Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate multicasting operation of a 16QAM signal, by simultaneously generating multiple copies of the signal through optical wavelength conversion in a single periodically-poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The simultaneous conversion of the signal on multiple wavelengths is based on the cascade of sum frequency generation and difference frequency generation second order nonlinear effects taking place in the PPLN. Each conversion is potentially tunable in the whole C-band and polarization independent operation is achieved by embedding the PPLN in a polarization diversity scheme. A first experiment reports a 3-fold wavelength conversion of a single polarization 112 Gb/s 16QAM signal. Both DFB lasers and ECLs are used to generate the optical pump signals employed in the scheme; the impact of different phase noise amounts induced by the pumps on the BER curve behavior is also discussed and numerically verified. A second experiment reports a 2-fold wavelength conversion of a 224 Gb/s polarization-multiplexed (PM)-16QAM signal, thus confirming the correct operation for PM signals. At last, the multicasting operation on the PM-16QAM signal is successfully employed in a WDM metro network scenario.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. C. Lange, O. Bonneß, N. Leder, "Operator perspective on broadband network traffic evolution," Proc. ECOC '12 (2012).
  2. Internet Video Viewing to Trump Broadcast TV by 2020 (tdg Research) http://tdgresearch.com/internet-video-viewingto-trump-broadcast-tv-by-2020.
  3. S. Deering, "Host extensions for IP multicasting," IETF RFC 988 (1986).
  4. L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, "Light trees: Optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 67-73 (1999).
  5. A. Gumaste, "DynaSPOT: Dynamic services provisioned optical transport test-bed—Achieving multirate multiservice dynamic provisioning using strongly connected light-trail (SLiT) technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 183-195 (2008).
  6. N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, "Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, 66-72 (2012).
  7. N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Berrettini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, L. Potì, "Flex-grid optical network supporting multicasting at high transmission rates," Proc. ECOC (2010).
  8. T. Rahman, G. Ellinas, M. Ali, "Lightpath- and light-tree-based groupcast routing and wavelength assignment in mesh optical networks," IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, A44-A55 (2009).
  9. G. Contestabile, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, "Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1775-1777 (2004).
  10. O. F. Yilmaz, "Experimental demonstration of 8-fold multicasting of a 100 Gb/s polarization-multiplexed OOK signal using highly nonlinear fiber," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2010).
  11. G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Robust multilevel coherent optical systems with linear processing at the receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2357-2369 (2009).
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  13. A. Malacarne, F. Fresi, J. Klamkin, L. Potì, "Versatile offset-free 16-QAM single dual-drive IQ modulator driven by binary signals," Opt. Lett. 37, 4149-4151 (2012).
  14. F. Cugini, "Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 727-733 (2012).
  15. M. Secondini, G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, L. Potì, "How to use a low-cost DFB local oscillator in ultra-long-haul uncompensated coherent systems," Proc. Eur. Conf. Exhibition Opt. Commun., OSA Tech. Dig. (2012).
  16. D. Van den Borne, V. Sleiffer, M. S. Alfiad, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, "POLMUX-QPSK modulation and coherent detection: The challenge of long-haul 100 G transmission," Proc. ECOC (2009).
  17. J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, "Constellation manipulation for optical multicasted hexadecimal coding/decoding of 10-Gbaud/s 16-QAM using non-degenerate FWM in HNLFs," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).
  18. O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, S. Khaleghi, J.-Y. Yang, L. Christen, A. E. Willner, "Optical multiplexing of two 21.5 Gb/s DPSK signals into a single 43 Gb/s DQPSK channel with simultaneous 7-fold multicasting in a single PPLN waveguide," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009).
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  20. E. Lazzeri, A. Malacarne, G. Serafino, A. Bogoni, "Optical XOR for error detection and coding of QPSK I and Q components in PPLN waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2258-2261 (2012).
  21. S. Khaleghi, M. Chitgarha, O. Yilmaz, M. Tur, M. Haney, A. Willner, "Universal QAM encoder/converter using fully tunable complex-coefficient optical tapped-delay line," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).
  22. M. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, O. Yilmaz, M. Tur, M. Haney, A. Willner, "Coherent multi-pattern correlator and all-optical equalizer enabling simultaneous equalization, wavelength conversion and multicasting," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).
  23. S. Nuccio, Z. Bakhtiari, O. Yilmaz, A. Willner, "λ-conversion of 160-Gbit/s PDM 16-QAM using a single periodically-poled lithium niobate waveguide," Proc. OFC/NFOEC) (2011).
  24. H. Hu, R. Nouroozi, R. Ludwig, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, H. Suche, W. Sohler, C. Schubert, "Polarization-insensitive 320-Gb/s in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a 320-km transmission span," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 627-629 (2011).
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  26. X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. I. Borel, K. Carlson, "High spectral efficiency 400 Gb/s transmission using PDM time-domain hybrid 32–64 QAM and training-assisted carrier recovery," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 999-1005 (2013).
  27. T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, "Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum," Electron. Lett. 16, 630-631 (1980).

2013 (1)

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. I. Borel, K. Carlson, "High spectral efficiency 400 Gb/s transmission using PDM time-domain hybrid 32–64 QAM and training-assisted carrier recovery," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 999-1005 (2013).

2012 (5)

E. Lazzeri, A. Malacarne, G. Serafino, A. Bogoni, "Optical XOR for error detection and coding of QPSK I and Q components in PPLN waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2258-2261 (2012).

