Abstract

We extend the Golay coded Optical Time Domain Reflectometry OTDR technique for the first time from direct-detection to coherent OTDR, investigating the unique issues arising in the coherent setting regarding signal processing operations and efficient real-time implementation of the DSP in practical coherent OTDR receivers and the resulting OTDR performance. We also derive detailed signal flow block diagrams for direct-detection and coherent OTDRs and use an intuitive analogy between spatial speckle and temporal coherent fading noise to guide the selection of OTDR system parameters. We present extensive simulations of the OTDR signal and noise flow accounting for all major effects including the optical source coherence and the backscatter random fading.

© 2013 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Healey, "Review of long wavelength single-mode optical fiber reflectometry techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 876-886 (1985).
  2. P. Healey, "Fading in heterodyne OTDR," Electron. Lett. 20, 30-32 (1984).
  3. P. Healey, "Fading rates in coherent OTDR," Electron. Lett. 20, 443- (1984).
  4. P. Healey, R. C. Booth, B. E. Daymond-John, N. K. Nayar, "OTDR in single-mode fibre at 1.5 um using homodyne detection," Electron. Lett. 20, 360-362 (1984).
  5. J. King, D. Smith, K. Richards, P. Timson, R. Epworth, S. Wright, "Development of a coherent OTDR instrument," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 616-624 (1987).
  6. T. Otani, Y. Horiuchi, T. Kawazawa, K. Goto, S. Akiba, "Fault localization of optical WDM submarine cable networks using coherent-optical time-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1000-1002 (1998).
  7. Y. Horiuchi, S. Ryu, K. Mochizuki, H. Wakabayashi, "Novel coherent heterodyne optical time domain reflectometry for fault localization of optical amplifier submarine cable systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 291-293 (1990).
  8. M. Sumida, "OTDR performance enhancement using a quaternary FSK modulated probe and coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 336-338 (1995).
  9. H. Iida, Y. Koshikiya, F. Ito, K. Tanaka, "High sensitivity coherent optical time domain reflectometry employing frequency division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1121-1126 (2012).
  10. K. Okada, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibat, Y. Nagaky, "Optical cable fault location using correlation technique," Electron. Lett. 629- (1980).
  11. P. Healey, "Pulse compression coding in optical time domain reflectometry," Proc. 7th Eur. Conf. Opt. Comun. (1981) pp. 5.2-1.
  12. M. Zaboli, P. Bassi, "High spatial resolution OTDR attenuation measurement by a correlation technique," Appl. Opt. 22, 3680- (1983).
  13. M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, R. P. Giffard, D. S. Moberly, F. Sischka, W. R. Trutna, S. Foster, "Real-time long range complementary correlation optical time domain reflectometer," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 24-38 (1989).
  14. P. Healey, "Complementary code sets for OTDR," Electron. Lett. 25, 692-693 (1989).
  15. M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, W. R. Trutna, "Complementary correlation OTDR with three codewords," Electron. Lett. 26, 70- (1990).
  16. S. A. Newton, "Novel approaches to optical reflectometry," Proc. 7th IEEE IMTC (1990) pp. 329-333.
  17. J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics: Theory and Applications (Roberts and Company, 2007).
  18. A. Hartog, M. P. Gold, "On the theory of backscattering in single-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 2, 76-82 (1984).
  19. P. Healey, "Statistics of Rayleigh backscatter from a single-mode optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 21, 226- (1985).
  20. P. Healey, "Correction to ‘Statistics of Rayleigh backscatter from single-mode fiber’," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-35, 1112- (1987).
  21. P. Healey, "Statistics of Rayleigh backscatter from a single-mode fiber," IEEE Trans. Commun. 35, 210-214 (1987).
  22. P. Gysel, R. K. Staubli, "Statistical properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 561-567 (1990).
  23. P. Gysel, R. K. Staubli, "Spectral properties of Rayleigh backscattered light from single-mode fibers caused by a modulated probe signal," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1792-1798 (1990).
  24. R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Crosstalk penalities due to coherent Rayleigh noise in bidirectional optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 375-380 (1991).
  25. H. Izumita, S.-I. Furukawa, Y. Koyamada, I. Sankawa, "Fading noise reduction in coherent OTDR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 201-203 (1992).
  26. R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Statistical properties of single-mode fiber Rayleigh backscattered intensity and resulting detector current," J. Lightw. Technol. 40, 1091-1097 (1992).
  27. P. Lecoy, Fiber-Optic Communications (2007).
  28. M. J. E. Golay, "Complementary series," IRE Trans. IT-7, 82- (1961).

