Abstract

This paper theoretically and experimentally investigate the spectrum attenuation of free space optical (FSO) communication systems operating at visible and near infrared (NIR) wavelengths (0.6 <i>μ</i>m < λ < 1.6 <i>μ</i>m) under fog and smoke in a controlled laboratory condition. Fog and smoke are generated and controlled homogeneously along a dedicated atmospheric chamber of length 5.5 m. A new wavelength dependent empirical model is proposed to predict the fog and smoke attenuation operating at visible and NIR wavelengths. Comparison of the new proposed model with the measured continuous attenuation spectrum from visible—NIR in the fog and smoke channels shows a close relationship than the semi-empirical Kim and Kruse fog models. The experimental results also show the selection for the possible appropriate wavelengths from visible—NIR for FSO links to achieve the maximum link span in dense fog conditions.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. E. Ciaramella, Y. Arimoto, G. Contestabile, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, V. Guarino, "1.28 terabit/s (32 × 40 Gbit/s) WDM transmission system for free space optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1639-1645 (2009).
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  7. B. R. Strickland, M. J. Lavan, E. Woodbridge, V. Chan, "Effects of fog on the bit error rate of a free space laser communication system," J. Appl. Opt. 38, 424-431 (1999).
  8. K. Su, L. Moeller, R. B. Barat, J. F. Federici, "Experimental comparison of performance degradation from terahertz and infrared wireless links in fog," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 29, 179-184 (2012).
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  11. S. S. Muhammad, B. Flecker, E. Leitgeb, M. Gebhart, "Characterization of fog attenuation in terrestrial free space links," J. Opt. Eng. 46, 066001-066006 (2007).
  12. M. S. Awan, L. C. Horwath, S. S. Muhammad, E. Leitgeb, F. Nadeem, M. S. Khan, "Characterization of fog and snow attenuations for free-space optical propagation," J. Commun. 4, 533-545 (2009).
  13. Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, S. Rajbhandari, J. Perez, M. Ijaz, "Performance analysis of ethernet/fast-ethernet free space optical communications in a controlled weak turbulence condition," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2188-2194 (2012).
  14. M. A. Naboulsi, F. D. Forne, H. Sizun, M. Gebhart, E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, "Measured and predicted light attenuation in dense coastal upslope Fog at 650, 850 and 950 nm for free space optics applications," J. Opt. Eng. 47, 036001-1-036001-14 (2008).
  15. K. W. Fischer, M. R. Witiw, E. Eisenberg, "Optical attenuation in fog at a wavelength of 1.55 micrometers," Atmospheric Res. 87, 252-258 (2008).
  16. I. I. Kim, B. McArthur, E. Korevaar, "Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 nm and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications," Proc. SPIE 4214 (2001).
  17. Z. N. J. Yang, C. Shi, D. Liu, Z. A. Li, "Microphysics of atmospheric aerosols during winter haze/fog events in nanjing," J. Environ. Sci. 31, 1425-1431 (2010).
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  20. H. Weichel, "Laser beam propagation in the atmosphere," Bellingham: SPIE Optical Engineering TT3, 25-39 (1990).
  21. P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, E. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology: Generation, Transmission and Detection (Wiley, 1962).
  22. M. Grabner, V. Kvicera, "The wavelength dependent model of extinction in fog and haze for free space optical communication," J. Opt. Exp. 19, 3379-3386 (2012).
  23. F. Nadeem, T. Javornik, E. Leitgeb, V. Kvicera, G. Kandus, "Continental fog attenuation empirical relationship from measured visibility data," J. Radio Eng. 19, (2010).
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  26. M. Grabner, V. Kvicera, "Fog attenuation dependence on atmospheric visibility at two wavelengths for FSO link planning," Proc. Loughborough Antennas Propag. Conf. (2010) pp. 193-196.
  27. G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, "Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200- μm wavelength region," J. Appl. Opt. 12, 555-563 (1973).
  28. J. K. J. Rheims, T. Wriedt, "Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer," J. Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601-605 (1997).
  29. R. M. Pierce, J. Ramaprasad, E. C. Eisenberg, "Optical attenuation in fog and clouds," Proc. SPIE 4530, 58-71 (2001).
  30. A. Prokes, "Atmospheric effects on availability of free space optics systems," J. Opt. Eng. 48, 066001-10 (2009).
  31. J. C. Ricklin, S. M. Hammel, F. D. Eaton, S. L. Lachinova, "Atmospheric channel effects on free-space laser communication," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Res. 3, 111-158 (2006).

2012 (4)

J. Perez, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, M. Ijaz, H. Lee-Minh, "Ethernet FSO communications link performance study under a controlled fog environment," IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 1-3 (2012).