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, "Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, 66-72 (2012).

F. Cugini, "Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 727-733 (2012).

A. Malacarne, E. Lazzeri, V. Vercesi, M. Scaffardi, A. Bogoni, "Colorless all-optical sum and subtraction of phases for phase-shift keying signals based on a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Opt. Lett. 37, 3831-3833 (2012).

A. Malacarne, F. Fresi, J. Klamkin, L. Potì, "Versatile offset-free 16-QAM single dual-drive IQ modulator driven by binary signals," Opt. Lett. 37, 4149-4151 (2012).

2011 (1)

H. Hu, R. Nouroozi, R. Ludwig, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, H. Suche, W. Sohler, C. Schubert, "Polarization-insensitive 320-Gb/s in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a 320-km transmission span," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 627-629 (2011).

2009 (2)

T. Rahman, G. Ellinas, M. Ali, "Lightpath- and light-tree-based groupcast routing and wavelength assignment in mesh optical networks," IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, A44-A55 (2009).

G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Robust multilevel coherent optical systems with linear processing at the receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2357-2369 (2009).

2008 (1)

A. Gumaste, "DynaSPOT: Dynamic services provisioned optical transport test-bed—Achieving multirate multiservice dynamic provisioning using strongly connected light-trail (SLiT) technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 183-195 (2008).

2004 (1)

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, "Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1775-1777 (2004).

1999 (1)

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, "Light trees: Optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 67-73 (1999).

1980 (1)

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, "Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum," Electron. Lett. 16, 630-631 (1980).

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, "Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum," Electron. Lett. 16, 630-631 (1980).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, "Light trees: Optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 67-73 (1999).

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, "Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, 66-72 (2012).

IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

T. Rahman, G. Ellinas, M. Ali, "Lightpath- and light-tree-based groupcast routing and wavelength assignment in mesh optical networks," IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, A44-A55 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

E. Lazzeri, A. Malacarne, G. Serafino, A. Bogoni, "Optical XOR for error detection and coding of QPSK I and Q components in PPLN waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 2258-2261 (2012).

H. Hu, R. Nouroozi, R. Ludwig, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, H. Suche, W. Sohler, C. Schubert, "Polarization-insensitive 320-Gb/s in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a 320-km transmission span," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 627-629 (2011).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, "Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1775-1777 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

A. Gumaste, "DynaSPOT: Dynamic services provisioned optical transport test-bed—Achieving multirate multiservice dynamic provisioning using strongly connected light-trail (SLiT) technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 183-195 (2008).

G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Robust multilevel coherent optical systems with linear processing at the receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2357-2369 (2009).

F. Cugini, "Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 727-733 (2012).

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. I. Borel, K. Carlson, "High spectral efficiency 400 Gb/s transmission using PDM time-domain hybrid 32–64 QAM and training-assisted carrier recovery," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 999-1005 (2013).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (14)

M. Secondini, G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, L. Potì, "How to use a low-cost DFB local oscillator in ultra-long-haul uncompensated coherent systems," Proc. Eur. Conf. Exhibition Opt. Commun., OSA Tech. Dig. (2012).

D. Van den Borne, V. Sleiffer, M. S. Alfiad, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, "POLMUX-QPSK modulation and coherent detection: The challenge of long-haul 100 G transmission," Proc. ECOC (2009).

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, "Constellation manipulation for optical multicasted hexadecimal coding/decoding of 10-Gbaud/s 16-QAM using non-degenerate FWM in HNLFs," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).

O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, S. Khaleghi, J.-Y. Yang, L. Christen, A. E. Willner, "Optical multiplexing of two 21.5 Gb/s DPSK signals into a single 43 Gb/s DQPSK channel with simultaneous 7-fold multicasting in a single PPLN waveguide," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009).

T. Richter, "Single wavelength channel 10.2 Tb/s TDM-data capacity using 16-QAM and coherent detection," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).

S. Khaleghi, M. Chitgarha, O. Yilmaz, M. Tur, M. Haney, A. Willner, "Universal QAM encoder/converter using fully tunable complex-coefficient optical tapped-delay line," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).

M. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, O. Yilmaz, M. Tur, M. Haney, A. Willner, "Coherent multi-pattern correlator and all-optical equalizer enabling simultaneous equalization, wavelength conversion and multicasting," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).

S. Nuccio, Z. Bakhtiari, O. Yilmaz, A. Willner, "λ-conversion of 160-Gbit/s PDM 16-QAM using a single periodically-poled lithium niobate waveguide," Proc. OFC/NFOEC) (2011).

C. Lange, O. Bonneß, N. Leder, "Operator perspective on broadband network traffic evolution," Proc. ECOC '12 (2012).

Internet Video Viewing to Trump Broadcast TV by 2020 (tdg Research) http://tdgresearch.com/internet-video-viewingto-trump-broadcast-tv-by-2020.

S. Deering, "Host extensions for IP multicasting," IETF RFC 988 (1986).

O. F. Yilmaz, "Experimental demonstration of 8-fold multicasting of a 100 Gb/s polarization-multiplexed OOK signal using highly nonlinear fiber," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2010).

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Berrettini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, L. Potì, "Flex-grid optical network supporting multicasting at high transmission rates," Proc. ECOC (2010).

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