Abstract

The residual stress (RS) and refractive index (RI) distributions of large-mode-area (LMA) erbium-doped fibers (EDFs) are measured for the first time using a high-resolution three-dimensional index-stress distribution measurement method. The effects of fiber manufacturing, cleaving, and arc fusion splicing of a commercially available LMA EDF are concurrently characterized at state-of-the-art stress, index, and spatial resolutions. RS induced via fiber manufacturing results in RI changes as large as 1.2 × 10<sup>-4</sup> RI units through the photo-elastic effect. The relaxation of RS within ~30<i>μ</i>m of a cleaved end-face reverses the stress-induced RI changes formed during fiber manufacturing. After fusion splicing, an even larger stress-induced RI change of 3.5 × 10<sup>-4</sup> RI units results over an axial distance on the order of millimeters. The diffusion of core dopants reduces the maximum core RI by as much as 21.7% along a transition region length of ~400<i>μ</i>m. These measurements represent the first of many required to develop future ultra LMA EDFs where RS effects and dopant diffusion are absolutely critical for fiber design and performance.

© 2013 IEEE

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2013 (2)

T. Feng, F. Yan, Q. Li, W. Peng, S. Feng, S. Tan, X. Wen, "Stable single longitudinal mode erbium-doped silica fiber laser based on asymmetric linear three-cavity structure," Chin. Phys. B 22, 014208 (5 pp.) (2013).

T. Feng, F. Yan, Q. Li, W. Peng, S. Tan, S. Feng, P. Liu, X. Wen, "A stable wavelength-tunable single frequency and single polarization linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser," Laser Phys. 23, 025101 (7 pp.) (2013).

2012 (4)

Q. Li, F. Yan, W. Peng, T. Feng, S. Feng, S. Tan, P. Liu, W. Ren, "DFB laser based on single mode large effective area heavy concentration EDF," Opt. Exp. 20, 23684-23689 (2012).

M. Li, J. Ma, X. Zhang, Y. Song, W. Du, "Investigation of black box model for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in space radiation environment," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3667-3671 (2012).

T. Feng, F. Yan, Q. Li, W. Peng, S. Feng, X. Wen, P. Liu, S. Tan, "Stable and high OSNR compound linear-cavity single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped silica fiber laser based on an asymmetric four-cavity structure," Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 104205 (4 pp.) (2012).

M. R. Hutsel, T. K. Gaylord, "Concurrent three-dimensional characterization of the refractive-index and residual-stress distributions in optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 51, 5442-5452 (2012).

2011 (4)

M. R. Hutsel, R. R. Ingle, T. K. Gaylord, "Technique and apparatus for accurate cross-sectional stress profiling of optical fibers," IEEE T. Instrum. Meas. 60, 971-979 (2011).

J. Peng, L. Liu, H. Wei, J. Sun, Z. Kang, S. Jian, "Theoretical analysis and experiment on a novel kind of single mode large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 25, 1193-1202 (2011).

J. J. Koponen, L. Petit, T. Kokki, V. Aallos, J. Paul, H. Ihalainen, "Progress in direct nanoparticle deposition for the development of the next generation fiber lasers," Opt. Eng. 50, 111605 (11 pp.) (2011).

X. He, D. Wang, C. Liao, "Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 842-849 (2011).

2009 (4)

S. K. Varshney, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, B. P. Pal, R. Sinha, "Design of s-band erbium-doped concentric dual-core photonic crystal fiber amplifiers with ASE suppression," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1725-1733 (2009).

X. He, X. Fang, C. Liao, D. Wang, J. Sun, "A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity," Opt. Exp. 17, 21773-21781 (2009).

F. Just, H. R. Muller, S. Unger, J. Kirchhof, V. Reichel, H. Bartelt, "Ytterbium-doping related stresses in preforms for high-power fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2111-2116 (2009).

M. R. Hutsel, R. Ingle, T. K. Gaylord, "Accurate cross-sectional stress profiling of optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 48, 4985-4995 (2009).

2008 (5)

I. H. Shin, B. H. Kim, S. P. Veetil, W. T. Han, D. Y. Kim, "Residual stress relaxation in cleaved fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 75-79 (2008).

O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, T. Eidam, F. Roser, J. Limpert, A. Tunnermann, K. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, J. Broeng, "Single-polarization ultra-large-mode-area Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 3918-3923 (2008).

H. Huang, R. M. Miura, J. J. Wylie, "Optical fiber drawing and dopant transport," SIAM J. Appl. Math. 69, 330-347 (2008).

N. M. Dragomir, X. M. Goh, A. Roberts, "Three-dimensional refractive index reconstruction with quantitative phase tomography," Micro. Res. Tech. 71, 5-10 (2008).