2012 (1)

H. Iida, Y. Koshikiya, F. Ito, K. Tanaka, "High sensitivity coherent optical time domain reflectometry employing frequency division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1121-1126 (2012).

1998 (1)

T. Otani, Y. Horiuchi, T. Kawazawa, K. Goto, S. Akiba, "Fault localization of optical WDM submarine cable networks using coherent-optical time-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1000-1002 (1998).

1995 (1)

M. Sumida, "OTDR performance enhancement using a quaternary FSK modulated probe and coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 336-338 (1995).

1992 (2)

H. Izumita, S.-I. Furukawa, Y. Koyamada, I. Sankawa, "Fading noise reduction in coherent OTDR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 201-203 (1992).

R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Statistical properties of single-mode fiber Rayleigh backscattered intensity and resulting detector current," J. Lightw. Technol. 40, 1091-1097 (1992).

1991 (1)

R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Crosstalk penalities due to coherent Rayleigh noise in bidirectional optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 375-380 (1991).

1990 (4)

P. Gysel, R. K. Staubli, "Statistical properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 561-567 (1990).

P. Gysel, R. K. Staubli, "Spectral properties of Rayleigh backscattered light from single-mode fibers caused by a modulated probe signal," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1792-1798 (1990).

Y. Horiuchi, S. Ryu, K. Mochizuki, H. Wakabayashi, "Novel coherent heterodyne optical time domain reflectometry for fault localization of optical amplifier submarine cable systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 291-293 (1990).

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, W. R. Trutna, "Complementary correlation OTDR with three codewords," Electron. Lett. 26, 70- (1990).

1989 (2)

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, R. P. Giffard, D. S. Moberly, F. Sischka, W. R. Trutna, S. Foster, "Real-time long range complementary correlation optical time domain reflectometer," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 24-38 (1989).

P. Healey, "Complementary code sets for OTDR," Electron. Lett. 25, 692-693 (1989).

1987 (3)

J. King, D. Smith, K. Richards, P. Timson, R. Epworth, S. Wright, "Development of a coherent OTDR instrument," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 616-624 (1987).

P. Healey, "Correction to ‘Statistics of Rayleigh backscatter from single-mode fiber’," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-35, 1112- (1987).

P. Healey, "Statistics of Rayleigh backscatter from a single-mode fiber," IEEE Trans. Commun. 35, 210-214 (1987).

1985 (2)

P. Healey, "Review of long wavelength single-mode optical fiber reflectometry techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 876-886 (1985).

P. Healey, "Statistics of Rayleigh backscatter from a single-mode optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 21, 226- (1985).

1984 (4)

A. Hartog, M. P. Gold, "On the theory of backscattering in single-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 2, 76-82 (1984).

P. Healey, "Fading in heterodyne OTDR," Electron. Lett. 20, 30-32 (1984).

P. Healey, "Fading rates in coherent OTDR," Electron. Lett. 20, 443- (1984).

P. Healey, R. C. Booth, B. E. Daymond-John, N. K. Nayar, "OTDR in single-mode fibre at 1.5 um using homodyne detection," Electron. Lett. 20, 360-362 (1984).

1983 (1)

M. Zaboli, P. Bassi, "High spatial resolution OTDR attenuation measurement by a correlation technique," Appl. Opt. 22, 3680- (1983).

1980 (1)

K. Okada, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibat, Y. Nagaky, "Optical cable fault location using correlation technique," Electron. Lett. 629- (1980).

