Abstract

Future optical systems will require electro-optic (EO) modulators with bandwidths of 100 GHz. For high-speed modulation, a photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide modulator using a ferroelectric thin film has been proposed. Here we report on the design, fabrication and properties of optical intensity modulator and its microwave frequency dependence. The 1.5 mm long BaTiO<sub>3</sub> PhC modulator has a figure-of-merit of 2.1 V · cm drive voltage-length product, >50 GHz 3 dB bandwidth at an operating wavelength of 1560 nm.

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  1. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
  2. Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
  3. G. M. Purvinis, T. A. Maldonado, Handbook of Optics: Volume V, Atmospheric Optics, Modulators, Fiber Optics, X-Ray and Neutron Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2009).
  4. X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. T. Chen, "Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides," Opt. Lett. 36, 882-884 (2011).
  5. H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, T. Baba, "Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: Carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 210-220 (2012).
  6. M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Günter, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, "Dielectric, elastic, piezoelectric, electro-optic, and elasto-optic tensors of BaTiO3 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941-5949 (1994).
  7. M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, "Material tensor parameters of LiNbO3 relevant for electro- and elasto-optics," Appl. Phys. B 74, 407-414 (2002).
  8. D. M. Gill, C. W. Conrad, G. Ford, B. W. Wessels, S.-T. Ho, "Thin-film channel waveguide electro-optic modulator in epitaxial BaTiO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1783-1785 (1997).
  9. P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, B. W. Wessels, "Low-loss electrooptic BaTiO3 thin film waveguide modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1837-1839 (2004).
  10. B. W. Wessels, "Ferroelectric epitaxial thin film for integrated optics," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 659-679 (2007).
  11. K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, O. Mitomi, "Frequency-dependent propagation characteristics of coplanar waveguide electrode on 100 GHz Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulator," Electron. Lett. 34, 661-663 (1998).
  12. J. B. Khurgin, J. U. Kang, Y. J. Ding, "Ultrabroad-bandwidth electro-optic modulator based on a cascaded Bragg grating," Opt. Lett. 25, 70-72 (2000).
  13. P. Tang, D. J. Towner, T. Hamano, A. L. Meier, B. W. Wessels, "Electroptic modulation up to 40 GHz in a barium titanate thin film waveguide modulator," Opt. Exp. 12, 5962-5967 (2004).
  14. Z. Liu, P.-T. Lin, B. W. Wessels, F. Yi, S.-T. Ho, "Nonlinear photonic crystal waveguide structures based on barium titanate thin films and their optical properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 201104 (2007).
  15. P.-T. Lin, Z. Liu, B. W. Wessels, "Ferroelectric thin film photonic crystal waveguide and its electro-optic properties," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 075005 (2009).
  16. T. Baba, "Slow light in photonic crystals," Nature Photon. 2, 465-473 (2008).
  17. P.-T. Lin, F. Yi, S.-T. Ho, B. W. Wessels, "Two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystal waveguides: Simulation, fabrication, and optical characterization," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4330-4337 (2009).
  18. L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, R. T. Chen, "High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator for low voltage operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
  19. X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, C. Lin, R. T. Chen, "Ultraefficient control of light transmission through photonic potential barrier modulation," Opt. Lett. 34, 3202-3204 (2009).
  20. P. T. Lin, B. W. Wessels, J. I. Jang, J. B. Ketterson, "Highly efficient broadband second harmonic generation using polydomain epitaxial barium titanate thin film waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221103 (2008).
  21. Z. Liu, J. Li, Y. Tu, S.-T. Ho, B. W. Wessels, "Ultrafast modulators based on nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides," Proc. SPIE 7949, 794905 (2011).
  22. P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, B. W. Wessels, "Low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, electro-optic modulator based on a polydomain barium titanate thin film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4615-4617 (2004).
  23. J. Li, P.-T. Lin, B. W. Wessels, "Polarization reversal and backswitching dynamics in epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054113 (2009).
  24. C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. T. Chen, "Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).
  25. R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, "Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 15618-15623 (2010).
  26. R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, A. Spott, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. Dalton, M. Hochberg, "Sub-volt silicon-organic electro-optic modulator with 500 MHz bandwidth," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1112-1117 (2011).
  27. B. M. A. Rahman, S. Haxha, "Optimization of microwave properties for ultrahigh-speed etched and unetched lithium niobate electrooptic modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1856-1863 (2002).
  28. W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, P.-M. D. Chow, "Optical heterodyne detection of 60 GHz electro?optic modulation from polymer waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1806-1808 (1995).
  29. T. Hoshina, K. Takizawa, J. Li, T. Kasama, H. Kakemoto, T. Tsurumi, "Domain size effect on dielectric properties of barium titanate ceramics," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 7607-7611 (2008).
  30. T. Teranishi, T. Hoshina, T. Tsurumi, "Wide range dielectric spectroscopy on perovskite dielectrics," Mater. Sci. Engineering B 161, 55-60 (2009).
  31. R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, J. R. Conner, E. D. Specht, D. E. Zelmon, "Molecular beam epitaxy growth of epitaxial barium silicide, barium oxide, and barium titanate on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 782-784 (1991).
  32. F. Niu, B. W. Wessels, "Epitaxial growth and strain relaxation of BaTiO3 thin films on SrTiO3 buffered (001) Si by molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1053-1057 (2007).