K. Su, L. Moeller, R. B. Barat, J. F. Federici, "Experimental comparison of performance degradation from terahertz and infrared wireless links in fog," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 29, 179-184 (2012).

Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, S. Rajbhandari, J. Perez, M. Ijaz, "Performance analysis of ethernet/fast-ethernet free space optical communications in a controlled weak turbulence condition," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2188-2194 (2012).

M. Grabner, V. Kvicera, "The wavelength dependent model of extinction in fog and haze for free space optical communication," J. Opt. Exp. 19, 3379-3386 (2012).

2010 (2)

F. Nadeem, T. Javornik, E. Leitgeb, V. Kvicera, G. Kandus, "Continental fog attenuation empirical relationship from measured visibility data," J. Radio Eng. 19, (2010).

Z. N. J. Yang, C. Shi, D. Liu, Z. A. Li, "Microphysics of atmospheric aerosols during winter haze/fog events in nanjing," J. Environ. Sci. 31, 1425-1431 (2010).

2009 (3)

M. S. Awan, L. C. Horwath, S. S. Muhammad, E. Leitgeb, F. Nadeem, M. S. Khan, "Characterization of fog and snow attenuations for free-space optical propagation," J. Commun. 4, 533-545 (2009).

E. Ciaramella, Y. Arimoto, G. Contestabile, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, V. Guarino, "1.28 terabit/s (32 × 40 Gbit/s) WDM transmission system for free space optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1639-1645 (2009).

A. Prokes, "Atmospheric effects on availability of free space optics systems," J. Opt. Eng. 48, 066001-10 (2009).

2008 (3)

V. Rajakumar, M. N. Smadi, S. C. Ghosh, T. D. Todd, S. Hranilovic, "Interference management in WLAN mesh networks using free-space optical links," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1735-1743 (2008).

M. A. Naboulsi, F. D. Forne, H. Sizun, M. Gebhart, E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, "Measured and predicted light attenuation in dense coastal upslope Fog at 650, 850 and 950 nm for free space optics applications," J. Opt. Eng. 47, 036001-1-036001-14 (2008).

K. W. Fischer, M. R. Witiw, E. Eisenberg, "Optical attenuation in fog at a wavelength of 1.55 micrometers," Atmospheric Res. 87, 252-258 (2008).

2007 (1)

S. S. Muhammad, B. Flecker, E. Leitgeb, M. Gebhart, "Characterization of fog attenuation in terrestrial free space links," J. Opt. Eng. 46, 066001-066006 (2007).

2006 (1)

J. C. Ricklin, S. M. Hammel, F. D. Eaton, S. L. Lachinova, "Atmospheric channel effects on free-space laser communication," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Res. 3, 111-158 (2006).

2005 (2)

C. P. Colvero, M. C. R. Cordeiro, J. P. Von der Weid, "Real-time measurements of visibility and transmission in far mid and near-IR free space optical links," Electron. Lett. 41, 610-611 (2005).

E. Leitgeb, M. Gebhart, U. Birnbacher, "Optical networks, last mile access and applications," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Res. 2, 56-85 (2005).

2001 (1)

R. M. Pierce, J. Ramaprasad, E. C. Eisenberg, "Optical attenuation in fog and clouds," Proc. SPIE 4530, 58-71 (2001).

1999 (1)

B. R. Strickland, M. J. Lavan, E. Woodbridge, V. Chan, "Effects of fog on the bit error rate of a free space laser communication system," J. Appl. Opt. 38, 424-431 (1999).

1997 (1)

J. K. J. Rheims, T. Wriedt, "Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer," J. Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601-605 (1997).

1990 (1)

H. Weichel, "Laser beam propagation in the atmosphere," Bellingham: SPIE Optical Engineering TT3, 25-39 (1990).

1973 (1)

G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, "Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200- μm wavelength region," J. Appl. Opt. 12, 555-563 (1973).

Atmospheric Res. (1)

K. W. Fischer, M. R. Witiw, E. Eisenberg, "Optical attenuation in fog at a wavelength of 1.55 micrometers," Atmospheric Res. 87, 252-258 (2008).

Bellingham: SPIE Optical Engineering (1)

H. Weichel, "Laser beam propagation in the atmosphere," Bellingham: SPIE Optical Engineering TT3, 25-39 (1990).

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. P. Colvero, M. C. R. Cordeiro, J. P. Von der Weid, "Real-time measurements of visibility and transmission in far mid and near-IR free space optical links," Electron. Lett. 41, 610-611 (2005).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

J. Perez, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, M. Ijaz, H. Lee-Minh, "Ethernet FSO communications link performance study under a controlled fog environment," IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 1-3 (2012).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

E. Ciaramella, Y. Arimoto, G. Contestabile, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, V. Guarino, "1.28 terabit/s (32 × 40 Gbit/s) WDM transmission system for free space optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1639-1645 (2009).

