Abstract

Optical neural-network circuit to recognize BPSK labels for photonic label routing is proposed, whose neuron consists of optical amplitude amplifiers and phase shifters as weighting connections, a combiner and a nonlinear threshold device for an activation function. The parameters of these weighting connections are learned with back-propagation of teacher signals. The performance of the neural network circuits as recognition of two to four bit BPSK labels is clarified by computer simulation. For routing application, classification of routing labels into several groups corresponding to the output ports of the router is also discussed and is successfully simulated.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. D. J. Blumenthal, B. E. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).
  2. B. Meagher, G. K. Chang, G. Ellinas, Y. M. Lin, W. Xin, T. F. Chen, X. Yang, A. Chowdhury, J. Young, S. J. Yoo, C. Lee, M. Z. Iqbal, T. Robe, H. Dai, Y. J. Chen, W. I. Way, "Design and implementation of ultra-low latency optical label switching for packet-switched WDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1978-1987 (2000).
  3. I. Glesk, K. I. Kang, P. R. Prucnal, "Ultrafast photonic packet switching with optical control," Opt. Exp. 1, 126-132 (1997).
  4. J. Kurumida, H. Uenohara, K. Kobayashi, "All-optical label recognition for time-domain signal using multstage switching scheme based on SOA-MZIs," Electron. Lett. 42, 1362-1363 (2006).
  5. H. Hiura, N. Goto, "All-optical label recognition using self-routing architecture of Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switches with semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 1619-1626 (2007).
  6. K. Kitayama, N. Wada, H. Sotobayahi, "Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based upon optical code correlation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1834-1844 (2000).
  7. O. Moriwaki, T. Kitoh, T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, "Novel PLC-based optical correlator for multiple phase-modulated labels," IEEE Photon. Thechnol. Lett. 17, 489-491 (2005).
  8. A. Ihara, H. Kishikawa, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Passive waveguide device consisting of cascaded asymmetric X-junction couplers for high-contrast recognition of optical BPSK labels," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1306-1313 (2011).
  9. G. Cincotti, "Full optical encoders/decoders for photonic IP router," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 337-342 (2004).
  10. G. Cincotti, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers-part I: Modeling and design," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 103-112 (2006).
  11. H. Hiura, Y. Makimoto, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labels," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5543-5551 (2009).
  12. Y. Makimoto, H. Hiura, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Waveguide-type optical circuit for recognition of optical QPSK coded labels in photonic router," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 60-67 (2009).
  13. E. E. E. Frietman, M. T. Hill, G. D. Khoe, "A Kohonen neural network controlled all-optical router system," Int. J. Comput. Res. 10, 251-267 (2001).
  14. M. T. Hill, E. E. E. Frietman, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, "All fiber-optic neural network using coupled SOA based ring lasers," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 13, 1504-1513 (2002).
  15. Y. Liu, M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical buffering using laser neural networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 596-598 (2003).
  16. K. Kravtsov, P. R. Prucnal, M. M. Bubnov, "Simple nonlinear interferometer-based all-optical thresholder and its applications for optical CDMA," Opt. Exp. 15, 13114-13122 (2007).
  17. A. Hirose, Complex-Valued Neural Networks (Springer-Verlag, 2006).
  18. T. Hara, A. Hirose, "Plastic mine detecting radar system using complex-valued self-organizing map that deals with multiple-frequency interferometric images," Neural Netw. 17, 1201-1210 (2004).
  19. H. Hu, J. Yu, L. Zhang, A. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Jiang, E. Yang, "40-Gb/s all-optical serial-to-parallel conversion based on a single SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1181-1183 (2008).
  20. R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, J.-K. Seo, H. Suzuki, "Ultrafast all-optical serial-to-parallel converters based on spin-polarized surface-normal optical switches," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 13, 92-103 (2007).
  21. A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, R. W. Tkach, C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, "Serial-to-parallel demultiplexing using WDM sampling pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 97-99 (2009).
  22. H. J. S. Dorren, D. Lenstra, Y. Liu, M. T. Hill, G.-D. Khoe, "Nonlinear polarization rotation in semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and application to all-optical flip-flop memories," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 141-148 (2003).
  23. Y. Naito, S. Shimizu, T. Kato, K. Kobayashi, H. Uenohara, "Investigation of all-optical latching operation of a monolithically integrated SOA-MZI with a feedback loop," Opt. Exp. 20, B339-B349 (2012).
  24. K.-P. Ho, "Performance degradation of phase-modulated systems due to nonlinear phase noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1213-1215 (2003).
  25. F. Öhman, R. Kjær, L. J. Christiansen, K. Yvind, J. Mørk, "Steep and adjustable transfer functions of monolithic SOA-EA 2R regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (2006).
  26. D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, "Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 Gbit/s," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundamentals Applicat. 8, 67-71 (2010).
  27. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, T. Tanabe, "Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities," Opt. Exp. 13, 2678-2687 (2005).
  28. T. Mizobuchi, K. Mizote, H. Kishikawa, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "QPSK label processing using complex-valued neural network learned with back propagation of teacher signals," Proc. OECC2012 (2012) pp. P1-1.

