Abstract

In this work we analyze numerically and experimentally new active waveguides based on a bilayer structure composed by a passive polymer and an active poly(mehtyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film doped with CdSe colloidal quantum dots (QDs), namely a nancomposite. In a first bilayer structure a planar PMMA layer is deposited on top of the nanocomposite, where the signal beam intensity is enhanced because this cladding layer is able to collect radiated emission of QDs. Moreover, the pump beam is also propagating through the cladding without limitation by QD absorption. These results are extended to a second bilayer structure, where ridge patterns of a commercially available resist (SU-8) are deposited on the top of the nanocomposite active layer. These SU-8 patterns are also able to guide with low absorption losses both pump and signal beams. The optimum geometrical parameters of the bilayer structures were properly designed to optimize the light waveguiding, previous to their fabrication and optical characterization. For this purpose, a spontaneous emission model has been developed and programmed into an active beam propagation method. This technology can be the base for developing integrated photonics on silicon at visible and telecom wavelengths.

© 2013 IEEE

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  39. J. H. Yan, C. G. Wang, H. Zhang, C. Cheng, "Evaluation of emission cross section of CdSe quantum dots for laser applications," Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 529-531 (2012).
  40. C. A. Leatherdale, W. K. Woo, F. V. Mikulee, M. G. Bawendi, "On the absorption cross section of CdSe Nanocrystal quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7619-7622 (2002).
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2013 (1)

H. Gordillo, I. Suárez, R. Abargues, P. Rodríguez-Cantó, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, " Color tuning and white light by dispersing CdSe, CdTe, CdS in PMMA nanocomposite waveguides," IEEE Photonics J. 5, 220412 (2013).

2012 (3)

A. Bueno, I. Suárez, R. Abargues, S. Sales, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, "Temperature sensor based on colloidal quantum dots-PMMA nanocomposite waveguides," IEEE Sens. J. 12, 3069-3074 (2012).

H. Gordillo, I. Suárez, R. Abargues, P. Rodríguez-Cantó, S. Albert, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, "Polymer/QDs nanocomposites for waveguiding applications," J. Nanomater. 2012, 960201 (2012).

J. H. Yan, C. G. Wang, H. Zhang, C. Cheng, "Evaluation of emission cross section of CdSe quantum dots for laser applications," Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 529-531 (2012).

2011 (2)

N. C. Giebink, G. P. Wiederrecht, R. Wasielewski, "Resonance-shifting to circumvent reabsorption loss in luminescent solar concentrators," Nat. Photon. 5, 594-701 (2011).

I. Suárez, H. Gordillo, R. Abargues, S. Albert, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, "Photoluminescence waveguiding in CdSe and CdTe QDs-PMMA nanocomposite films," Nanotechnology 22, 435202 (2011).

2010 (3)

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danzm, K. Leosson, "Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer," Nat. Photon. 4, 457-461 (2010).

J. Clark, G. Lanzani, "Organic photonics for communications," Nat. Photon. 4, 438-446 (2010).

K. C. Tsang, C. Y. Wong, E. Y. B. Pu, "Eu3-doped planar optical polymer waveguide amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1024-1026 (2010).

2009 (5)

N. Tomczak, D. Janczeuski, M. Han, G. J. Vancson, "Designer polymer-quantum dot architectures," Prog. Polym. Sci. 34, 393-430 (2009).

T. N. Smirnova, O. V. Sakhno, P. V. Yezhov, L. M. Kokhtych, L. M. Goldenberg, J. Stumpe, " Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer-CdSe/ZnS-nanocrystal DFB structures produced by the holographic method," Nanotechnology 20, 245707 (2009).

D. Amarasinghe, A. Ruseckas, G. A. Turnbull, I. G. W. Samuel, "Organic semiconductor optical amplifiers," Proceedings of the IEEE 97, 1637-1650 (2009).

M. Ramuz, L. Bürgi, R. Stanley, C. Winnewisser, "Coupling light from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) into a single-mode waveguide: Toward monolithically integrated optical sensors," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 084508 (2009).

de Mello Donegá, R. Koole, "Size dependendence of the spontaneous emission rate and absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 6511-6520 (2009).

2008 (4)

D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, J. Brouckaert, P. Debackere, P. Dumon, S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillert, F. Van Laere, J. Van Campenhout, "Coupling mechanisms for a heterogeneous silicon nanowire platform," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064004 (2008).

D. Bosc, A. Maalouf, F. Henrio, S. Haesaert, "Strengthened poly(methacrylate) materials for optical waveguides and integrated functions," Opt. Mater. 30, 1514-1520 (2008).

M. A. Uddin, H. P. Chan, "Materials and process optimization in the reliable fabrication of polymer photonic devices," J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 10, 1-17 (2008).

J. J. Jaseniak, I. Fortunati, S. Gardin, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, A. Martucci, P. Mulvaney, "Highly efficient amplified stimulated emission from CdSe-CdS-ZnS quantum dot doped waveguides with two photon infrared optical pumping," Adv. Mater. 20, 69-73 (2008).

2007 (4)

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. H. Lee, "O/E integration of polymer waveguide devices by using replication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 13, 177-184 (2007).

