Abstract

Silicon photonics which is compatible with mature complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication process has been extensively demonstrated for monolithic integration of photonic and electrical circuits. We show that an integrated silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) may be used for advanced modulation formats despite the nonlinear dependence of refractive index change with applied voltage in the free-carrier depletion modulator. We experimentally demonstrated the use of a silicon MZM for direct detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) modulation with advanced data formats of quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), 8 phase-shift keying (8PSK) and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM). The measured bit error rate performance of the back-to-back and 50 km single mode fiber transmission of each format is well below the forward error correction limit.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. P. J. Winzer, "High-spectral-efficiency optical modulation formats," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (2012).
  2. O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Exp. 12, 5269-5273 (2004).
  3. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 14, 9203-9210 (2006).
  4. R. E. C. Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "An electrical pumped germanium laser," Opt. Exp. 20, 11316-11320 (2012).
  5. X. Z. Zheng, I. Shubin, G. L. Li, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, J. Costa, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "A tunable 1 × 4 silicon CMOS photonic wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer for dense optical interconnects," Opt. Exp. 18, 5151-5160 (2010).
  6. A. W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, H. Chen, "Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection," Proc. IEEE 97, 1216-1238 (2009).
  7. H. L. R. Lira, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, "Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks," Opt. Exp. 17, 22271-22280 (2009).
  8. K. Xu, G. K. P. Lei, S. M. G. Lo, Z. Z. Cheng, C. Shu, H. K. Tsang, "Bit-rate-variable DPSK demodulation using silicon microring resonators with electro-optic wavelength tuning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (2012).
  9. K. Xu, L. Wang, G. K. P. Lei, Z. Z. Cheng, Y. M. Chen, C. Y. Wong, C. Shu, H. K. Tsang, "Demodulation of 20 GBaud/s differential quadrature phase-shift keying signals using wavelength-tunable silicon microring resonators," Opt. Lett 37, 3462-3464 (2012).
  10. K. Xu, Z. Z. Cheng, C. Y. Wong, H. K. Tsang, "Tunable integrated variable bit-rate DPSK silicon receiver," Opt. Lett 37, 4738-4740 (2012).
  11. C. R. Doerr, N. K. Fontaine, L. L. Buhl, "PDM-DQPSK silicon receiver with integrated monitor and minimum number of controls," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 697-699 (2012).
  12. A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
  13. K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK," Opt. Exp. 20, 8681-8688 (2012).
  14. P. Dong, C. J. Xie, L. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, Y.-K. Chen, "Experimental demonstration of microring quadrature phase-shift keying modulators," Opt. Lett 37, 1178-1180 (2012).
  15. A. M. Gutierrez, J. V. Galan, J. Herrera, A. Brimont, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fedeli, L. Vivien, P. Sanchis, "High linear ring-assisted MZI electro-optic silicon modulators suitable for Radio-over-Fiber applications," IEEE Group IV Photonics. (2012).
  16. R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
  17. W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Theory and design," Opt. Exp. 16, 841-859 (2008).
  18. C. W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, C.-L. Pan, S. Chi, "WDM extended reach passive optical networks using OFDM-QAM," Opt. Exp. 16, 12096-12101 (2008).
  19. C. W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, S. Chi, "Signal remodulation of OFDM-QAM for long reach carrier distributed passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 715-717 (2009).
  20. T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 307-315 (2010).
  21. X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, H. K. Tsang, "Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156-1158 (2010).
  22. X. B. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, F.-S. Chow, "Linearized Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 531-533 (2003).
  23. S. M. G. Lo, C. Li, H. K. Tsang, "Linearity of carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators," Proc. IEEE OptoElectronics Communications Conf. (2010) pp. 514-515.
  24. S. M. G. Lo, C. Li, H. K. Tsang, "Carrier depletion based linear silicon modulator," Proc. Conf. Lasers Elctro-Optics (CLEO) (2011).

2012

R. E. C. Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "An electrical pumped germanium laser," Opt. Exp. 20, 11316-11320 (2012).

K. Xu, G. K. P. Lei, S. M. G. Lo, Z. Z. Cheng, C. Shu, H. K. Tsang, "Bit-rate-variable DPSK demodulation using silicon microring resonators with electro-optic wavelength tuning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (2012).

K. Xu, L. Wang, G. K. P. Lei, Z. Z. Cheng, Y. M. Chen, C. Y. Wong, C. Shu, H. K. Tsang, "Demodulation of 20 GBaud/s differential quadrature phase-shift keying signals using wavelength-tunable silicon microring resonators," Opt. Lett 37, 3462-3464 (2012).

K. Xu, Z. Z. Cheng, C. Y. Wong, H. K. Tsang, "Tunable integrated variable bit-rate DPSK silicon receiver," Opt. Lett 37, 4738-4740 (2012).