1961 (1)

M. J. E. Golay, "Complementary series," IRE Trans. IT-7, 82- (1961).

Appl. Opt. (1)

M. Zaboli, P. Bassi, "High spatial resolution OTDR attenuation measurement by a correlation technique," Appl. Opt. 22, 3680- (1983).

Electron. Lett. (2)

P. Healey, R. C. Booth, B. E. Daymond-John, N. K. Nayar, "OTDR in single-mode fibre at 1.5 um using homodyne detection," Electron. Lett. 20, 360-362 (1984).

P. Healey, "Statistics of Rayleigh backscatter from a single-mode optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 21, 226- (1985).

Electron. Lett. (5)

P. Healey, "Fading in heterodyne OTDR," Electron. Lett. 20, 30-32 (1984).

P. Healey, "Fading rates in coherent OTDR," Electron. Lett. 20, 443- (1984).

K. Okada, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibat, Y. Nagaky, "Optical cable fault location using correlation technique," Electron. Lett. 629- (1980).

P. Healey, "Complementary code sets for OTDR," Electron. Lett. 25, 692-693 (1989).

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, W. R. Trutna, "Complementary correlation OTDR with three codewords," Electron. Lett. 26, 70- (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Otani, Y. Horiuchi, T. Kawazawa, K. Goto, S. Akiba, "Fault localization of optical WDM submarine cable networks using coherent-optical time-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1000-1002 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

P. Healey, "Correction to ‘Statistics of Rayleigh backscatter from single-mode fiber’," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-35, 1112- (1987).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

H. Izumita, S.-I. Furukawa, Y. Koyamada, I. Sankawa, "Fading noise reduction in coherent OTDR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 201-203 (1992).

Y. Horiuchi, S. Ryu, K. Mochizuki, H. Wakabayashi, "Novel coherent heterodyne optical time domain reflectometry for fault localization of optical amplifier submarine cable systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 291-293 (1990).

M. Sumida, "OTDR performance enhancement using a quaternary FSK modulated probe and coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 336-338 (1995).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

P. Healey, "Statistics of Rayleigh backscatter from a single-mode fiber," IEEE Trans. Commun. 35, 210-214 (1987).

IRE Trans. (1)

M. J. E. Golay, "Complementary series," IRE Trans. IT-7, 82- (1961).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Crosstalk penalities due to coherent Rayleigh noise in bidirectional optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 375-380 (1991).

P. Healey, "Review of long wavelength single-mode optical fiber reflectometry techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 876-886 (1985).

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, R. P. Giffard, D. S. Moberly, F. Sischka, W. R. Trutna, S. Foster, "Real-time long range complementary correlation optical time domain reflectometer," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 24-38 (1989).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

P. Gysel, R. K. Staubli, "Statistical properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 561-567 (1990).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

P. Gysel, R. K. Staubli, "Spectral properties of Rayleigh backscattered light from single-mode fibers caused by a modulated probe signal," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1792-1798 (1990).

A. Hartog, M. P. Gold, "On the theory of backscattering in single-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 2, 76-82 (1984).

R. K. Staubli, P. Gysel, "Statistical properties of single-mode fiber Rayleigh backscattered intensity and resulting detector current," J. Lightw. Technol. 40, 1091-1097 (1992).

H. Iida, Y. Koshikiya, F. Ito, K. Tanaka, "High sensitivity coherent optical time domain reflectometry employing frequency division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1121-1126 (2012).

J. King, D. Smith, K. Richards, P. Timson, R. Epworth, S. Wright, "Development of a coherent OTDR instrument," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 616-624 (1987).

Other (4)

P. Healey, "Pulse compression coding in optical time domain reflectometry," Proc. 7th Eur. Conf. Opt. Comun. (1981) pp. 5.2-1.

S. A. Newton, "Novel approaches to optical reflectometry," Proc. 7th IEEE IMTC (1990) pp. 329-333.

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics: Theory and Applications (Roberts and Company, 2007).

P. Lecoy, Fiber-Optic Communications (2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.