M. B. Christiansen, M. Scholer, A. Kristensen, "Integration of active and passive polymer optics," Opt. Exp. 15, 3931-3939 (2007).

D. G. Rabus, M. Bruendel, Y. Ichihashi, A. Welle, R. A. Seger, M. Isaacson, " A bio-fluidic-photonic platform based on deep UV modification of polymers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 13, 214-222 (2007).

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photon. 1, 180-185 (2007).

2006 (3)

N. Pelletier, B. Bêche, E. Gaviot, L. Camberlein, N. Grossard, F. Polet, J. Zyss, "Single-mode rib optical waveguides on SOG/SU-8 polymer and integrated mach-zehnder for designing thermal sensors," IEEE Sens. J. 6, 565-570 (2006).

H. Sharma, S. N. Sharma, G. Sing, S. M. Shivaprasad, " Effect of ratios of Cd:Se in CdSe nanoparticles on optical edge shifts and photoluminescence properties," Physica E 31, 180 (2006).

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, M. Smit, "Adhesive bonding of InP/InGaAsP dies to processed silicon-on-insulator wafers using DVS-bis-benzocyclobutene," J. Electrochem. Soc. 153, G1505-G1019 (2006).

2005 (2)

M. A. Reilly, B. Coleman, E. Y. B. Pun, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Ramon, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, "Optical gain at 650 nm from a polymer waveguide with dye-doped cladding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231116 (2005).

B. Y. Shew, C. H. Kuo, Y. C. Huang, Y. H. Tsai, "UV-LIGA interferometer biosensor based on the SU-8 optical waveguide," Sensor Actuat. A-Phys 120, 383-389 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. A. Reilly, C. Marinelli, C. N. Morgan, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Ramon, M. Ariu, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, "Rib waveguide dye-doped polymer amplifier with up to 26 dB optical gain at 625 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5137-5139 (2004).

2003 (3)

V. I. Klimov, "Nanocrystal quantum dots: From fundamental photophysics to multicolor lasing," Los Alamos Sci. 28, 214-220 (2003).

J. de Merlier, D. V. Thourhout, G. Morthier, R. Baets, "Amplified spontaneous emission in index-guided multimodal waveguide structures ," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 1099-1105 (2003).

W. W. Yu, L. Qu, W. Guo, X. Peng, "Experimental determination of the extinction coefficient of CdTe, CdSe and CdS nanocrystals," Chem. Mater. 15, 2854-2860 (2003).

2002 (2)

C. A. Leatherdale, W. K. Woo, F. V. Mikulee, M. G. Bawendi, "On the absorption cross section of CdSe Nanocrystal quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7619-7622 (2002).

W. W. Yu, X. Peng, " Formation of high-quality CdS and other II–VI semiconductor nanocrystals in noncoordinating solvents: Tunable reactivity of monomers," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41, 2368-2371 (2002).

2000 (1)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).

1997 (2)

F. Caccavale, F. Segato, I. Mansour, "A numerical study of erbium doped active LiNbO3 waveguides by the beam propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 2294-2300 (1997).

W. Teiss, "Optical properties of porous silicon," Surf. Sci. Rep. 29, 91-192 (1997).

1996 (1)

P. Alivisatos, "Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13226-13239 (1996).

1993 (1)

W. P. Huang, "Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2639-2649 (1993).

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. J. Jaseniak, I. Fortunati, S. Gardin, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, A. Martucci, P. Mulvaney, "Highly efficient amplified stimulated emission from CdSe-CdS-ZnS quantum dot doped waveguides with two photon infrared optical pumping," Adv. Mater. 20, 69-73 (2008).

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

W. W. Yu, X. Peng, " Formation of high-quality CdS and other II–VI semiconductor nanocrystals in noncoordinating solvents: Tunable reactivity of monomers," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41, 2368-2371 (2002).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. A. Reilly, B. Coleman, E. Y. B. Pun, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Ramon, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, "Optical gain at 650 nm from a polymer waveguide with dye-doped cladding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231116 (2005).

M. A. Reilly, C. Marinelli, C. N. Morgan, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Ramon, M. Ariu, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, "Rib waveguide dye-doped polymer amplifier with up to 26 dB optical gain at 625 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5137-5139 (2004).

Chem. Mater. (1)

W. W. Yu, L. Qu, W. Guo, X. Peng, "Experimental determination of the extinction coefficient of CdTe, CdSe and CdS nanocrystals," Chem. Mater. 15, 2854-2860 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. P. Huang, "Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2639-2649 (1993).

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

J. de Merlier, D. V. Thourhout, G. Morthier, R. Baets, "Amplified spontaneous emission in index-guided multimodal waveguide structures ," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 1099-1105 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. (2)

D. G. Rabus, M. Bruendel, Y. Ichihashi, A. Welle, R. A. Seger, M. Isaacson, " A bio-fluidic-photonic platform based on deep UV modification of polymers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 13, 214-222 (2007).