C. R. Doerr, N. K. Fontaine, L. L. Buhl, "PDM-DQPSK silicon receiver with integrated monitor and minimum number of controls," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 697-699 (2012).

P. J. Winzer, "High-spectral-efficiency optical modulation formats," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (2012).

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK," Opt. Exp. 20, 8681-8688 (2012).

P. Dong, C. J. Xie, L. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, Y.-K. Chen, "Experimental demonstration of microring quadrature phase-shift keying modulators," Opt. Lett 37, 1178-1180 (2012).

2010

X. Z. Zheng, I. Shubin, G. L. Li, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, J. Costa, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "A tunable 1 × 4 silicon CMOS photonic wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer for dense optical interconnects," Opt. Exp. 18, 5151-5160 (2010).

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 307-315 (2010).

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, H. K. Tsang, "Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156-1158 (2010).

2009

A. W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, H. Chen, "Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection," Proc. IEEE 97, 1216-1238 (2009).

H. L. R. Lira, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, "Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks," Opt. Exp. 17, 22271-22280 (2009).

C. W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, S. Chi, "Signal remodulation of OFDM-QAM for long reach carrier distributed passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 715-717 (2009).

2008

W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Theory and design," Opt. Exp. 16, 841-859 (2008).

C. W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, C.-L. Pan, S. Chi, "WDM extended reach passive optical networks using OFDM-QAM," Opt. Exp. 16, 12096-12101 (2008).

2006

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 14, 9203-9210 (2006).

2004

O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Exp. 12, 5269-5273 (2004).

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).

2003

X. B. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, F.-S. Chow, "Linearized Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 531-533 (2003).

1987

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol.

P. J. Winzer, "High-spectral-efficiency optical modulation formats," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (2012).

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 307-315 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, H. K. Tsang, "Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156-1158 (2010).

X. B. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, F.-S. Chow, "Linearized Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 531-533 (2003).

K. Xu, G. K. P. Lei, S. M. G. Lo, Z. Z. Cheng, C. Shu, H. K. Tsang, "Bit-rate-variable DPSK demodulation using silicon microring resonators with electro-optic wavelength tuning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (2012).

C. R. Doerr, N. K. Fontaine, L. L. Buhl, "PDM-DQPSK silicon receiver with integrated monitor and minimum number of controls," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 697-699 (2012).

C. W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, S. Chi, "Signal remodulation of OFDM-QAM for long reach carrier distributed passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 715-717 (2009).

Nature

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).

Opt. Exp.

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK," Opt. Exp. 20, 8681-8688 (2012).

O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Exp. 12, 5269-5273 (2004).

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 14, 9203-9210 (2006).

R. E. C. Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "An electrical pumped germanium laser," Opt. Exp. 20, 11316-11320 (2012).

X. Z. Zheng, I. Shubin, G. L. Li, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, J. Costa, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "A tunable 1 × 4 silicon CMOS photonic wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer for dense optical interconnects," Opt. Exp. 18, 5151-5160 (2010).

W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Theory and design," Opt. Exp. 16, 841-859 (2008).

C. W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, C.-L. Pan, S. Chi, "WDM extended reach passive optical networks using OFDM-QAM," Opt. Exp. 16, 12096-12101 (2008).

H. L. R. Lira, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, "Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks," Opt. Exp. 17, 22271-22280 (2009).

Opt. Lett

K. Xu, L. Wang, G. K. P. Lei, Z. Z. Cheng, Y. M. Chen, C. Y. Wong, C. Shu, H. K. Tsang, "Demodulation of 20 GBaud/s differential quadrature phase-shift keying signals using wavelength-tunable silicon microring resonators," Opt. Lett 37, 3462-3464 (2012).

K. Xu, Z. Z. Cheng, C. Y. Wong, H. K. Tsang, "Tunable integrated variable bit-rate DPSK silicon receiver," Opt. Lett 37, 4738-4740 (2012).

P. Dong, C. J. Xie, L. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, Y.-K. Chen, "Experimental demonstration of microring quadrature phase-shift keying modulators," Opt. Lett 37, 1178-1180 (2012).

Proc. IEEE

A. W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, H. Chen, "Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection," Proc. IEEE 97, 1216-1238 (2009).

Other

A. M. Gutierrez, J. V. Galan, J. Herrera, A. Brimont, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fedeli, L. Vivien, P. Sanchis, "High linear ring-assisted MZI electro-optic silicon modulators suitable for Radio-over-Fiber applications," IEEE Group IV Photonics. (2012).

S. M. G. Lo, C. Li, H. K. Tsang, "Linearity of carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators," Proc. IEEE OptoElectronics Communications Conf. (2010) pp. 514-515.

S. M. G. Lo, C. Li, H. K. Tsang, "Carrier depletion based linear silicon modulator," Proc. Conf. Lasers Elctro-Optics (CLEO) (2011).

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