Abstract

Many applications of optical frequency combs (OFCs) require manipulation and amplification of individual comb modes, e.g., arbitrary waveform generation, terahertz generation and telecommunications. Extracting individual comb modes can be a challenging task for OFCs with narrow comb mode spacings (100 MHz to 10 GHz) due to the limitations of conventional optical filters. Optical injection locking can address this problem, but—due to the relatively large bandwidth (1 to 10 GHz) required for simple (i.e., without the need for additional feedback loops) and stable locking—can struggle when processing OFCs with sub-GHz comb mode spacings. Here, we present an approach to optical injection locking which incorporates a dither-free phase locked loop that allowed for long-term locking to OFCs with comb spacings below the high power injection locking bandwidth. As a result, we achieved robust injection locking directly to a sub-GHz OFC (250 MHz in our experiments). Optimization of the optical injection power is carried out using detailed phase noise characterization. We achieved an Allan deviation for the frequency variation of the slave laser with respect to the injected comb mode (1 s gate time) down to 9.7 × 10<sup>-17</sup> and 4.4 × 10<sup>-19</sup> at 1 s and 1000 s averaging times respectively, and a phase error variance of 0.02 rad<sup>2</sup> (integration bandwidth of 100 Hz to 500 MHz).

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  32. Y. Xingwen, S. William, M. Yiran, "Phase noise effects on high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1309-1316 (2008).
  33. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).
  34. Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 30, 1557-1559 (2005).
  35. S. H. Lee, H. Y. Ryu, W. K. Lee, Y. P. Kim, H. S. Suh, "Discretely tunable optical frequency synthesizer utilizing a femtosecond fiber laser injection-locking technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1435-1437 (2009).
  36. D. S. Wu, R. Slavik, G. Marra, D. J. Richardson, "Robust optical injection locking to a 250 MHz frequency comb without narrow-band optical pre-filtering," Proc. CLEO (2011) pp. 273-275.
  37. D. S. Wu, R. Slavik, G. Marra, D. J. Richardson, "Phase noise characterization of injection locked semiconductor lasers to a 250 MHz optical frequency comb," Proc. CLEO (2012) pp. 1-2.
  38. D. S. Wu, R. Slavik, G. Marra, D. J. Richardson, "Phase noise and jitter characterization of pulses generated by optical injection locking to an optical frequency comb," Proc. Frontiers in Optics (FiO/LS XXVIII) (2012).
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  44. B. Kelly, "Discrete mode laser diodes with very narrow linewidth emission," Electron. Lett. 43, 1282-1284 (2007).
  45. Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Optical processing based on spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on a phase-modulated CW laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 657-666 (2006).
  46. L. A. Johansson, A. J. Seeds, "Millimeter-wave modulated optical signal generation with high spectral purity and wide-locking bandwidth using a fiber-integrated optical injection phase-lock loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 690-692 (2000).
  47. W. F. Walls, F. L. Walls, "Computation of time-domain frequency stability and jitter from PM noise measurements," Proc. MAPAN-Journal of Metrology Society of India 218-225 (2001).

2013 (1)

G. J. Schneider, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, D. W. Prather, "Radiofrequency signal-generation system with over seven octaves of continuous tuning," Nature Photon. 7, 118-122 (2013).

2012 (1)

A. Fragkos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, R. Phelan, "Colorless regenerative amplification of constant envelope phase-modulated optical signals based on injection-locked Fabry-Perot lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 28-30 (2012).

2011 (1)

D. Hillerkuss, "26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing," Nature Photon. 5, 364-371 (2011).

2010 (2)

M. Akbulut, S. Bhooplapur, I. Ozdur, J. Davila-Rodriguez, P. J. Delfyett, "Dynamic line-by-line pulse shaping with GHz update rate," Opt. Exp. 18, 18284-18291 (2010).

Y. Xingwen, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, S. Yoo, "Tb/s coherent optical OFDM systems enabled by optical frequency combs," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2054-2061 (2010).

2009 (4)

S. A. Diddams, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio of 10 GHz microwave signals generated with a mode-filtered femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Exp. 17, 3331-3340 (2009).

Y. J. Kim, Y. Kim, B. J. Chun, S. Hyun, S. W. Kim, "All-fiber-based optical frequency generation from an Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser," Opt. Exp. 17, 10939-10945 (2009).

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Ryu, W. K. Lee, Y. P. Kim, H. S. Suh, "Discretely tunable optical frequency synthesizer utilizing a femtosecond fiber laser injection-locking technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1435-1437 (2009).

E. K. Lau, L. J. Wong, M. C. Wu, "Enhanced modulation characteristics of optical injection-locked lasers: A tutorial," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 618-633 (2009).

