Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a microfiber Fabry–Perot interferometer (MFPI) fabricated by taper-drawing microfiber at the center of a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The MFPI employing the two separated sections of FBG as reflectors and a length of microfiber as its cavity is derived. Theoretic study shows that the reflection spectrum of such MFPI is consisted of two parts – interference fringes induced by multi-beam interference and reflection spectrum envelope induced by FBGs. Temperature affects both interference fringes and reflection wavelength of FBGs while ambient refractive index (RI) only influences the interference fringes, i.e., MFPI has different response to temperature and RI. Therefore, MFPI for simultaneous sensing of RI and temperature is experimentally demonstrated by tracking a reflection peak of interference fringes and the Bragg wavelength of the FBGs, which are respectively assisted by frequency domain processing and Gaussian fitting of the optical spectrum. Consequently, wavelength measurement resolution of 0.5 pm is realized.

© 2013 IEEE

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2012 (4)

X. Li, Q. Sun, D. Liu, R. Liang, J. Zhang, J. Wo, P. P. Shum, "Simultaneous wavelength and frequency encoded microstructure based quasi-distributed temperature sensor," Opt. Exp. 20, 12076-12084 (2012).

J. Wo, M. Jiang, M. Malnou, Q. Sun, J. Zhang, P. P. Shum, D. Liu, "Twist sensor based on axial strain insensitive distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 20, 2844-2850 (2012).

J. Wo, G. Wang, Y. Cui, Q. Sun, R. Liang, P. P. Shum, D. Liu, "Refractive index sensor using microfiber-based Mach–Zehnder interferometer," Opt. Lett. 37, 67-69 (2012).

C. Wuttke, M. Becker, S. Brückner, M. Rothhardt, A. Rauschenbeutel, "Nanofiber Fabry–Perot microresonator for nonlinear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics," Opt. Lett. 37, 1949-1951 (2012).

2011 (6)

K. Nayak, F. Le Kien, Y. Kawai, K. Hakuta, K. Nakajima, H. Miyazaki, Y. Sugimoto, "Cavity formation on an optical nanofiber using focused ion beam milling technique," Opt. Exp. 19, 14040-14050 (2011).

R. Liang, Q. Sun, J. Wo, D. Liu, "Investigation on micro/nanofiber Bragg grating for refractive index sensing," Opt. Commun. (2011).

Y. Liu, C. Meng, A. P. Zhang, Y. Xiao, H. Yu, L. Tong, "Compact microfiber Bragg gratings with high-index contrast," Opt. Lett. 36, 3115-3117 (2011).

Y. Ran, Y. N. Tan, L. P. Sun, S. Gao, J. Li, L. Jin, B. O. Guan, "193 nm excimer laser inscribed Bragg gratings in microfibers for refractive index sensing," Opt. Exp. 19, 18577-18583 (2011).

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, G. Farrell, "High sensitivity SMS fiber structure based refractometer–analysis and experiment," Opt. Exp. 19, 7937-7944 (2011).

Y. Chen, F. Xu, Y. Lu, "Teflon-coated microfiber resonator with weak temperature dependence," Opt. Exp. 19, 22923-22928 (2011).

2010 (2)

X. Fang, C. Liao, D. Wang, "Femtosecond laser fabricated fiber Bragg grating in microfiber for refractive index sensing," Opt. Lett. 35, 1007-1009 (2010).

X. Yu, Y. Zhang, S. Pan, P. Shum, M. Yan, Y. Leviatan, C. Li, "A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor," J. Opt. 12, 015005 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

L. Men, P. Lu, Q. Chen, "A multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous salinity and temperature measurement," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053107 (2008).

X. Yu, P. Shum, G. Ren, "Highly sensitive photonic crystal fiber-based refractive index sensing using mechanical long-period grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1688-1690 (2008).

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, "Photonic bandgap engineering in UV fiber gratings by the arc discharge technique," Opt. Exp. 16, 15332-15342 (2008).

2006 (1)

J. Zeng, D. Liang, "Application of fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor for measuring liquid refractive index," J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Structures 17, 787-791 (2006).