J. Appl. Opt. (2)

B. R. Strickland, M. J. Lavan, E. Woodbridge, V. Chan, "Effects of fog on the bit error rate of a free space laser communication system," J. Appl. Opt. 38, 424-431 (1999).

G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, "Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200- μm wavelength region," J. Appl. Opt. 12, 555-563 (1973).

J. Commun. (1)

M. S. Awan, L. C. Horwath, S. S. Muhammad, E. Leitgeb, F. Nadeem, M. S. Khan, "Characterization of fog and snow attenuations for free-space optical propagation," J. Commun. 4, 533-545 (2009).

J. Environ. Sci. (1)

Z. N. J. Yang, C. Shi, D. Liu, Z. A. Li, "Microphysics of atmospheric aerosols during winter haze/fog events in nanjing," J. Environ. Sci. 31, 1425-1431 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, S. Rajbhandari, J. Perez, M. Ijaz, "Performance analysis of ethernet/fast-ethernet free space optical communications in a controlled weak turbulence condition," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2188-2194 (2012).

V. Rajakumar, M. N. Smadi, S. C. Ghosh, T. D. Todd, S. Hranilovic, "Interference management in WLAN mesh networks using free-space optical links," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1735-1743 (2008).

J. Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. K. J. Rheims, T. Wriedt, "Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer," J. Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601-605 (1997).

J. Opt. Eng. (3)

A. Prokes, "Atmospheric effects on availability of free space optics systems," J. Opt. Eng. 48, 066001-10 (2009).

M. A. Naboulsi, F. D. Forne, H. Sizun, M. Gebhart, E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, "Measured and predicted light attenuation in dense coastal upslope Fog at 650, 850 and 950 nm for free space optics applications," J. Opt. Eng. 47, 036001-1-036001-14 (2008).

S. S. Muhammad, B. Flecker, E. Leitgeb, M. Gebhart, "Characterization of fog attenuation in terrestrial free space links," J. Opt. Eng. 46, 066001-066006 (2007).

J. Opt. Exp. (1)

M. Grabner, V. Kvicera, "The wavelength dependent model of extinction in fog and haze for free space optical communication," J. Opt. Exp. 19, 3379-3386 (2012).

J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Res. (2)

J. C. Ricklin, S. M. Hammel, F. D. Eaton, S. L. Lachinova, "Atmospheric channel effects on free-space laser communication," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Res. 3, 111-158 (2006).

E. Leitgeb, M. Gebhart, U. Birnbacher, "Optical networks, last mile access and applications," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Res. 2, 56-85 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

K. Su, L. Moeller, R. B. Barat, J. F. Federici, "Experimental comparison of performance degradation from terahertz and infrared wireless links in fog," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 29, 179-184 (2012).

J. Radio Eng. (1)

F. Nadeem, T. Javornik, E. Leitgeb, V. Kvicera, G. Kandus, "Continental fog attenuation empirical relationship from measured visibility data," J. Radio Eng. 19, (2010).

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. M. Pierce, J. Ramaprasad, E. C. Eisenberg, "Optical attenuation in fog and clouds," Proc. SPIE 4530, 58-71 (2001).

Other (10)

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, E. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology: Generation, Transmission and Detection (Wiley, 1962).

S. V. Kartalopoulos, Free Space Optical Networks for Ultra-Broad Band Services (Wiley, 2011) pp. 35-36.

N. Blaunstein, S. Arnon, A. Zilberman, N. Kopeika, Applied Aspects of Optical Communication and LIDAR (CRC Press, 2010) pp. 53-55.

M. Grabner, V. Kvicera, "Fog attenuation dependence on atmospheric visibility at two wavelengths for FSO link planning," Proc. Loughborough Antennas Propag. Conf. (2010) pp. 193-196.

M. Ijaz, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, S. Rajbhandari, J. Perez, A. Gholami, "Bit error rate measurement of free space optical communication links under laboratory-controlled fog conditions," Proc. 16th Eur. Conf. Netw. Opt. Commun. (2011) pp. 52-550.

A. K. Majumdar, J. C. Ricklin, Springer Science (LLC, 2008) pp. 233.

Z. Ghaseemlooy, W. O. Popoola, S. Rajbhandri, Optical Wireless Communications, System and Channel Modelling With Matlab (CRC Press, 2012).

WMOGauide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation ITUGenevaSwetzerland (2006).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

I. I. Kim, B. McArthur, E. Korevaar, "Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 nm and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications," Proc. SPIE 4214 (2001).

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