Abstract

We present an analytical approach to accurately model the phase sensitivity, and provide simple analytical formulae, useful in the design, comparison and optimization of multiplexed amplified interferometric fiber-optic based sensor systems. The phase sensitivity model incorporates the various key noise contributions including receiver noise, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) induced noise, active sources noise and other phase noise terms. We define and present a novel term ‘Demod phase sensitivity’ to take into account the effects from noise aliasing in systems based on time division multiplexed (TDM) architectures. An experiment was conducted that confirmed the appropriateness and accuracy of the phase sensitivity model. The approach is widely applicable but particular appropriate for fiber-optic sensor systems using amplifiers and TDM.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. P. J. Nash, G. A. Cranch, D. J. Hill, "Large scale multiplexed fibre-optic arrays for geophysical applications," Ind. Sensing Syst. 4202, 55-65 (2000).
  2. J. H. Cole, C. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, G. Cogdell, T. Giallorenzi, "Twenty-five years of interferometric fiber optic acoustic sensors at the Naval Research Laboratory," Wash. Acad. Sci. 40-57 (2004).
  3. T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, "Noise aliasing in interferometric sensors utilizing phase-generated carrier demodulation," Fiber Optic . Laser Sensors Vii 1169, 80-88 (1990).
  4. C. K. Kirkendal, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, M. J. Marrone, A. R. Davis, "Sensitivity limitations due to aliased high frequency phase noise in high channel-count TDM interferometric arrays," Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors (1996).
  5. C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Physics D: Appl. Phys. 37, R197 (2004).
  6. G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).
  7. G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "High multiplexing gain using TDM and WDM in interferometric sensor arrays," Fiber Optic Sensor Technol. and Appl. 3860, 531-537 (1999).
  8. C. W. Hodgson, M. J. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Large-scale interferometric fiber sensor arrays with multiple optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 22, 1651-3 (1997).
  9. C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 218-231 (1998).
  10. G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, C. K. Kirkendall, "Large-scale remotely interrogated arrays of fiber-optic interferometric sensors for underwater acoustic applications," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 19-30 (2003).
  11. G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale arrays of interferometric fibre-optic sensors for applications in military surveillance and seismic surveying," Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors (2000) pp. 260-263.
  12. T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, "Signal-processing techniques for absolute displacement strain sensing using a fiber interferometer," Opt. Lasers Eng. 16, 153-161 (1992).
  13. E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2004).
  14. J. P. Gordon, L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communication systems using linear amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 15, 1351 (1990).
  15. D. Hill, P. Nash, "Fibre-optic hydrophone array for acoustic surveillance in the littoral," Photonics Port Harber Security 5780, 1-10 (2005).
  16. P. J. Nash, A. Strudley, "High efficiency TDM/WDM architectures for seismic reservior monitoring," Proc. 20th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors (2009) pp. T1-T4.
  17. Y. Liao, E. Austin, P. J. Nash, S. A. Kingsley, D. J. Richardson, "Highly scalable amplified hybrid TDM/DWDM array architecture for interferometric fiber-optic sensor systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 882-888 (2013).

2013 (1)

Y. Liao, E. Austin, P. J. Nash, S. A. Kingsley, D. J. Richardson, "Highly scalable amplified hybrid TDM/DWDM array architecture for interferometric fiber-optic sensor systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 882-888 (2013).

2005 (1)

D. Hill, P. Nash, "Fibre-optic hydrophone array for acoustic surveillance in the littoral," Photonics Port Harber Security 5780, 1-10 (2005).

2004 (2)

C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Physics D: Appl. Phys. 37, R197 (2004).

J. H. Cole, C. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, G. Cogdell, T. Giallorenzi, "Twenty-five years of interferometric fiber optic acoustic sensors at the Naval Research Laboratory," Wash. Acad. Sci. 40-57 (2004).

2003 (1)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, C. K. Kirkendall, "Large-scale remotely interrogated arrays of fiber-optic interferometric sensors for underwater acoustic applications," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 19-30 (2003).

2001 (1)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).

2000 (1)

P. J. Nash, G. A. Cranch, D. J. Hill, "Large scale multiplexed fibre-optic arrays for geophysical applications," Ind. Sensing Syst. 4202, 55-65 (2000).

1999 (1)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "High multiplexing gain using TDM and WDM in interferometric sensor arrays," Fiber Optic Sensor Technol. and Appl. 3860, 531-537 (1999).

1998 (1)

C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 218-231 (1998).

1997 (1)

C. W. Hodgson, M. J. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Large-scale interferometric fiber sensor arrays with multiple optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 22, 1651-3 (1997).

1992 (1)

T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, "Signal-processing techniques for absolute displacement strain sensing using a fiber interferometer," Opt. Lasers Eng. 16, 153-161 (1992).

1990 (2)

J. P. Gordon, L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communication systems using linear amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 15, 1351 (1990).

T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, "Noise aliasing in interferometric sensors utilizing phase-generated carrier demodulation," Fiber Optic . Laser Sensors Vii 1169, 80-88 (1990).

Fiber Optic Sensor Technol. and Appl. (1)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "High multiplexing gain using TDM and WDM in interferometric sensor arrays," Fiber Optic Sensor Technol. and Appl. 3860, 531-537 (1999).

Fiber Optic . Laser Sensors Vii (1)

T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, "Noise aliasing in interferometric sensors utilizing phase-generated carrier demodulation," Fiber Optic . Laser Sensors Vii 1169, 80-88 (1990).

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, C. K. Kirkendall, "Large-scale remotely interrogated arrays of fiber-optic interferometric sensors for underwater acoustic applications," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 19-30 (2003).

Ind. Sensing Syst. (1)

P. J. Nash, G. A. Cranch, D. J. Hill, "Large scale multiplexed fibre-optic arrays for geophysical applications," Ind. Sensing Syst. 4202, 55-65 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).

Y. Liao, E. Austin, P. J. Nash, S. A. Kingsley, D. J. Richardson, "Highly scalable amplified hybrid TDM/DWDM array architecture for interferometric fiber-optic sensor systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 882-888 (2013).

C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 218-231 (1998).

J. Physics D: Appl. Phys. (1)

C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Physics D: Appl. Phys. 37, R197 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (1)

C. W. Hodgson, M. J. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Large-scale interferometric fiber sensor arrays with multiple optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 22, 1651-3 (1997).

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, "Signal-processing techniques for absolute displacement strain sensing using a fiber interferometer," Opt. Lasers Eng. 16, 153-161 (1992).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics Port Harber Security (1)

D. Hill, P. Nash, "Fibre-optic hydrophone array for acoustic surveillance in the littoral," Photonics Port Harber Security 5780, 1-10 (2005).

Wash. Acad. Sci. (1)

J. H. Cole, C. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, G. Cogdell, T. Giallorenzi, "Twenty-five years of interferometric fiber optic acoustic sensors at the Naval Research Laboratory," Wash. Acad. Sci. 40-57 (2004).

Other (4)

C. K. Kirkendal, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, M. J. Marrone, A. R. Davis, "Sensitivity limitations due to aliased high frequency phase noise in high channel-count TDM interferometric arrays," Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors (1996).

P. J. Nash, A. Strudley, "High efficiency TDM/WDM architectures for seismic reservior monitoring," Proc. 20th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors (2009) pp. T1-T4.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2004).

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale arrays of interferometric fibre-optic sensors for applications in military surveillance and seismic surveying," Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sensors (2000) pp. 260-263.

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