2012

Y. Naito, S. Shimizu, T. Kato, K. Kobayashi, H. Uenohara, "Investigation of all-optical latching operation of a monolithically integrated SOA-MZI with a feedback loop," Opt. Exp. 20, B339-B349 (2012).

2011

A. Ihara, H. Kishikawa, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Passive waveguide device consisting of cascaded asymmetric X-junction couplers for high-contrast recognition of optical BPSK labels," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1306-1313 (2011).

2010

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, "Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 Gbit/s," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundamentals Applicat. 8, 67-71 (2010).

2009

A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, R. W. Tkach, C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, "Serial-to-parallel demultiplexing using WDM sampling pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 97-99 (2009).

H. Hiura, Y. Makimoto, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labels," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5543-5551 (2009).

Y. Makimoto, H. Hiura, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Waveguide-type optical circuit for recognition of optical QPSK coded labels in photonic router," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 60-67 (2009).

2008

H. Hu, J. Yu, L. Zhang, A. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Jiang, E. Yang, "40-Gb/s all-optical serial-to-parallel conversion based on a single SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1181-1183 (2008).

2007

R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, J.-K. Seo, H. Suzuki, "Ultrafast all-optical serial-to-parallel converters based on spin-polarized surface-normal optical switches," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 13, 92-103 (2007).

K. Kravtsov, P. R. Prucnal, M. M. Bubnov, "Simple nonlinear interferometer-based all-optical thresholder and its applications for optical CDMA," Opt. Exp. 15, 13114-13122 (2007).

H. Hiura, N. Goto, "All-optical label recognition using self-routing architecture of Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switches with semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 1619-1626 (2007).

2006

J. Kurumida, H. Uenohara, K. Kobayashi, "All-optical label recognition for time-domain signal using multstage switching scheme based on SOA-MZIs," Electron. Lett. 42, 1362-1363 (2006).

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers-part I: Modeling and design," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 103-112 (2006).

F. Öhman, R. Kjær, L. J. Christiansen, K. Yvind, J. Mørk, "Steep and adjustable transfer functions of monolithic SOA-EA 2R regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (2006).

2005

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, T. Tanabe, "Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities," Opt. Exp. 13, 2678-2687 (2005).

O. Moriwaki, T. Kitoh, T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, "Novel PLC-based optical correlator for multiple phase-modulated labels," IEEE Photon. Thechnol. Lett. 17, 489-491 (2005).

2004

G. Cincotti, "Full optical encoders/decoders for photonic IP router," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 337-342 (2004).

T. Hara, A. Hirose, "Plastic mine detecting radar system using complex-valued self-organizing map that deals with multiple-frequency interferometric images," Neural Netw. 17, 1201-1210 (2004).

2003

Y. Liu, M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical buffering using laser neural networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 596-598 (2003).

H. J. S. Dorren, D. Lenstra, Y. Liu, M. T. Hill, G.-D. Khoe, "Nonlinear polarization rotation in semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and application to all-optical flip-flop memories," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 141-148 (2003).

K.-P. Ho, "Performance degradation of phase-modulated systems due to nonlinear phase noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1213-1215 (2003).

2002

M. T. Hill, E. E. E. Frietman, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, "All fiber-optic neural network using coupled SOA based ring lasers," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 13, 1504-1513 (2002).

2001

E. E. E. Frietman, M. T. Hill, G. D. Khoe, "A Kohonen neural network controlled all-optical router system," Int. J. Comput. Res. 10, 251-267 (2001).

2000

K. Kitayama, N. Wada, H. Sotobayahi, "Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based upon optical code correlation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1834-1844 (2000).

D. J. Blumenthal, B. E. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).

B. Meagher, G. K. Chang, G. Ellinas, Y. M. Lin, W. Xin, T. F. Chen, X. Yang, A. Chowdhury, J. Young, S. J. Yoo, C. Lee, M. Z. Iqbal, T. Robe, H. Dai, Y. J. Chen, W. I. Way, "Design and implementation of ultra-low latency optical label switching for packet-switched WDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1978-1987 (2000).

1997

I. Glesk, K. I. Kang, P. R. Prucnal, "Ultrafast photonic packet switching with optical control," Opt. Exp. 1, 126-132 (1997).