J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. H. Lee, "O/E integration of polymer waveguide devices by using replication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 13, 177-184 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. C. Tsang, C. Y. Wong, E. Y. B. Pu, "Eu3-doped planar optical polymer waveguide amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1024-1026 (2010).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

H. Gordillo, I. Suárez, R. Abargues, P. Rodríguez-Cantó, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, " Color tuning and white light by dispersing CdSe, CdTe, CdS in PMMA nanocomposite waveguides," IEEE Photonics J. 5, 220412 (2013).

IEEE Sens. J. (2)

A. Bueno, I. Suárez, R. Abargues, S. Sales, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, "Temperature sensor based on colloidal quantum dots-PMMA nanocomposite waveguides," IEEE Sens. J. 12, 3069-3074 (2012).

N. Pelletier, B. Bêche, E. Gaviot, L. Camberlein, N. Grossard, F. Polet, J. Zyss, "Single-mode rib optical waveguides on SOG/SU-8 polymer and integrated mach-zehnder for designing thermal sensors," IEEE Sens. J. 6, 565-570 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Ramuz, L. Bürgi, R. Stanley, C. Winnewisser, "Coupling light from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) into a single-mode waveguide: Toward monolithically integrated optical sensors," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 084508 (2009).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, M. Smit, "Adhesive bonding of InP/InGaAsP dies to processed silicon-on-insulator wafers using DVS-bis-benzocyclobutene," J. Electrochem. Soc. 153, G1505-G1019 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

F. Caccavale, F. Segato, I. Mansour, "A numerical study of erbium doped active LiNbO3 waveguides by the beam propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 2294-2300 (1997).

J. Nanomater. (1)

H. Gordillo, I. Suárez, R. Abargues, P. Rodríguez-Cantó, S. Albert, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, "Polymer/QDs nanocomposites for waveguiding applications," J. Nanomater. 2012, 960201 (2012).

J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. (1)

M. A. Uddin, H. P. Chan, "Materials and process optimization in the reliable fabrication of polymer photonic devices," J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 10, 1-17 (2008).

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

P. Alivisatos, "Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13226-13239 (1996).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C. A. Leatherdale, W. K. Woo, F. V. Mikulee, M. G. Bawendi, "On the absorption cross section of CdSe Nanocrystal quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7619-7622 (2002).

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

de Mello Donegá, R. Koole, "Size dependendence of the spontaneous emission rate and absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 6511-6520 (2009).

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

J. H. Yan, C. G. Wang, H. Zhang, C. Cheng, "Evaluation of emission cross section of CdSe quantum dots for laser applications," Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 529-531 (2012).

Los Alamos Sci. (1)

V. I. Klimov, "Nanocrystal quantum dots: From fundamental photophysics to multicolor lasing," Los Alamos Sci. 28, 214-220 (2003).

Nanotechnology (2)

T. N. Smirnova, O. V. Sakhno, P. V. Yezhov, L. M. Kokhtych, L. M. Goldenberg, J. Stumpe, " Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer-CdSe/ZnS-nanocrystal DFB structures produced by the holographic method," Nanotechnology 20, 245707 (2009).

I. Suárez, H. Gordillo, R. Abargues, S. Albert, J. P. Martínez-Pastor, "Photoluminescence waveguiding in CdSe and CdTe QDs-PMMA nanocomposite films," Nanotechnology 22, 435202 (2011).

Nat. Photon. (4)

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photon. 1, 180-185 (2007).

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danzm, K. Leosson, "Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer," Nat. Photon. 4, 457-461 (2010).

J. Clark, G. Lanzani, "Organic photonics for communications," Nat. Photon. 4, 438-446 (2010).

N. C. Giebink, G. P. Wiederrecht, R. Wasielewski, "Resonance-shifting to circumvent reabsorption loss in luminescent solar concentrators," Nat. Photon. 5, 594-701 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (1)

M. B. Christiansen, M. Scholer, A. Kristensen, "Integration of active and passive polymer optics," Opt. Exp. 15, 3931-3939 (2007).

Opt. Mater. (1)

D. Bosc, A. Maalouf, F. Henrio, S. Haesaert, "Strengthened poly(methacrylate) materials for optical waveguides and integrated functions," Opt. Mater. 30, 1514-1520 (2008).

Physica E (1)

H. Sharma, S. N. Sharma, G. Sing, S. M. Shivaprasad, " Effect of ratios of Cd:Se in CdSe nanoparticles on optical edge shifts and photoluminescence properties," Physica E 31, 180 (2006).

Proceedings of the IEEE (1)

D. Amarasinghe, A. Ruseckas, G. A. Turnbull, I. G. W. Samuel, "Organic semiconductor optical amplifiers," Proceedings of the IEEE 97, 1637-1650 (2009).

Prog. Polym. Sci. (1)

N. Tomczak, D. Janczeuski, M. Han, G. J. Vancson, "Designer polymer-quantum dot architectures," Prog. Polym. Sci. 34, 393-430 (2009).

Science (1)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, J. Brouckaert, P. Debackere, P. Dumon, S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillert, F. Van Laere, J. Van Campenhout, "Coupling mechanisms for a heterogeneous silicon nanowire platform," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064004 (2008).

Sensor Actuat. A-Phys (1)

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