Abstract

We demonstrate a 40 Gbit/s silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator driven by a differential voltage of 0.36 Vpp. The energy efficiency is as low as 32.4 fJ/bit which is near the power efficiency of the ring modulator. We analyze the relationship between the electrical bandwidth and the electro-optical (EO) bandwidth based on the electrical S parameter measurement. Because of the nonlinear response, the electro-optical bandwidths in the small-signal tests are is slightly different when the modulator is biased at different transmission points. But the EO response is much different when the optical phase change is large enough to cover the nonlinear and linear regions at the same time. The nonlinearity can greatly improve the EO response in large-signal test. In our experiment, the rise/fall (20%–80%) time decreases from 13 ps to 10 ps as the driving amplitude increases from 5 V to 6 V under the same reverse bias of 3 V.

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2012 (4)

J. F. Ding, H. T. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, Y. H. Tian, W. W. Zhu, Y. Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, M. B. Yu, "Ultra-low-power carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 20, 7082-7087 (2012).

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, "Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator," Opt. Exp. 20, 12014-12020 (2012).

P. Dong, L. Chen, Y. Chen, "High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators," Opt. Exp. 20, 6163-6169 (2012).

D. A. B. Miller, "Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects," Opt. Exp. 20, A293-A308 (2012).

2011 (8)

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "25 Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning," Opt. Exp. 19, 20435-20443 (2011).

G. Kim, J. Woo Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. Kim, D. Jeong, M. Hwang, J. Kim, K. Park, H. Chi, H. Kim, D. Kim, M. H. Cho, "Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s," Opt. Exp. 19, 26936-26947 (2011).

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, "Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators," Opt. Exp. 19, 26017-26026 (2011).

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, P. Dong, Y. Chen, "Monolithic silicon chip with 10 modulator channels at 25 Gbps and 100-GHz spacing," Opt. Exp. 19, B946-B951 (2011).

K. Ogawa, K. Goi, Y. T. Tan, T. Liow, X. Tu, Q. Fang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator of extinction ratio beyond 10 dB at 10.0–12.5 Gbps," Opt. Exp. 19, B26-B31 (2011).

X. G. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, "Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method," Opt. Express 19, 18029-18035 (2011).

D. J. Thomson, "50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234-236 (2011).

R. Q. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. H. Tian, J. F. Ding, H. T. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, P. Zhou, W. W. Zhu, "Five-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip," Opt. Exp. 19, 20258-20268 (2011).

2010 (4)

S. Assefa, F. N. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, "Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects," Nature 464, 80-84 (2010).

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, "Silicon optical modulators," Photon. 4, 518-526 (2010).

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Z. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, "High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 7994-7999 (2010).

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage," Opt. Lett. 35, 3246-3248 (2010).

2009 (1)

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, "Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product," Nat. Photon. 3, 59-63 (2009).

2008 (2)

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, M. Lipson, "Optical 4 × 4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC)," Opt. Exp. 16, 15915-15922 (2008).

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, G. R. Zhou, M. E. Grein1, F. Gan, M. A. Popovic, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-compatible dual-output silicon modulator for analog signal processing," Opt. Exp. 16, 11027-11031 (2008).

2007 (3)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007).

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications," Electron. Lett 43, (2007).

D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).

2006 (1)

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 14, 9203-9210 (2006).

2005 (2)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).

1988 (1)

F. Koyama, K. Iga, "Frequency chirping in external modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 87-93 (1988).

1987 (1)

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).

Electron. Lett (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications," Electron. Lett 43, (2007).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. J. Thomson, "50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234-236 (2011).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

F. Koyama, K. Iga, "Frequency chirping in external modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 87-93 (1988).

Nat. Photon. (1)

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, "Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product," Nat. Photon. 3, 59-63 (2009).

Nature (4)

S. Assefa, F. N. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, "Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects," Nature 464, 80-84 (2010).

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (16)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007).

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 14, 9203-9210 (2006).

R. Q. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. H. Tian, J. F. Ding, H. T. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, P. Zhou, W. W. Zhu, "Five-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip," Opt. Exp. 19, 20258-20268 (2011).

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, M. Lipson, "Optical 4 × 4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC)," Opt. Exp. 16, 15915-15922 (2008).

D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, G. R. Zhou, M. E. Grein1, F. Gan, M. A. Popovic, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-compatible dual-output silicon modulator for analog signal processing," Opt. Exp. 16, 11027-11031 (2008).

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Z. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, "High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 7994-7999 (2010).

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "25 Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning," Opt. Exp. 19, 20435-20443 (2011).

D. A. B. Miller, "Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects," Opt. Exp. 20, A293-A308 (2012).

G. Kim, J. Woo Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. Kim, D. Jeong, M. Hwang, J. Kim, K. Park, H. Chi, H. Kim, D. Kim, M. H. Cho, "Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s," Opt. Exp. 19, 26936-26947 (2011).

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, "Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators," Opt. Exp. 19, 26017-26026 (2011).

J. F. Ding, H. T. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, Y. H. Tian, W. W. Zhu, Y. Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, M. B. Yu, "Ultra-low-power carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 20, 7082-7087 (2012).

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, "Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator," Opt. Exp. 20, 12014-12020 (2012).

P. Dong, L. Chen, Y. Chen, "High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators," Opt. Exp. 20, 6163-6169 (2012).

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, P. Dong, Y. Chen, "Monolithic silicon chip with 10 modulator channels at 25 Gbps and 100-GHz spacing," Opt. Exp. 19, B946-B951 (2011).

K. Ogawa, K. Goi, Y. T. Tan, T. Liow, X. Tu, Q. Fang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator of extinction ratio beyond 10 dB at 10.0–12.5 Gbps," Opt. Exp. 19, B26-B31 (2011).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, "Silicon optical modulators," Photon. 4, 518-526 (2010).

Other (2)

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, "Low-power 30 Gbps silicon microring modulator," Proc. CLEO-Laser Appl. Photonic Appl. OSA Tech. Dig., (CD) (2011).

D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering (Wiley, 1998).

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