I. H. Shin, S. Ju, S. P. Veetil, W. T. Han, D. Y. Kim, "Simple model for frozen-in viscoelastic stress in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 2504-2508 (2008).

2007 (1)

J. Luo, "Modeling dissimilar optical fiber splices with substantial diffusion," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3575-3579 (2007).

2006 (5)

C. C. Montarou, T. K. Gaylord, A. I. Dachevski, "Residual stress profiles in optical fibers determined by the two-waveplate-compensator method," Opt. Commun. 265, 29-32 (2006).

J. J. Koponen, M. J. Soderlund, H. J. Hoffman, S. K. T. Tammela, "Measuring photodarkening from single-mode ytterbium doped silica fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 11539-11544 (2006).

Y. Yan, R. Pitchumani, "Numerical study on the dopant concentration and refractive index profile evolution in an optical fiber manufacturing process," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 49, 2097-2112 (2006).

J. Zhou, J. Chen, X. Li, G. Wu, Y. Wang, W. Jiang, "Robust, compact, and flexible neural model for a fiber Raman amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2362-2367 (2006).

M. Zhou, S. George, W. Gillian, "Stable single-mode operation of a narrow-linewidth, linearly polarized, erbium-fiber ring laser using a saturable absorber," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2179-2183 (2006).

2004 (5)

K. Lyytikainen, S. T. Huntington, A. L. G. Carter, P. McNamara, S. Fleming, J. Abramczyk, I. Kaplin, G. Schotz, "Dopant diffusion during optical fibre drawing," Opt. Exp. 12, 972-977 (2004).

A. D. Yablon, "Optical and mechanical effects of frozen-in stresses and strains in optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 300-311 (2004).

Y. Park, U.-C. Paek, S. Han, B.-H. Kim, C.-S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, "Inelastic frozen-in stress in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 242, 431-436 (2004).

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).

D. Paganin, A. Barty, P. J. McMahon, K. A. Nugent, "Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy. III. The effects of noise," J. Microsc. 214, 51-61 (2004).

2002 (2)

1999 (2)

K. W. Raine, R. Feced, S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, "Measurement of axial stress at high spatial resolution in ultraviolet-exposed fibers," Appl. Opt. 38, 1086-1095 (1999).

S. K. Kim, G. Stewart, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, "Mode-hop-free single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser frequency scanned with a fiber ring resonator," Appl. Opt. 38, 5154-5157 (1999).

1996 (2)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).

J. Yamauchi, Y. Akimoto, M. Nibe, H. Nakano, "Wide-angle propagating beam analysis for circularly symmetric waveguides: comparison between FD-BPM and FD-TDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 236-238 (1996).

1994 (1)

J. Zhang, J. W. Y. Lit, "Erbium-doped fiber compound-ring laser with a ring filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 588-590 (1994).

1991 (1)

H. Y. Tam, "Simple fusion splicing technique for reducing splicing loss between standard singlemode fibers and erbium-doped fiber," Electron. Lett. 27, 1597-1599 (1991).

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

P. L. Chu, T. Whitbread, "Stress transformation due to fusion splicing in optical fiber," Electron. Lett. 20, 599-600 (1984).

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

1975 (1)

1959 (1)

W. Primak, D. Post, "Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index," J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779-788 (1959).

Appl. Opt. (1)

K. W. Raine, R. Feced, S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, "Measurement of axial stress at high spatial resolution in ultraviolet-exposed fibers," Appl. Opt. 38, 1086-1095 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (10)

Chin. Phys. B (1)

T. Feng, F. Yan, Q. Li, W. Peng, S. Feng, S. Tan, X. Wen, "Stable single longitudinal mode erbium-doped silica fiber laser based on asymmetric linear three-cavity structure," Chin. Phys. B 22, 014208 (5 pp.) (2013).

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Feng, F. Yan, Q. Li, W. Peng, S. Feng, X. Wen, P. Liu, S. Tan, "Stable and high OSNR compound linear-cavity single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped silica fiber laser based on an asymmetric four-cavity structure," Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 104205 (4 pp.) (2012).

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. L. Chu, T. Whitbread, "Stress transformation due to fusion splicing in optical fiber," Electron. Lett. 20, 599-600 (1984).

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Y. Tam, "Simple fusion splicing technique for reducing splicing loss between standard singlemode fibers and erbium-doped fiber," Electron. Lett. 27, 1597-1599 (1991).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

A. D. Yablon, "Optical and mechanical effects of frozen-in stresses and strains in optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 300-311 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Zhang, J. W. Y. Lit, "Erbium-doped fiber compound-ring laser with a ring filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 588-590 (1994).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Yamauchi, Y. Akimoto, M. Nibe, H. Nakano, "Wide-angle propagating beam analysis for circularly symmetric waveguides: comparison between FD-BPM and FD-TDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 236-238 (1996).

