Abstract

Optical processing of optical labels at high-bit rate is expected in broadband photonic label routers. So far, a variety of optical waveguide circuits and systems to recognize optical BPSK and QPSK coded labels have been studied. In this paper, we propose optical waveguide circuits to recognize optical 16QAM codes. The circuits consist of multi-stage connection of previously proposed circuit for QPSK code recognition. The recognition characteristics for 16QAM codes are theoretically analyzed. To confirm the recognition principle, FD-BPM simulation is performed with a two-dimensional model. Scaled circuits for recognition of 2-symbol 16QAM coded labels and 64QAM codes are also discussed.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. D. J. Blumenthal, B. E. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).
  2. K. Kitayama, N. Wada, H. Sotobayahi, "Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based upon optical code correlation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1834-1844 (2000).
  3. O. Moriwaki, T. Kitoh, T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, "Novel PLC-based optical correlator for multiple phase-modulated labels," IEEE Photon. Thechnol. Lett. 17, 489-491 (2005).
  4. G. Cincotti, "Full optical encoders/decoders for photonic IP router," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 337-342 (2004).
  5. H. Hiura, J. Narita, N. Goto, "Optical label recognition using tree-structure self-routing circuits consisting of asymmetric x-junction," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 2270-2277 (2007).
  6. H. Hiura, Y. Makimoto, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric x-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labelsh," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5543-5551 (2009).
  7. Y. Makimoto, H. Hiura, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Waveguide-type optical circuit for recognition of optical QPSK coded labels in photonic routerh," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 60-67 (2009).
  8. A. Ihara, H. Kishikawa, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Passive waveguide device consisting of cascaded asymmetric x-junction couplers for high-contrast recognition of optical BPSK labels," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1306-1313 (2011).
  9. G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, T. Miyazaki, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, J. Ichikawa, "Reconfigurable multilevel transmitter using monolithically integrated quad mach-zehnder IQ modulator for optical 16-QAM and 8-PSK generation," Opt. Exp. 19, 5596-5601 (2011).
  10. T. Goh, H. Yamazaki, T. Kominato, M. Yoshida, "Novel flexible-format optical modulator with selectable combinations of carrier numbers and modulation levels based on silica-PLC and LiNbO3 Hybrid Integration," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2011 (2011).
  11. S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, O. F. Yilmaz, M. Tur, M. W. Haney, A. E. Willner, "Universal QAM encoder/converter using fully tunable complex-coefficient optical tapped-delay line," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012 (2012).
  12. G. Huang, Y. Miyoshi, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, "All-optical OOK to 16QAM modulation conversion based on nonlinear optical loop mirror with 1:2 coupler," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012 (2012).
  13. T. Richter, E. Palushani, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, L. Molle, M. Nölle, C. Schubert, "Transmission of single-channel 16-QAM data signals at terabaud symbol rates," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 504-511 (2012).
  14. M. Nakazawa, S. Okamoto, T. Omiya, K. Kasai, M. Yoshida, "256-QAM(64 Gb/s) coherent optical transmission over 160 km with an optical bandwidth of 5.4 GHz," IEEE Photon. Technol, Lett. 22, 185-187 (2010).
  15. S. Okamoto, K. Toyoda, T. Omiya, K. Kasai, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, "512-QAM (54 Gbit/s) coherent optical transmission over 150 km with an optical bandwidth of 4.1 GHz," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2010 (2010) pp. 19-23.
  16. Y. Sakamaki, H. Yamazaki, T. Mizuno, T. Goh, Y. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, S. Kamei, K. Hattori, H. Takahashi, T. Kobayashi, M. Ishikawa, "Dual polarization optical hybrid using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology for digital coherent receiver," Electron. Lett. 46, (2010).

2012 (1)

T. Richter, E. Palushani, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, L. Molle, M. Nölle, C. Schubert, "Transmission of single-channel 16-QAM data signals at terabaud symbol rates," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 504-511 (2012).

2011 (2)

A. Ihara, H. Kishikawa, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Passive waveguide device consisting of cascaded asymmetric x-junction couplers for high-contrast recognition of optical BPSK labels," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1306-1313 (2011).

G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, T. Miyazaki, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, J. Ichikawa, "Reconfigurable multilevel transmitter using monolithically integrated quad mach-zehnder IQ modulator for optical 16-QAM and 8-PSK generation," Opt. Exp. 19, 5596-5601 (2011).