2008 (5)

E. K. Lau, "Bandwidth enhancement by master modulation of optical injection-locked lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2584-2593 (2008).

H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Lee, W. K. Lee, H. S. Moon, H. S. Suh, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene stabilized laser using a selected single mode from a femtosecond fiber laser comb," Opt. Exp. 16, 2867-2873 (2008).

Y. Xingwen, S. William, M. Yiran, "Phase noise effects on high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1309-1316 (2008).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

G. K. Campbell, "The absolute frequency of the (87)Sr optical clock transition," Metrologia 45, 539-548 (2008).

2007 (3)

N. K. Fontaine, "32 phase × 32 amplitude optical arbitrary waveform generation," Opt. Lett. 32, 865-867 (2007).

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines," Nature Photon. 1, 463-467 (2007).

B. Kelly, "Discrete mode laser diodes with very narrow linewidth emission," Electron. Lett. 43, 1282-1284 (2007).

2006 (4)

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Optical processing based on spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on a phase-modulated CW laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 657-666 (2006).

H. S. Moon, E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Y. Park, "Selection and amplification of modes of an optical frequency comb using a femtosecond laser injection-locking technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) 181110.

S. E. Park, "Sweep optical frequency synthesizer with a distributed-Bragg-refiector laser injection locked by a single component of an optical frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 31, 3594-3596 (2006).

A. J. Seeds, K. J. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4628-4641 (2006).

2005 (4)

A. D. Ellis, F. C. G. Gunning, "Spectral density enhancement using coherent WDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 504-506 (2005).

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, L. Hollberg, "High-resolution spectroscopy with a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 30, 1734-1736 (2005).

L. S. Ma, "International comparisons of femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 746-749 (2005).

Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 30, 1557-1559 (2005).

2004 (1)

L. S. Ma, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10(-19) level," Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004).

2003 (2)

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, L. W. Hollberg, "Optical frequency combs: From frequency metrology to optical phase control," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 1041-1058 (2003).

S. Fukushima, C. F. C. Silva, Y. Muramoto, A. J. Seeds, "Optoelectronic millimeter-wave synthesis using an optical frequency comb generator, optically injection locked lasers, and a unitraveling-carrier photodiode," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3043-3051 (2003).

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).

2001 (2)

S. Fukushima, C. F. C. Silva, Y. Muramoto, A. J. Seeds, "10 to 110 GHz tunable opto-electronic frequency synthesis using optical frequency comb generator and uni-travelling-carrier photodiode," Electronics Letters 37, 780-781 (2001).

W. F. Walls, F. L. Walls, "Computation of time-domain frequency stability and jitter from PM noise measurements," Proc. MAPAN-Journal of Metrology Society of India 218-225 (2001).

2000 (1)

L. A. Johansson, A. J. Seeds, "Millimeter-wave modulated optical signal generation with high spectral purity and wide-locking bandwidth using a fiber-integrated optical injection phase-lock loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 690-692 (2000).

1999 (2)

H. R. Telle, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 69, 327-332 (1999).

A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, A. J. Seeds, "High-performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection locking and optical phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 328-342 (1999).

1998 (1)

C. Walton, A. C. Bordonalli, A. J. Seeds, "High-performance heterodyne optical injection phase-lock loop using wide linewidth semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 427-429 (1998).

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

R. Olshansky, "Noise figure for erbium-doped optical fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 24, 1363-1365 (1988).

1985 (1)

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, "Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor-laser with external light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 784-793 (1985).

1983 (1)

R. C. Steele, "Optical phase-locked loop using semiconductor-laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 19, 69-71 (1983).

Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. (1)

H. R. Telle, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 69, 327-332 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. S. Moon, E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Y. Park, "Selection and amplification of modes of an optical frequency comb using a femtosecond laser injection-locking technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) 181110.

Electron. Lett. (3)

R. Olshansky, "Noise figure for erbium-doped optical fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 24, 1363-1365 (1988).

R. C. Steele, "Optical phase-locked loop using semiconductor-laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 19, 69-71 (1983).

B. Kelly, "Discrete mode laser diodes with very narrow linewidth emission," Electron. Lett. 43, 1282-1284 (2007).

Electronics Letters (1)

S. Fukushima, C. F. C. Silva, Y. Muramoto, A. J. Seeds, "10 to 110 GHz tunable opto-electronic frequency synthesis using optical frequency comb generator and uni-travelling-carrier photodiode," Electronics Letters 37, 780-781 (2001).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Optical processing based on spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on a phase-modulated CW laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 657-666 (2006).

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, "Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor-laser with external light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 784-793 (1985).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, L. W. Hollberg, "Optical frequency combs: From frequency metrology to optical phase control," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 1041-1058 (2003).

