Abstract

The fabrication of a new-type of Silicon nanoparticles (Si-n/p) doped silica fiber is reported. The method is entirely based on the MCVD process, with no solution-doping technique being required. The TEM, EPMA, EDX, and electron diffraction analyses as well as the Raman, optical absorption, and fluorescence spectra’ measurements confirm the formation of Si-n/p in the fiber. When pumped at 406 nm, this fiber fluoresces mainly in the VIS to near-IR spectral range and the fluorescence shows a multi-peak spectral structure in several wide bands. As a consequence of the high nonlinearity <i>n</i><sub>2</sub> of the fiber, effective supercontinuum generation at 1.6-μm excitation by tens ns-range, kW-level pulses is demonstrated.

© 2013 IEEE

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  33. F. Gourbilleau, C. Ternon, D. Maestre, O. Palais, C. Dufour, "Silicon-rich SiO2/SiO2 multilayers: A promising material for the third generation of solar cell," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 103501 (2009).
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  35. N. El-Kork, F. Huisken, C. von Borczyskowski, "Dielectric effects on the optical properties of single silicon nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 074312 (2011).
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  37. X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, L. Ding, B. W. Cheng, W. K. Ge, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, "Origin and evolution of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195313 (2005).
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  40. T. Shimizu-Iwayama, N. Kurumado, D. E. Hole, R. D. Townsend, "Optical properties of silicon nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 6018-6022 (1998).
  41. M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, C. Delerue, "Electronic states and luminescence in porous silicon qusantum dots: The role of oxygen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 197-200 (1999).
  42. D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, B. A. Korgel, "Size tunable visible luminescence from individual organic monolayer stabilized silicon nanocrystal quantum dots," Nano Lett. 2, 681-685 (2002).
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  44. Y. Kanemitsu, N. Simizu, T. Komoda, P. L. F. Hemment, B. J. Sealy, "Photoluminescent spectrum and dynamics of Si+-ion-implanted and thermally annealed SiO2 glasses," Phys. Rev. B 54, 14329-14332 (1996).
  45. E. G. Barbagiovanni, D. J. Lockwood, P. J. Simpson, L. V. Goncharova, "Quantum confinement in Si and Ge nanostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 111, 034307 (2012).
  46. O. A. Shalygina, I. A. Kamenskikh, D. M. Zhigunov, V. Y. Timoshenko, P. K. Kashkarova, M. Zacharias, M. Fujii, "Optical properties of silicon nanocrystals in silicon dioxide matrix over wide ranges of excitation intensity and energy," J. Nanoelectron. Optoelectron. 4, 147-151 (2009).
  47. B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, "Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3564-3568 (2002).
  48. E. J. Friebele, G. H. Sigel, Jr.D. L. Griscom, "Drawing-induced defect centers in a fused silica core fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 516-518 (1976).
  49. P. D. Dragic, C. G. Carlson, A. Croteau, "Characterization of defect luminescence in Yb doped silica fibers: Part I NBOHC," Opt. Exp. 16, 4688-4697 (2008).
  50. A. L. Tomashuk, M. O. Zabezhailov, "Formation mechanisms of precursors of radiation-induced color centers during fabrication of silica optical fiber preform," J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083103 (2011).
  51. S. Dhara, C. Y. Lu, K. G. M. Nair, K. H. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. F. Huang, C. David, L. C. Chen, B. Raj, "Mechanism of bright red emission in Si nanoclusters," Nanotechnol. 19, 395-401 (2008).
  52. Y. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W. T. Han, "Resonant optical nonlinearity measurement of Yb/Al codoped optical fibers by use of a long period fiber grating pair," Opt. Lett. 27, 580-582 (2002).
  53. A. S. Kurkov, Y. E. Sadovnikova, A. V. Marakulin, E. M. Sholokhov, "All fiber Er-Tm Q-switched laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 795-797 (2010).
  54. I. W. Hsieh, X. Chen, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C. Y. Chou, F. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires," Opt. Exp. 23, 15242-15249 (2007).