Electron. Lett.

J. Kurumida, H. Uenohara, K. Kobayashi, "All-optical label recognition for time-domain signal using multstage switching scheme based on SOA-MZIs," Electron. Lett. 42, 1362-1363 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. J. S. Dorren, D. Lenstra, Y. Liu, M. T. Hill, G.-D. Khoe, "Nonlinear polarization rotation in semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and application to all-optical flip-flop memories," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 141-148 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron.

R. Takahashi, T. Yasui, J.-K. Seo, H. Suzuki, "Ultrafast all-optical serial-to-parallel converters based on spin-polarized surface-normal optical switches," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 13, 92-103 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, R. W. Tkach, C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, "Serial-to-parallel demultiplexing using WDM sampling pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 97-99 (2009).

H. Hu, J. Yu, L. Zhang, A. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Jiang, E. Yang, "40-Gb/s all-optical serial-to-parallel conversion based on a single SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1181-1183 (2008).

Y. Liu, M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical buffering using laser neural networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 596-598 (2003).

K.-P. Ho, "Performance degradation of phase-modulated systems due to nonlinear phase noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1213-1215 (2003).

F. Öhman, R. Kjær, L. J. Christiansen, K. Yvind, J. Mørk, "Steep and adjustable transfer functions of monolithic SOA-EA 2R regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (2006).

IEEE Photon. Thechnol. Lett.

O. Moriwaki, T. Kitoh, T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, "Novel PLC-based optical correlator for multiple phase-modulated labels," IEEE Photon. Thechnol. Lett. 17, 489-491 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Neural Netw.

M. T. Hill, E. E. E. Frietman, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, "All fiber-optic neural network using coupled SOA based ring lasers," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 13, 1504-1513 (2002).

IEICE Trans. Electron.

H. Hiura, N. Goto, "All-optical label recognition using self-routing architecture of Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switches with semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEICE Trans. Electron. E90-C, 1619-1626 (2007).

Int. J. Comput. Res.

E. E. E. Frietman, M. T. Hill, G. D. Khoe, "A Kohonen neural network controlled all-optical router system," Int. J. Comput. Res. 10, 251-267 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol.

K. Kitayama, N. Wada, H. Sotobayahi, "Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based upon optical code correlation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1834-1844 (2000).

D. J. Blumenthal, B. E. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).

B. Meagher, G. K. Chang, G. Ellinas, Y. M. Lin, W. Xin, T. F. Chen, X. Yang, A. Chowdhury, J. Young, S. J. Yoo, C. Lee, M. Z. Iqbal, T. Robe, H. Dai, Y. J. Chen, W. I. Way, "Design and implementation of ultra-low latency optical label switching for packet-switched WDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1978-1987 (2000).

A. Ihara, H. Kishikawa, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Passive waveguide device consisting of cascaded asymmetric X-junction couplers for high-contrast recognition of optical BPSK labels," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1306-1313 (2011).

G. Cincotti, "Full optical encoders/decoders for photonic IP router," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 337-342 (2004).

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers-part I: Modeling and design," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 103-112 (2006).

H. Hiura, Y. Makimoto, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labels," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5543-5551 (2009).

Y. Makimoto, H. Hiura, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "Waveguide-type optical circuit for recognition of optical QPSK coded labels in photonic router," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 60-67 (2009).

Neural Netw.

T. Hara, A. Hirose, "Plastic mine detecting radar system using complex-valued self-organizing map that deals with multiple-frequency interferometric images," Neural Netw. 17, 1201-1210 (2004).

Opt. Exp.

K. Kravtsov, P. R. Prucnal, M. M. Bubnov, "Simple nonlinear interferometer-based all-optical thresholder and its applications for optical CDMA," Opt. Exp. 15, 13114-13122 (2007).

I. Glesk, K. I. Kang, P. R. Prucnal, "Ultrafast photonic packet switching with optical control," Opt. Exp. 1, 126-132 (1997).

Y. Naito, S. Shimizu, T. Kato, K. Kobayashi, H. Uenohara, "Investigation of all-optical latching operation of a monolithically integrated SOA-MZI with a feedback loop," Opt. Exp. 20, B339-B349 (2012).

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, T. Tanabe, "Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities," Opt. Exp. 13, 2678-2687 (2005).

Photon. Nanostruct. Fundamentals Applicat.

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, "Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 Gbit/s," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundamentals Applicat. 8, 67-71 (2010).

Other

T. Mizobuchi, K. Mizote, H. Kishikawa, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, "QPSK label processing using complex-valued neural network learned with back propagation of teacher signals," Proc. OECC2012 (2012) pp. P1-1.

A. Hirose, Complex-Valued Neural Networks (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

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