E. K. Lau, L. J. Wong, M. C. Wu, "Enhanced modulation characteristics of optical injection-locked lasers: A tutorial," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 618-633 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

A. Fragkos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, R. Phelan, "Colorless regenerative amplification of constant envelope phase-modulated optical signals based on injection-locked Fabry-Perot lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 28-30 (2012).

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Ryu, W. K. Lee, Y. P. Kim, H. S. Suh, "Discretely tunable optical frequency synthesizer utilizing a femtosecond fiber laser injection-locking technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1435-1437 (2009).

A. D. Ellis, F. C. G. Gunning, "Spectral density enhancement using coherent WDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 504-506 (2005).

C. Walton, A. C. Bordonalli, A. J. Seeds, "High-performance heterodyne optical injection phase-lock loop using wide linewidth semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 427-429 (1998).

L. A. Johansson, A. J. Seeds, "Millimeter-wave modulated optical signal generation with high spectral purity and wide-locking bandwidth using a fiber-integrated optical injection phase-lock loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 690-692 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

L. S. Ma, "International comparisons of femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 746-749 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

A. J. Seeds, K. J. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4628-4641 (2006).

Y. Xingwen, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, S. Yoo, "Tb/s coherent optical OFDM systems enabled by optical frequency combs," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2054-2061 (2010).

E. K. Lau, "Bandwidth enhancement by master modulation of optical injection-locked lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2584-2593 (2008).

S. Fukushima, C. F. C. Silva, Y. Muramoto, A. J. Seeds, "Optoelectronic millimeter-wave synthesis using an optical frequency comb generator, optically injection locked lasers, and a unitraveling-carrier photodiode," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3043-3051 (2003).

A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, A. J. Seeds, "High-performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection locking and optical phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 328-342 (1999).

Y. Xingwen, S. William, M. Yiran, "Phase noise effects on high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1309-1316 (2008).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

Metrologia (1)

G. K. Campbell, "The absolute frequency of the (87)Sr optical clock transition," Metrologia 45, 539-548 (2008).

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).

Nature Photon. (3)

D. Hillerkuss, "26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing," Nature Photon. 5, 364-371 (2011).

G. J. Schneider, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, D. W. Prather, "Radiofrequency signal-generation system with over seven octaves of continuous tuning," Nature Photon. 7, 118-122 (2013).

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines," Nature Photon. 1, 463-467 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (4)

M. Akbulut, S. Bhooplapur, I. Ozdur, J. Davila-Rodriguez, P. J. Delfyett, "Dynamic line-by-line pulse shaping with GHz update rate," Opt. Exp. 18, 18284-18291 (2010).

S. A. Diddams, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio of 10 GHz microwave signals generated with a mode-filtered femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Exp. 17, 3331-3340 (2009).

Y. J. Kim, Y. Kim, B. J. Chun, S. Hyun, S. W. Kim, "All-fiber-based optical frequency generation from an Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser," Opt. Exp. 17, 10939-10945 (2009).

H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Lee, W. K. Lee, H. S. Moon, H. S. Suh, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene stabilized laser using a selected single mode from a femtosecond fiber laser comb," Opt. Exp. 16, 2867-2873 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (6)

Proc. MAPAN-Journal of Metrology Society of India (1)

W. F. Walls, F. L. Walls, "Computation of time-domain frequency stability and jitter from PM noise measurements," Proc. MAPAN-Journal of Metrology Society of India 218-225 (2001).

Science (1)

L. S. Ma, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10(-19) level," Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004).

Other (7)

S. Ayotte, "Semiconductor laser white noise suppression by optical filtering with ultra-narrowband FBG," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011 (2011).

E. K. Lau, M. C. Wu, "Amplitude and frequency modulation of the master laser in injection-locked laser systems," Proc. IEEE MWP (2004) pp. 142-145.

D. S. Wu, R. Slavik, G. Marra, D. J. Richardson, "Robust optical injection locking to a 250 MHz frequency comb without narrow-band optical pre-filtering," Proc. CLEO (2011) pp. 273-275.

D. S. Wu, R. Slavik, G. Marra, D. J. Richardson, "Phase noise characterization of injection locked semiconductor lasers to a 250 MHz optical frequency comb," Proc. CLEO (2012) pp. 1-2.

D. S. Wu, R. Slavik, G. Marra, D. J. Richardson, "Phase noise and jitter characterization of pulses generated by optical injection locking to an optical frequency comb," Proc. Frontiers in Optics (FiO/LS XXVIII) (2012).

N. Koda, S. Hohchido, K. Kashiwagi, Y. Tanaka, T. Kurokawa, "Channel selection by optical injection locking in frequency-comb based DWDM transmission," Proc. OECC (2012) pp. 831-832.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers/Anthony E. Siegman (University Science Books, 1986).

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