometers with [3 $\times$ 3] directional couplers: Analysis," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3865 (1981).

1980 (1)

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

H. Fan, P. Berini, "Thermo-optic characterisation of long-range surface plasmon devices in Cytop," Appl. Opt. .

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. P. Koo, A. B. Tveten, A. Dandridge, "Passive stabilization scheme for fiber interferometers using (3 $\times$ 3) fiber directional couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 616 (1982).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Park, S. H. Song, "Polymeric variable optical attenuator based on long range surface plasmon polaritons," Electron. Lett. 42, 402-404 (2006).

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

J. Ptasinski, L. Pang, P.-C. Sun, B. Slutsky, Y. Fainman, "Differential detection for nanoplasmonic resonance sensors," IEEE Sensors J. 12, 384-388 (2012).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. K. Sheem, "Optical fiber interferometers with [3 $\times$ 3] directional couplers: Analysis," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3865 (1981).

I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation in embedded strip waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043104 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 413-422 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Thermally activated variable attenuation of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waves," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4391-4402 (2006).

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, "Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 583-592 (1998).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

C. Chiu, E. Lisicka-Shrzek, R. Niall Tait, P. Berini, "Fabrication of surface plasmon waveguides and devices in Cytop with integrated microfluidic channels," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 729-735 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (1)

K. Leosson, T. Nikolajsen, A. Boltasseva, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Longrange surface plasmon polariton nanowire waveguides for device applications," Opt. Exp. 14, 314-319 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (1)

O. Krupin, H. Asiri, C. Wang, R. N. Tait, P. Berini, "Biosensing using straight long-range surface plasmon waveguides," Opt. Exp. .

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).

Sensors and Actuators B (1)

B. Drapp, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Ingenhoff, "Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers as simazine immunoprobes," Sensors and Actuators B 38–39, 277-282 (1997).

Sensors and Actuators B (1)

P. Hua, B. Jonathan Luff, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, K. Kawaguchi, "Integrated optical dual Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor," Sensors and Actuators B 87, 250-257 (2002).

Sensors and Actuators B (1)

R. G. Heideman, P. V. Lambeck, "Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: Design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phase-modulated Mach–Zehnder interferometer system," Sensors and Actuators B 61, 100-127 (1999).

Other (8)

Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley, 1982).

Surface Polaritons: Electromagnetic Waves at Surfaces and Interfaces (North Holland, 1982).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

E. D. Palik, G. Ghosh, Electronic Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1999).

A. B. Buckman, Guided-Wave Photonics (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992).

Asahi Glass Co., Ltd.Japan“Amorphous fluoropolymer CYTOP,” (2009) www.agc-cytop.com.

H. Asiri, Fabrication of surface plasmon biosensors in CYTOP Master's thesis Dept. Chem. Biolog. Eng. Univ. OttawaOttawaCanada (2012).

S. Takenobu, Y. Kuwana, K. Takayama, Y. Sakane, M. Ono, H. Sato, N. Keil, W. Brinker, H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, Y. Morizawa, N. Grote, "All-polymer 8 $\times$ 8 AWG wavelength router using ultra low loss polymer optical waveguide material (CYTOP)," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008).

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