2012 (1)

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, T. Baba, "Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: Carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 210-220 (2012).

2011 (3)

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. T. Chen, "Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides," Opt. Lett. 36, 882-884 (2011).

Z. Liu, J. Li, Y. Tu, S.-T. Ho, B. W. Wessels, "Ultrafast modulators based on nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides," Proc. SPIE 7949, 794905 (2011).

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, A. Spott, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. Dalton, M. Hochberg, "Sub-volt silicon-organic electro-optic modulator with 500 MHz bandwidth," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1112-1117 (2011).

2010 (2)

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. T. Chen, "Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, "Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 15618-15623 (2010).

2009 (5)

J. Li, P.-T. Lin, B. W. Wessels, "Polarization reversal and backswitching dynamics in epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054113 (2009).

X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, C. Lin, R. T. Chen, "Ultraefficient control of light transmission through photonic potential barrier modulation," Opt. Lett. 34, 3202-3204 (2009).

T. Teranishi, T. Hoshina, T. Tsurumi, "Wide range dielectric spectroscopy on perovskite dielectrics," Mater. Sci. Engineering B 161, 55-60 (2009).

P.-T. Lin, Z. Liu, B. W. Wessels, "Ferroelectric thin film photonic crystal waveguide and its electro-optic properties," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 075005 (2009).

P.-T. Lin, F. Yi, S.-T. Ho, B. W. Wessels, "Two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystal waveguides: Simulation, fabrication, and optical characterization," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4330-4337 (2009).

2008 (3)

T. Baba, "Slow light in photonic crystals," Nature Photon. 2, 465-473 (2008).

T. Hoshina, K. Takizawa, J. Li, T. Kasama, H. Kakemoto, T. Tsurumi, "Domain size effect on dielectric properties of barium titanate ceramics," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 7607-7611 (2008).

P. T. Lin, B. W. Wessels, J. I. Jang, J. B. Ketterson, "Highly efficient broadband second harmonic generation using polydomain epitaxial barium titanate thin film waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221103 (2008).

2007 (4)

Z. Liu, P.-T. Lin, B. W. Wessels, F. Yi, S.-T. Ho, "Nonlinear photonic crystal waveguide structures based on barium titanate thin films and their optical properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 201104 (2007).

F. Niu, B. W. Wessels, "Epitaxial growth and strain relaxation of BaTiO3 thin films on SrTiO3 buffered (001) Si by molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1053-1057 (2007).

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, R. T. Chen, "High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator for low voltage operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).

B. W. Wessels, "Ferroelectric epitaxial thin film for integrated optics," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 659-679 (2007).

2004 (3)

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, T. Hamano, A. L. Meier, B. W. Wessels, "Electroptic modulation up to 40 GHz in a barium titanate thin film waveguide modulator," Opt. Exp. 12, 5962-5967 (2004).

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, B. W. Wessels, "Low-loss electrooptic BaTiO3 thin film waveguide modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1837-1839 (2004).

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, B. W. Wessels, "Low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, electro-optic modulator based on a polydomain barium titanate thin film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4615-4617 (2004).

2002 (2)

B. M. A. Rahman, S. Haxha, "Optimization of microwave properties for ultrahigh-speed etched and unetched lithium niobate electrooptic modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1856-1863 (2002).

M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, "Material tensor parameters of LiNbO3 relevant for electro- and elasto-optics," Appl. Phys. B 74, 407-414 (2002).

2000 (3)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).

J. B. Khurgin, J. U. Kang, Y. J. Ding, "Ultrabroad-bandwidth electro-optic modulator based on a cascaded Bragg grating," Opt. Lett. 25, 70-72 (2000).

1998 (1)

K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, O. Mitomi, "Frequency-dependent propagation characteristics of coplanar waveguide electrode on 100 GHz Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulator," Electron. Lett. 34, 661-663 (1998).

1997 (1)

D. M. Gill, C. W. Conrad, G. Ford, B. W. Wessels, S.-T. Ho, "Thin-film channel waveguide electro-optic modulator in epitaxial BaTiO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1783-1785 (1997).