IEEE T. Instrum. Meas. (1)

M. R. Hutsel, R. R. Ingle, T. K. Gaylord, "Technique and apparatus for accurate cross-sectional stress profiling of optical fibers," IEEE T. Instrum. Meas. 60, 971-979 (2011).

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (1)

Y. Yan, R. Pitchumani, "Numerical study on the dopant concentration and refractive index profile evolution in an optical fiber manufacturing process," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 49, 2097-2112 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Primak, D. Post, "Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index," J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779-788 (1959).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

J. Luo, "Modeling dissimilar optical fiber splices with substantial diffusion," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3575-3579 (2007).

J. Zhou, J. Chen, X. Li, G. Wu, Y. Wang, W. Jiang, "Robust, compact, and flexible neural model for a fiber Raman amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2362-2367 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

M. Zhou, S. George, W. Gillian, "Stable single-mode operation of a narrow-linewidth, linearly polarized, erbium-fiber ring laser using a saturable absorber," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2179-2183 (2006).

M. Li, J. Ma, X. Zhang, Y. Song, W. Du, "Investigation of black box model for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in space radiation environment," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3667-3671 (2012).

X. He, D. Wang, C. Liao, "Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 842-849 (2011).

S. K. Varshney, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, B. P. Pal, R. Sinha, "Design of s-band erbium-doped concentric dual-core photonic crystal fiber amplifiers with ASE suppression," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1725-1733 (2009).

F. Just, H. R. Muller, S. Unger, J. Kirchhof, V. Reichel, H. Bartelt, "Ytterbium-doping related stresses in preforms for high-power fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2111-2116 (2009).

J. Microsc. (1)

D. Paganin, A. Barty, P. J. McMahon, K. A. Nugent, "Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy. III. The effects of noise," J. Microsc. 214, 51-61 (2004).

Laser Phys. (1)

T. Feng, F. Yan, Q. Li, W. Peng, S. Tan, S. Feng, P. Liu, X. Wen, "A stable wavelength-tunable single frequency and single polarization linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser," Laser Phys. 23, 025101 (7 pp.) (2013).

Micro. Res. Tech. (1)

N. M. Dragomir, X. M. Goh, A. Roberts, "Three-dimensional refractive index reconstruction with quantitative phase tomography," Micro. Res. Tech. 71, 5-10 (2008).

Mod. Phys. Lett. B (1)

J. Peng, L. Liu, H. Wei, J. Sun, Z. Kang, S. Jian, "Theoretical analysis and experiment on a novel kind of single mode large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 25, 1193-1202 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. J. Koponen, M. J. Soderlund, H. J. Hoffman, S. K. T. Tammela, "Measuring photodarkening from single-mode ytterbium doped silica fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 11539-11544 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).

Opt. Commun. (4)

I. H. Shin, S. Ju, S. P. Veetil, W. T. Han, D. Y. Kim, "Simple model for frozen-in viscoelastic stress in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 2504-2508 (2008).

C. C. Montarou, T. K. Gaylord, A. I. Dachevski, "Residual stress profiles in optical fibers determined by the two-waveplate-compensator method," Opt. Commun. 265, 29-32 (2006).

Y. Park, U.-C. Paek, S. Han, B.-H. Kim, C.-S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, "Inelastic frozen-in stress in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 242, 431-436 (2004).

I. H. Shin, B. H. Kim, S. P. Veetil, W. T. Han, D. Y. Kim, "Residual stress relaxation in cleaved fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 75-79 (2008).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. J. Koponen, L. Petit, T. Kokki, V. Aallos, J. Paul, H. Ihalainen, "Progress in direct nanoparticle deposition for the development of the next generation fiber lasers," Opt. Eng. 50, 111605 (11 pp.) (2011).

Opt. Exp. (4)

K. Lyytikainen, S. T. Huntington, A. L. G. Carter, P. McNamara, S. Fleming, J. Abramczyk, I. Kaplin, G. Schotz, "Dopant diffusion during optical fibre drawing," Opt. Exp. 12, 972-977 (2004).

X. He, X. Fang, C. Liao, D. Wang, J. Sun, "A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity," Opt. Exp. 17, 21773-21781 (2009).

Q. Li, F. Yan, W. Peng, T. Feng, S. Feng, S. Tan, P. Liu, W. Ren, "DFB laser based on single mode large effective area heavy concentration EDF," Opt. Exp. 20, 23684-23689 (2012).

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