2012 (5)

S. Kim, D. H. Shin, D. Y. Shin, C. O. Kim, J. H. Park, S. B. Yang, S. Choi, S. J. Yoo, J. G. Kim, "Luminescence properties of Si nanocrystals fabricated by ion beam sputtering and annealing," J. Nanomater. 2012, 572746 (2012).

S. G. Dorofeev, A. A. Ischenko, N. N. Kononov, G. V. Fetisov, "Effect of annealing temperature on the optical properties of nanosilicon from silicon monoxide," Current Appl. Phys. 12, 718-725 (2012).

M. Araya, D. E. Diaz-Droguett, M. Ribeiro, K. F. Albertin, J. Avila, V. M. Fuenzalida, R. Espinoza, D. Criado, "Photoluminescence in silicon/silicon oxide films produced by the pulsed electron beam ablation technique," J. Non-Crystal. Solids 358, 880-884 (2012).

W. W. Ke, X. Feng, Y. D. Huang, "Si-nanocrystals with bimodal size distribution in evenly annealed SiO revealed with Raman scattering," Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 016402 (2012).

E. G. Barbagiovanni, D. J. Lockwood, P. J. Simpson, L. V. Goncharova, "Quantum confinement in Si and Ge nanostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 111, 034307 (2012).

2011 (5)

A. L. Tomashuk, M. O. Zabezhailov, "Formation mechanisms of precursors of radiation-induced color centers during fabrication of silica optical fiber preform," J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083103 (2011).

L. J. Borrero-Gonzalez, L. A. O. Nunes, F. E. G. Guimarae, J. Wojcik, P. Mascher, A. M. Gennaro, M. Tirado, D. Comedi, "From amorphous to crystalline silicon nanoclusters: Structural effects on exciton properties," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 505302 (2011).

N. El-Kork, F. Huisken, C. von Borczyskowski, "Dielectric effects on the optical properties of single silicon nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 074312 (2011).

G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear fiber optics: Its history and recent progress," J, Opt. Soc. Amer. B 28, A1-A9 (2011).

K. Mantey, M. H. Nayfeh, B. Al-Hreish, J. Boparai, A. Kumar, L. D. Stephenson, A. J. Nelson, S. A. Alrokayanm, K. Abu-Salah, "Silicon nanoparticle-functionalized fiberglass pads for sampling," J. Appl. Phys. 109, 064321 (2011).

2010 (5)

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, K. S. Karim, "Optical properties of crystalline—Amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires," Nano Lett. 10, 4093-4098 (2010).

A. Martinez, S. Hernandez, P. Pellegrino, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, "Optical nonlinearities in Si-nanocrystals at 1064 nm excited by nanosecond-pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 014311 (2010).

K. Kusova, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalova, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, K. Zidek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matejka, P. Stepanek, S. Bakardjieva, "Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure," ACS Nano 4, 4495-4504 (2010).

T. Krishtab, G. G. Gasga, N. Korsunska, M. Baran, S. Kirillova, L. Khomenkova, A. Sachenko, T. Stara, Y. Venger, Y. Emirov, Y. Goldstein, E. Savir, J. Jedrzejewski, "The peculiarities of Si/SiO2 interafces in the Si-SiO2 systems with Si nanocrystals," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 174, 97-101 (2010).

A. S. Kurkov, Y. E. Sadovnikova, A. V. Marakulin, E. M. Sholokhov, "All fiber Er-Tm Q-switched laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 795-797 (2010).

2009 (9)

R. Marczak, J. Judek, A. Kozak, W. Gebicki, C. Jastrzebski, L. Adamowicz, D. Luxembourg, D. Hourlier, T. Melin, "The individual core/shell silicon nanowire structure probed by Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Stat. Sol. C 6, 2053-2055 (2009).

R. Anthony, U. Kortshagen, "Photoluminescence quantum yields of amorphous and crystalline silicon nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 80, 115407 (2009).