1995 (1)

W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, P.-M. D. Chow, "Optical heterodyne detection of 60 GHz electro?optic modulation from polymer waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1806-1808 (1995).

1994 (1)

M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Günter, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, "Dielectric, elastic, piezoelectric, electro-optic, and elasto-optic tensors of BaTiO3 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941-5949 (1994).

1991 (1)

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, J. R. Conner, E. D. Specht, D. E. Zelmon, "Molecular beam epitaxy growth of epitaxial barium silicide, barium oxide, and barium titanate on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 782-784 (1991).

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

B. W. Wessels, "Ferroelectric epitaxial thin film for integrated optics," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 659-679 (2007).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, "Material tensor parameters of LiNbO3 relevant for electro- and elasto-optics," Appl. Phys. B 74, 407-414 (2002).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

D. M. Gill, C. W. Conrad, G. Ford, B. W. Wessels, S.-T. Ho, "Thin-film channel waveguide electro-optic modulator in epitaxial BaTiO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1783-1785 (1997).

Z. Liu, P.-T. Lin, B. W. Wessels, F. Yi, S.-T. Ho, "Nonlinear photonic crystal waveguide structures based on barium titanate thin films and their optical properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 201104 (2007).

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Wang, R. T. Chen, "High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator for low voltage operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).

P. T. Lin, B. W. Wessels, J. I. Jang, J. B. Ketterson, "Highly efficient broadband second harmonic generation using polydomain epitaxial barium titanate thin film waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221103 (2008).

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, B. W. Wessels, "Low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, electro-optic modulator based on a polydomain barium titanate thin film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4615-4617 (2004).

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. T. Chen, "Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304 (2010).

W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, P.-M. D. Chow, "Optical heterodyne detection of 60 GHz electro?optic modulation from polymer waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1806-1808 (1995).

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, J. R. Conner, E. D. Specht, D. E. Zelmon, "Molecular beam epitaxy growth of epitaxial barium silicide, barium oxide, and barium titanate on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 782-784 (1991).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, O. Mitomi, "Frequency-dependent propagation characteristics of coplanar waveguide electrode on 100 GHz Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulator," Electron. Lett. 34, 661-663 (1998).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, T. Baba, "Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: Carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 210-220 (2012).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, B. W. Wessels, "Low-loss electrooptic BaTiO3 thin film waveguide modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1837-1839 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Li, P.-T. Lin, B. W. Wessels, "Polarization reversal and backswitching dynamics in epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054113 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, A. Spott, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. Dalton, M. Hochberg, "Sub-volt silicon-organic electro-optic modulator with 500 MHz bandwidth," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1112-1117 (2011).

B. M. A. Rahman, S. Haxha, "Optimization of microwave properties for ultrahigh-speed etched and unetched lithium niobate electrooptic modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1856-1863 (2002).

P.-T. Lin, F. Yi, S.-T. Ho, B. W. Wessels, "Two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystal waveguides: Simulation, fabrication, and optical characterization," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4330-4337 (2009).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

P.-T. Lin, Z. Liu, B. W. Wessels, "Ferroelectric thin film photonic crystal waveguide and its electro-optic properties," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 075005 (2009).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

F. Niu, B. W. Wessels, "Epitaxial growth and strain relaxation of BaTiO3 thin films on SrTiO3 buffered (001) Si by molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1053-1057 (2007).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Hoshina, K. Takizawa, J. Li, T. Kasama, H. Kakemoto, T. Tsurumi, "Domain size effect on dielectric properties of barium titanate ceramics," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 7607-7611 (2008).

Mater. Sci. Engineering B (1)

T. Teranishi, T. Hoshina, T. Tsurumi, "Wide range dielectric spectroscopy on perovskite dielectrics," Mater. Sci. Engineering B 161, 55-60 (2009).

Nature Photon. (1)

T. Baba, "Slow light in photonic crystals," Nature Photon. 2, 465-473 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (2)

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, T. Hamano, A. L. Meier, B. W. Wessels, "Electroptic modulation up to 40 GHz in a barium titanate thin film waveguide modulator," Opt. Exp. 12, 5962-5967 (2004).

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, "Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 15618-15623 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Günter, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, "Dielectric, elastic, piezoelectric, electro-optic, and elasto-optic tensors of BaTiO3 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941-5949 (1994).

Proc. SPIE (1)

Z. Liu, J. Li, Y. Tu, S.-T. Ho, B. W. Wessels, "Ultrafast modulators based on nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides," Proc. SPIE 7949, 794905 (2011).

Science (1)

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).

Other (1)

G. M. Purvinis, T. A. Maldonado, Handbook of Optics: Volume V, Atmospheric Optics, Modulators, Fiber Optics, X-Ray and Neutron Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2009).

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