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, "Novel data processing techniques for dispersive white light interferometer," Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

J. Sirkis, "Optical fiber strain sensing in engineering mechanics," Photomechanics 233-273 (2000).

Y. Rao, M. Cooper, D. Jackson, C. Pannell, L. Reekie, "Absolute strain measurement using an in-fibre-Bragg-grating-based Fabry–Perot sensor," Electron. Lett. 36, 708-709 (2000).

1999 (1)

Y. J. Rao, "In-fibre Bragg grating sensors," Measurement Sci. Technol. 8, 355 (1999).

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

1988 (1)

G. Meltz, W. Morey, W. Glenn, J. Farina, In-Fiber Bragg-Grating Sensors (1988).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Rao, M. Cooper, D. Jackson, C. Pannell, L. Reekie, "Absolute strain measurement using an in-fibre-Bragg-grating-based Fabry–Perot sensor," Electron. Lett. 36, 708-709 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Yu, P. Shum, G. Ren, "Highly sensitive photonic crystal fiber-based refractive index sensing using mechanical long-period grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1688-1690 (2008).

In-Fiber Bragg-Grating Sensors (1)

G. Meltz, W. Morey, W. Glenn, J. Farina, In-Fiber Bragg-Grating Sensors (1988).

J. Opt. (1)

X. Yu, Y. Zhang, S. Pan, P. Shum, M. Yan, Y. Leviatan, C. Li, "A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor," J. Opt. 12, 015005 (2010).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Men, P. Lu, Q. Chen, "A multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous salinity and temperature measurement," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053107 (2008).

J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Structures (1)

J. Zeng, D. Liang, "Application of fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor for measuring liquid refractive index," J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Structures 17, 787-791 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

Measurement Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. J. Rao, "In-fibre Bragg grating sensors," Measurement Sci. Technol. 8, 355 (1999).

Nature (1)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).

Opt. Exp. (2)

K. Nayak, F. Le Kien, Y. Kawai, K. Hakuta, K. Nakajima, H. Miyazaki, Y. Sugimoto, "Cavity formation on an optical nanofiber using focused ion beam milling technique," Opt. Exp. 19, 14040-14050 (2011).

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, "Photonic bandgap engineering in UV fiber gratings by the arc discharge technique," Opt. Exp. 16, 15332-15342 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu, C. Meng, A. P. Zhang, Y. Xiao, H. Yu, L. Tong, "Compact microfiber Bragg gratings with high-index contrast," Opt. Lett. 36, 3115-3117 (2011).

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Liang, Q. Sun, J. Wo, D. Liu, "Investigation on micro/nanofiber Bragg grating for refractive index sensing," Opt. Commun. (2011).

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, "Novel data processing techniques for dispersive white light interferometer," Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).

Opt. Exp. (5)

Y. Chen, F. Xu, Y. Lu, "Teflon-coated microfiber resonator with weak temperature dependence," Opt. Exp. 19, 22923-22928 (2011).

Y. Ran, Y. N. Tan, L. P. Sun, S. Gao, J. Li, L. Jin, B. O. Guan, "193 nm excimer laser inscribed Bragg gratings in microfibers for refractive index sensing," Opt. Exp. 19, 18577-18583 (2011).

X. Li, Q. Sun, D. Liu, R. Liang, J. Zhang, J. Wo, P. P. Shum, "Simultaneous wavelength and frequency encoded microstructure based quasi-distributed temperature sensor," Opt. Exp. 20, 12076-12084 (2012).

J. Wo, M. Jiang, M. Malnou, Q. Sun, J. Zhang, P. P. Shum, D. Liu, "Twist sensor based on axial strain insensitive distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 20, 2844-2850 (2012).

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, G. Farrell, "High sensitivity SMS fiber structure based refractometer–analysis and experiment," Opt. Exp. 19, 7937-7944 (2011).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Photomechanics (1)

J. Sirkis, "Optical fiber strain sensing in engineering mechanics," Photomechanics 233-273 (2000).

Other (2)

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. L. Sengers, J. Gallagher, Refractive Index of Water and Steam as Function of Wavelength, Temperature and Density (American Chemical Society, 1990).

L. Tong, M. Sumetsky, Subwavelength and Nanometer Diameter Optical Fibers (Springer, 2010).

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