O. A. Shalygina, I. A. Kamenskikh, D. M. Zhigunov, V. Y. Timoshenko, P. K. Kashkarova, M. Zacharias, M. Fujii, "Optical properties of silicon nanocrystals in silicon dioxide matrix over wide ranges of excitation intensity and energy," J. Nanoelectron. Optoelectron. 4, 147-151 (2009).

P. R. Watekar, S. Moon, A. Lin, S. Ju, W. T. Han, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nanoparticles/Er-ions doped optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 568-575 (2009).

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, W. T. Han, "Visible-to-infrared down-conversion in the silicon nanoparticles-doped optical fiber," Current Appl. Phys. 9, S182-S184 (2009).

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J. L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J. M. Blondy, A. Lecomte, F. Sandoz, C. Pedrido, "Nanoscaled optical fibre obtained by the sol-gel process in the SiO2-ZrO2 system doped with rare earth ions," Opt. Mater. 31, 765-768 (2009).

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J. L. Auguste, J. M. Blondy, "Cascade emissions of an erbium-ytterbium doped silica-zirconia nanostructured optical fiber under supercontinuum irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241903 (2009).

A. M. Chizhik, A. I. Chizhik, R. Gutbrod, A. J. Meixner, T. Schmidt, J. Sommerfeld, F. Huisken, "Imaging and spectroscopy and electron-phonon coupling in single SiO2 nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 9, 3239-3244 (2009).

F. Gourbilleau, C. Ternon, D. Maestre, O. Palais, C. Dufour, "Silicon-rich SiO2/SiO2 multilayers: A promising material for the third generation of solar cell," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 103501 (2009).

2008 (5)

J. Martin, F. Cichos, F. Huisken, C. von Borczyskowski, "Electron-phonon coupling and localization of excitons in single silicon nanocrystals," Nano Lett. 8, 656-660 (2008).

S. Moon, A. Lin, B. H. Kim, P. R. Watekar, W. T. Han, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the optical fiber doped with silicon nano-particles," J. Non-Crystall. Solids 354, 602-606 (2008).

J. Klangsin, O. Marty, J. Munguia, V. Lysenko, A. Vorobey, M. Pitaval, A. Cereyon, A. Pillonnet, B. Champagnon, "Structural and luminescent properties of silicon nanoparticles incorporated into zirconia matrix," Phys. Lett. A 372, 1508-1511 (2008).

S. Dhara, C. Y. Lu, K. G. M. Nair, K. H. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. F. Huang, C. David, L. C. Chen, B. Raj, "Mechanism of bright red emission in Si nanoclusters," Nanotechnol. 19, 395-401 (2008).

P. D. Dragic, C. G. Carlson, A. Croteau, "Characterization of defect luminescence in Yb doped silica fibers: Part I NBOHC," Opt. Exp. 16, 4688-4697 (2008).

2007 (4)

I. W. Hsieh, X. Chen, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C. Y. Chou, F. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires," Opt. Exp. 23, 15242-15249 (2007).

P. Roura, J. Farjas, A. Pinyol, E. Bertran, "The crystallization temperature of silicon nanoparticles," Nanotechn. 18, 175705 (2007).

S. Moon, B. H. Kim, P. R. Watekar, W. T. Han, "Fabrication and photoluminescence characteristics of Er3+-doped optical fiber sensitized by Si particles," J. Non-Crystall. Solids 353, 2949-2953 (2007).

D. Riabinina, C. Durand, F. Rosei, M. Chaker, "Luminescent silicon nanostrauctures synthesized by laser ablation," Phys. Stat. Sol. 204, 1623-1638 (2007).

2005 (2)

J. Toulouse, "Optical nonlinearities in fibers: Review, recent examples, systems applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3625-3641 (2005).

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, L. Ding, B. W. Cheng, W. K. Ge, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, "Origin and evolution of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195313 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. Cazzanelli, D. Navarro-Urrios, F. Riboli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Heitmann, L. X. Yi, R. Scholz, M. Zacharias, U. Gosele, "Optical gain in monodispersed silicon nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3164-3171 (2004).