2010 (2)

M. Nakazawa, S. Okamoto, T. Omiya, K. Kasai, M. Yoshida, "256-QAM(64 Gb/s) coherent optical transmission over 160 km with an optical bandwidth of 5.4 GHz," IEEE Photon. Technol, Lett. 22, 185-187 (2010).

Y. Sakamaki, H. Yamazaki, T. Mizuno, T. Goh, Y. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, S. Kamei, K. Hattori, H. Takahashi, T. Kobayashi, M. Ishikawa, "Dual polarization optical hybrid using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology for digital coherent receiver," Electron. Lett. 46, (2010).

2009 (2)

H. Hiura, Y. Makimoto, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric x-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labelsh," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5543-5551 (2009).

Y. Makimoto, H. Hiura, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Waveguide-type optical circuit for recognition of optical QPSK coded labels in photonic routerh," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 60-67 (2009).

2007 (1)

H. Hiura, J. Narita, N. Goto, "Optical label recognition using tree-structure self-routing circuits consisting of asymmetric x-junction," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 2270-2277 (2007).

2005 (1)

O. Moriwaki, T. Kitoh, T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, "Novel PLC-based optical correlator for multiple phase-modulated labels," IEEE Photon. Thechnol. Lett. 17, 489-491 (2005).

2004 (1)

G. Cincotti, "Full optical encoders/decoders for photonic IP router," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 337-342 (2004).

2000 (2)

D. J. Blumenthal, B. E. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).

K. Kitayama, N. Wada, H. Sotobayahi, "Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based upon optical code correlation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1834-1844 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Sakamaki, H. Yamazaki, T. Mizuno, T. Goh, Y. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, S. Kamei, K. Hattori, H. Takahashi, T. Kobayashi, M. Ishikawa, "Dual polarization optical hybrid using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology for digital coherent receiver," Electron. Lett. 46, (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol, Lett. (1)

M. Nakazawa, S. Okamoto, T. Omiya, K. Kasai, M. Yoshida, "256-QAM(64 Gb/s) coherent optical transmission over 160 km with an optical bandwidth of 5.4 GHz," IEEE Photon. Technol, Lett. 22, 185-187 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Thechnol. Lett. (1)

O. Moriwaki, T. Kitoh, T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, "Novel PLC-based optical correlator for multiple phase-modulated labels," IEEE Photon. Thechnol. Lett. 17, 489-491 (2005).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

H. Hiura, J. Narita, N. Goto, "Optical label recognition using tree-structure self-routing circuits consisting of asymmetric x-junction," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 2270-2277 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

H. Hiura, Y. Makimoto, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric x-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labelsh," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5543-5551 (2009).

Y. Makimoto, H. Hiura, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Waveguide-type optical circuit for recognition of optical QPSK coded labels in photonic routerh," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 60-67 (2009).

A. Ihara, H. Kishikawa, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Passive waveguide device consisting of cascaded asymmetric x-junction couplers for high-contrast recognition of optical BPSK labels," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1306-1313 (2011).

G. Cincotti, "Full optical encoders/decoders for photonic IP router," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 337-342 (2004).

D. J. Blumenthal, B. E. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).

K. Kitayama, N. Wada, H. Sotobayahi, "Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based upon optical code correlation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1834-1844 (2000).

T. Richter, E. Palushani, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, L. Molle, M. Nölle, C. Schubert, "Transmission of single-channel 16-QAM data signals at terabaud symbol rates," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 504-511 (2012).

Opt. Exp. (1)

G.-W. Lu, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, T. Miyazaki, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, J. Ichikawa, "Reconfigurable multilevel transmitter using monolithically integrated quad mach-zehnder IQ modulator for optical 16-QAM and 8-PSK generation," Opt. Exp. 19, 5596-5601 (2011).

Other (4)

T. Goh, H. Yamazaki, T. Kominato, M. Yoshida, "Novel flexible-format optical modulator with selectable combinations of carrier numbers and modulation levels based on silica-PLC and LiNbO3 Hybrid Integration," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2011 (2011).

S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, O. F. Yilmaz, M. Tur, M. W. Haney, A. E. Willner, "Universal QAM encoder/converter using fully tunable complex-coefficient optical tapped-delay line," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012 (2012).

G. Huang, Y. Miyoshi, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, "All-optical OOK to 16QAM modulation conversion based on nonlinear optical loop mirror with 1:2 coupler," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012 (2012).

S. Okamoto, K. Toyoda, T. Omiya, K. Kasai, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, "512-QAM (54 Gbit/s) coherent optical transmission over 150 km with an optical bandwidth of 4.1 GHz," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2010 (2010) pp. 19-23.

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