Abstract

Multimode polymer waveguides are promising for use in board-level optical interconnects. In recent years, various on-board optical interconnection architectures have been demonstrated making use of passive routing waveguide components. In particular, 90° bends have played important roles in complex waveguide layouts enabling interconnection between non co-linear points on a board. Due to the dimensions and index step of the waveguides typically used in on-board optical interconnects, low-loss bends are typically limited to a radius of ~ 10 mm. This paper therefore presents the design and fabrication of compact low-loss waveguide bends with reduced radii of curvature, offering significant reductions in the required areas for on-board optical circuits. The proposed design relies on the exposure of the bend section to the air, achieving tighter light confinement along the bend and reduced bending losses. Simulation studies carried out with ray tracing tools and experimental results from polymer samples fabricated on FR4 are presented. Low bending losses are achieved from the air-exposed bends up to 4 mm of radius of curvature, while an improvement of 14 <i>μ</i>m in the 1 dB alignment tolerances at the input of these devices (fibre to waveguide coupling) is also obtained. Finally, the air-exposed bends are employed in an optical bus structure, offering reductions in insertion loss of up to 3.8 dB.

© 2013 IEEE

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2012 (3)

M. A. Taubenblatt, "Optical interconnects for high-performance computing," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 448-457 (2012).

R. C. A. Pitwon, "FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3316-3329 (2012).

N. Bamiedakis, A. Hashim, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Regenerative polymeric bus architecture for board-level optical interconnects," Opt. Exp. 20, 11625-11636 (2012).

2011 (1)

H.-H. Hsu, T. Ishigure, "High-density channel alignment of graded index core polymer optical waveguide and its crosstalk analysis with ray tracing method," Opt. Exp. 18, 13368-13378 (2011).

2009 (3)

J. Beals, "A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 983-988 (2009).

N. Bamiedakis, "Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 415-424 (2009).

F. E. Doany, "160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32, 345-359 (2009).

2008 (2)

R. Dangel, "Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759-767 (2008).

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. Pitwon, D. Milward, "Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 502-511 (2008).

2007 (2)

A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, K. Yokouchi, "Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems," Opt. Eng. 46, 015403-015410 (2007).

M. P. Immonen, M. Karppinen, J. K. Kivilahti, "Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards," Microelectron. Reliab. 47, 363-371 (2007).

2006 (2)

L. Schares, "Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).

L. Eldada, "Advances in polymer-based dynamic photonic components, modules, and subsystems," Passive Components Fiber-Based Devices III, Parts 1 and 2 6351, 244-253 (2006).

2004 (1)

I. Salinas, I. Garces, R. Alonso, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, "Simple estimation of transition losses in bends of wide optical waveguides by a ray tracing method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 825-827 (2004).

2001 (1)

T. Bierhoff, A. Wallrabenstein, A. Himmler, E. Griese, G. Mrozynski, "Ray tracing technique and its verification for the analysis of highly multimode optical waveguides with rough surfaces," IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 3307-3310 (2001).

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

J. Beals, "A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 983-988 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Schares, "Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Bamiedakis, "Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 415-424 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

I. Salinas, I. Garces, R. Alonso, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, "Simple estimation of transition losses in bends of wide optical waveguides by a ray tracing method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 825-827 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (3)

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. Pitwon, D. Milward, "Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 502-511 (2008).

R. Dangel, "Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759-767 (2008).

F. E. Doany, "160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32, 345-359 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Magn. (1)

T. Bierhoff, A. Wallrabenstein, A. Himmler, E. Griese, G. Mrozynski, "Ray tracing technique and its verification for the analysis of highly multimode optical waveguides with rough surfaces," IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 3307-3310 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

R. C. A. Pitwon, "FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3316-3329 (2012).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. A. Taubenblatt, "Optical interconnects for high-performance computing," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 448-457 (2012).

Microelectron. Reliab. (1)

M. P. Immonen, M. Karppinen, J. K. Kivilahti, "Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards," Microelectron. Reliab. 47, 363-371 (2007).

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, K. Yokouchi, "Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems," Opt. Eng. 46, 015403-015410 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (1)

N. Bamiedakis, A. Hashim, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Regenerative polymeric bus architecture for board-level optical interconnects," Opt. Exp. 20, 11625-11636 (2012).

Opt. Exp. (1)

H.-H. Hsu, T. Ishigure, "High-density channel alignment of graded index core polymer optical waveguide and its crosstalk analysis with ray tracing method," Opt. Exp. 18, 13368-13378 (2011).

Passive Components Fiber-Based Devices III, Parts 1 and 2 (1)

L. Eldada, "Advances in polymer-based dynamic photonic components, modules, and subsystems," Passive Components Fiber-Based Devices III, Parts 1 and 2 6351, 244-253 (2006).

Other (7)

J. V. DeGroot, Jr.Passive Components and Fiber-based Devices IV (SPIE, 2007) pp. 678116-678112.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals IV, A. H. Hashim, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX (SPIE, 2010) pp. 76070O-76011.

G. Oulundsen, III"Design considerations for bendoptimized multimode fiber," Proc. 59th IWCS (2010) pp. 457-463.

N. Bamiedakis, A. Hashim, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "A polymeric regenerative optical bus for board-level optical interconnections," Proc. OFC (2012) pp. 1-2.

A. Hashim, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Multimode 90°-crossings, combiners and splitters for a polymer-based on-board optical bus," Proc. CLEO (2012) pp. 1-2.

X. Dou, A. X. Wang, X. Lin, H. Haiyu, R. T. Chen, "Optical bus waveguide metallic hard mold fabrication with opposite 45° micro-mirrors," Proc. SPIE (2010) pp. 76070P.

Zemax software: http://www.radiantzemax.com/en/design/.

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