2002 (3)

D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, B. A. Korgel, "Size tunable visible luminescence from individual organic monolayer stabilized silicon nanocrystal quantum dots," Nano Lett. 2, 681-685 (2002).

Y. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W. T. Han, "Resonant optical nonlinearity measurement of Yb/Al codoped optical fibers by use of a long period fiber grating pair," Opt. Lett. 27, 580-582 (2002).

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, "Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3564-3568 (2002).

2001 (1)

H. Rinnert, M. Vergnat, A. Burneau, "Evidence of light-emitting amorphous silicon clusters confined in a silicon oxide matrix," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 237-243 (2001).

2000 (2)

G. P. Kuz'min, M. E. Karasev, E. M. Khokhlov, N. N. Kononov, S. B. Korovin, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. N. Polyakov, V. I. Pustovoy, O. V. Tikhonevitch, "Nanosize silicon powders: The structure and optical properties," Laser Phys. 10, 939-945 (2000).

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, "Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals," Nature 408, 440-444 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, C. Delerue, "Electronic states and luminescence in porous silicon qusantum dots: The role of oxygen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 197-200 (1999).

1998 (2)

T. Shimizu-Iwayama, N. Kurumado, D. E. Hole, R. D. Townsend, "Optical properties of silicon nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 6018-6022 (1998).

P. Melinon, P. Keghelian, B. Prevel, V. Dupuis, A. Perez, B. Champagnon, Y. Guyot, M. Pellarin, J. Lerme, M. Broyer, J. L. Rousset, P. Delichere, "Structural, vibrational, optical properties of silicon cluster assembled films," J. Chem. Phys. 108, 4607-4613 (1998).

1996 (2)

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, S. Tong, X. N. Liu, F. Yan, S. S. Jiang, X. K. Zhang, D. Feng, "Raman scattering of alternating nanocrystalline silicon/amorphous silicon multilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 523-525 (1996).

Y. Kanemitsu, N. Simizu, T. Komoda, P. L. F. Hemment, B. J. Sealy, "Photoluminescent spectrum and dynamics of Si+-ion-implanted and thermally annealed SiO2 glasses," Phys. Rev. B 54, 14329-14332 (1996).

1993 (2)

Y. Kanemitsu, T. Ogawa, K. Shiraishi, K. Takeda, "Visible photoluminescence from oxidized Si nanometer-sized spheres: Exciton confinement on a spherical shell," Phys. Rev. B 48, 4883-4886 (1993).

A. Zwick, R. Carles, "Multiple-order Raman scattering in crystalline and amorphous silicon," Phys. Rev. B 48, 6024-6032 (1993).

1985 (1)

S. Furukawa, N. Matsumoto, "Effects of polysilane formation on the optical and electrical properties of binary Si:H alloys," Phys. Rev. B 31, 2114-2120 (1985).

1977 (1)

R. B. Laughlin, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Phonons in amorphous silica," Phys. Rev. B 16, 2942-2952 (1977).

1976 (1)

E. J. Friebele, G. H. Sigel, Jr.D. L. Griscom, "Drawing-induced defect centers in a fused silica core fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 516-518 (1976).

ACS Nano (1)

K. Kusova, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalova, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, K. Zidek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matejka, P. Stepanek, S. Bakardjieva, "Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure," ACS Nano 4, 4495-4504 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J. L. Auguste, J. M. Blondy, "Cascade emissions of an erbium-ytterbium doped silica-zirconia nanostructured optical fiber under supercontinuum irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241903 (2009).

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, S. Tong, X. N. Liu, F. Yan, S. S. Jiang, X. K. Zhang, D. Feng, "Raman scattering of alternating nanocrystalline silicon/amorphous silicon multilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 523-525 (1996).

E. J. Friebele, G. H. Sigel, Jr.D. L. Griscom, "Drawing-induced defect centers in a fused silica core fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 516-518 (1976).

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

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