Abstract

Optical space switches are key elements for the next generation of switching fabrics in backbone routers, high performance computing systems, and large data processing and storage systems. A number of architectures and alternative options for gating elements have been proposed, assessed, and implemented for a limited port count. The challenge is to further enhance the scalability and energy efficiency of space switches to support future traffic loads. This paper proposes a heterogeneous implementation of the space switches based on two different types of gating elements, namely semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) and Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI). With respect to the existing homogeneous implementations, a higher energy efficiency can be achieved by minimizing the number of SOAs, but crosstalk is introduced by MZI. To reduce the power consumption while still guaranteeing adequate physical layer performance, the design of both Spanke and multi-stage architectures is optimized by strategically placing the different gating and amplification elements, and a physical layer analysis is carried out to validate the performance. The proposed heterogeneous implementation is able to achieve power savings up to 10% and 50% in the Spanke and multi-stage Beneš architectures, respectively, with respect to SOA-based space-switch implementations. Moreover, an improvement of the physical layer performance is achievable in the Spanke architecture thanks to the different placement of the SOAs.

© 2013 IEEE

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2012

Y. Ueda, "4 × 4 InAlGaAs/InAlAs optical-switch fabric by cascading Mach-Zehnder interferometer-type optical switches with low-power and low-polarization-dependent operation," Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 24, 757-759 (2012).

C. Kachris, I. Tomkos, "A survey on optical interconnects for data centers," IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials 14, 1021-1036 (2012).

2011

L. Chen, E. Hall, L. Theogarajan, J. Bowers, "Photonic switching for data center applications," IEEE Photonics Journal 3, 834-844 (2011).

B. Lee, "Demonstration of a digital CMOS driver codesigned and integrated with a broadband silicon photonic switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1136-1142 (2011).

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. G. Raponi, N. Andriolli, P. Castoldi, "Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 377-383 (2011).

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, P. G. Raponi, N. Andriolli, I. Cerutti, M. S. Hai, P. Castoldi, "A scalable space-time multi-plane optical interconnection network using energy-efficient enabling technologies," J. of Optical Commun. and Netw. 6, A1-A11 (2011).

2010

A. Albores-Mejia, "Monolithic multistage optoelectronic switch circuit routing 160 Gb/s line-rate data," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2984-2992 (2010).

2009

S. Tanaka, "Monolithically integrated 8:1 SOA gate switch with large extinction ratio and wide input power dynamic range," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1155-1162 (2009).

J. V. Campenhout, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, Y. A. Vlasov, "Low-power, 2 × 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks," Opt. Express 17, 24 020-24 029 (2009).

R. Gaudino, G. Castillo, F. Neri, J. Finochietto, "Can simple optical switching fabrics scale to terabit per second switch capacities?," J. Optical Commun. and Netw. 1, B56-B69 (2009).

D. A. B. Miller, "Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166-1185 (2009).

1995

E. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, "Scaling limitations in transparent optical networks due to low-level crosstalk," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 93-94 (1995).

IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials

C. Kachris, I. Tomkos, "A survey on optical interconnects for data centers," IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials 14, 1021-1036 (2012).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Tanaka, "Monolithically integrated 8:1 SOA gate switch with large extinction ratio and wide input power dynamic range," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1155-1162 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. G. Raponi, N. Andriolli, P. Castoldi, "Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 377-383 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

E. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, "Scaling limitations in transparent optical networks due to low-level crosstalk," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 93-94 (1995).

IEEE Photonics Journal

L. Chen, E. Hall, L. Theogarajan, J. Bowers, "Photonic switching for data center applications," IEEE Photonics Journal 3, 834-844 (2011).

J. Lightw. Technol.

A. Albores-Mejia, "Monolithic multistage optoelectronic switch circuit routing 160 Gb/s line-rate data," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2984-2992 (2010).

B. Lee, "Demonstration of a digital CMOS driver codesigned and integrated with a broadband silicon photonic switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1136-1142 (2011).

J. of Optical Commun. and Netw.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, P. G. Raponi, N. Andriolli, I. Cerutti, M. S. Hai, P. Castoldi, "A scalable space-time multi-plane optical interconnection network using energy-efficient enabling technologies," J. of Optical Commun. and Netw. 6, A1-A11 (2011).

J. Optical Commun. and Netw.

R. Gaudino, G. Castillo, F. Neri, J. Finochietto, "Can simple optical switching fabrics scale to terabit per second switch capacities?," J. Optical Commun. and Netw. 1, B56-B69 (2009).

Opt. Express

J. V. Campenhout, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, Y. A. Vlasov, "Low-power, 2 × 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks," Opt. Express 17, 24 020-24 029 (2009).

Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE

Y. Ueda, "4 × 4 InAlGaAs/InAlAs optical-switch fabric by cascading Mach-Zehnder interferometer-type optical switches with low-power and low-polarization-dependent operation," Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 24, 757-759 (2012).

Proc. IEEE

D. A. B. Miller, "Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166-1185 (2009).

Other

Exascale Computing Study: Technology Challenges in Achieving Exascale Systems Darpa IPTO (2008) Tech. Rep. Peter Kogge, Ed..

E. T. Aw, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Large dynamic range 32 × 32 optimized non-blocking SOA based Switch for 2.56 Tb/s interconnect applications," Proc. ECOC (2007).

P. Castoldi, N. Andriolli, I. Cerutti, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, P. G. Raponi, "Energy efficiency and scalability of multi-plane optical interconnection networks for computing platforms and data centers," Proc. OFC/NFOEC Tech. Dig. (2012).

A. Bianco, "Optical interconnection networks based on microring resonators," Proc. ICC (2010).

P. Castoldi, P. G. Raponi, N. Andriolli, I. Cerutti, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, "Energy-efficient switching in optical interconnection networks," Proc. ICTON (2011).

R. Stabile, "Multipath routing in a fully scheduled integrated optical switch fabric," Proc. ECOC (2010) pp. 1-3.

H. Wang, A. Wonfor, K. Williams, R. Penty, I. White, "Demonstration of a lossless monolithic 16 × 16 QW SOA switch," Proc. ECOC (2009) pp. 1-2.

W. Dally, B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., 2003).

P. G. Raponi, N. Andriolli, I. Cerutti, P. Castoldi, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, "Heterogeneous space switches for power-efficient optical interconnection networks," IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (2012) pp. 3036-3040.

N. Sahri, "A highly integrated 32-SOA gates optoelectronic module suitable for IP multi-terabit optical packet routers," OFC/NFOEC Tech. Dig. (2001).

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., 2002).

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