Abstract

Nyquist Wavelength division multiplexing (N-WDM), is a promising scheme in order to enhance the spectral efficiency of future coherent optical communication systems. In N-WDM systems, the channel bandwidth and spacing are selected to maximize the spectral efficiency while maintaining acceptable levels of inter-carrier and inter symbol interference. To further increase the spectral efficiency, bandwidth constrained N-WDM, where baudrate is higher than channel bandwidth can be considered. We propose to combine the bandwidth-constrained N-WDM scheme with a decision feedback equalizer (DFE) designed according to the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion. We show that the enhanced resilience to the inter symbol interference offered by DFE provides an effective gain on spectral efficiency. We compare system benefits of DFE and maximum a posteriori sequence detection (MAP) for coherent optical receivers, and show that DFE is as efficient as MAP in mitigating inter symbol interference at a considerably lower complexity.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. X. Zhou, L. Nelson, P. Magill, B. Zhu, D. Peckham, "8x450-gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50 GHz-grid ROADM," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) (2011).
  2. M. Salsi, C. Koebele, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan, E. Dutisseuil, J. Renaudier, M. Bigot-Astruc, L. Provost, S. Richard, P. Sillard, "'Transmission of 96* 100 Gb/s with 23% super-FEC overhead over 11,680 km, using optical spectral engineering," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) (2011).
  3. D. Foursa, Y. Cai, J. Cai, C. Davidson, O. Sinkin, W. Anderson, A. Lucero, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. Bergano, "Coherent 40 gb/s transmission with high spectral efficiency over transpacific distance," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) (2011).
  4. M. Huang, Y. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, T. Wang, "WDM transmission of 152-gb/s polarization multiplexed RZ-16QAM signals with 25-GHz channel spacing over 15x80-km of SSMF," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) (2011).
  5. X. Zhou, L. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. Peckham, P. Borel, K. Carlson, "PDM-Nyquist-32QAM for 450-gb/s per-channel WDM transmission on the 50 GHz ITU-t grid," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 553-559 (2012).
  6. T. Sugihara, T. Kobayashi, T. Fujimori, T. Mizuochi, "Electronic pre-equalization technologies using high-speed DAC," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Comm. (ECOC) (2011).
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  9. J. Wang, X. He, K. Gao, L. Myers, "8 times 400-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK with 100 GHz channel spacing over 2000 km transmission using MAP detection," Proc. CLEO (2011).
  10. J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. Bergano, "20 tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,890 km," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) (2011).
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  12. S. Savory, A. Steward, S. Wood, G. Gavioli, M. Taylor, R. Kiley, P. Bayvel, "Digital equalisation of 40 Gbit/s per wavelength transmission over 2480 km of standard fibre without optical dispersion compensation ECOC 2006," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Comm. (ECOC) (2006).
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  15. J. Cai, "100 G transoceanic length transmission with high spectral efficiency using bandwidth constrained PDM-QPSK," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) (2011).
  16. M. Alfiad, D. van den Borne, M. Kuschnerov, B. Spinnler, T. Wuth, A. Napoli, S. Jansen, H. de Waardt, "FFE, DFE and MLSE equalizers in phase modulated transmission systems," Proc. IEEE LEOS Annu. Meeting (2009) pp. 193-194.
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  19. A. Liavas, "On the robustness of the finite-length MMSE-DFE with respect to channel and second-order statistics estimation errors," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 50, 2866-2874 (2002).
  20. M. Miyoshi, Y. Kaneda, "Inverse filtering of room acoustics," IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech Signal Process. 36, 145-152 (1988).
  21. G. Strang, Introduction to Llinear Algebra (Wellesley Cambridge, 2003).
  22. J.-X Cai, Y. Cai, Y. Sun, C. Davidson, D. Foursa, A. Lucero, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohns, N. Bergano, "112 times 112 gb/s transmission over 9,360 km with channel spacing set to the baud rate (360% spectral efficiency)," Proc. ECOC (2010) Paper PD2.1.
  23. R. Paschotta, A. Schlatter, S. Zeller, H. Telle, U. Keller, "Optical phase noise and carrier-envelope offset noise of mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 82, 265-273 (2006).
  24. A. Viterbi, A. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of psk-modulated carrier phase with ap- plication to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 19, 543-551 (1983).

2012 (2)

X. Zhou, L. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. Peckham, P. Borel, K. Carlson, "PDM-Nyquist-32QAM for 450-gb/s per-channel WDM transmission on the 50 GHz ITU-t grid," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 553-559 (2012).

X. Zhang, X. Pang, L. Deng, D. Zibar, I. Monroy, R. Younce, "High phase noise tolerant pilot-tone-aided DP-QPSK optical communication systems," Opt. Exp. 20, 19 990-19 995 (2012).

2010 (2)

A. Neves, C. Panazio, "A class of channels resulting in ill-convergence for CMA in decision feedback equalizers," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, 5736-5743 (2010).

J.-X Cai, Y. Cai, Y. Sun, C. Davidson, D. Foursa, A. Lucero, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohns, N. Bergano, "112 times 112 gb/s transmission over 9,360 km with channel spacing set to the baud rate (360% spectral efficiency)," Proc. ECOC (2010) Paper PD2.1.

2006 (1)

R. Paschotta, A. Schlatter, S. Zeller, H. Telle, U. Keller, "Optical phase noise and carrier-envelope offset noise of mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 82, 265-273 (2006).

2002 (1)

A. Liavas, "On the robustness of the finite-length MMSE-DFE with respect to channel and second-order statistics estimation errors," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 50, 2866-2874 (2002).

1988 (1)

M. Miyoshi, Y. Kaneda, "Inverse filtering of room acoustics," IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech Signal Process. 36, 145-152 (1988).

1983 (1)

A. Viterbi, A. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of psk-modulated carrier phase with ap- plication to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 19, 543-551 (1983).

IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech Signal Process. (1)

M. Miyoshi, Y. Kaneda, "Inverse filtering of room acoustics," IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech Signal Process. 36, 145-152 (1988).

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

A. Liavas, "On the robustness of the finite-length MMSE-DFE with respect to channel and second-order statistics estimation errors," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 50, 2866-2874 (2002).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Paschotta, A. Schlatter, S. Zeller, H. Telle, U. Keller, "Optical phase noise and carrier-envelope offset noise of mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 82, 265-273 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. Viterbi, A. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of psk-modulated carrier phase with ap- plication to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 19, 543-551 (1983).

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

A. Neves, C. Panazio, "A class of channels resulting in ill-convergence for CMA in decision feedback equalizers," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, 5736-5743 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

X. Zhou, L. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. Peckham, P. Borel, K. Carlson, "PDM-Nyquist-32QAM for 450-gb/s per-channel WDM transmission on the 50 GHz ITU-t grid," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 553-559 (2012).

Opt. Exp. (1)

X. Zhang, X. Pang, L. Deng, D. Zibar, I. Monroy, R. Younce, "High phase noise tolerant pilot-tone-aided DP-QPSK optical communication systems," Opt. Exp. 20, 19 990-19 995 (2012).

Proc. ECOC (1)

J.-X Cai, Y. Cai, Y. Sun, C. Davidson, D. Foursa, A. Lucero, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohns, N. Bergano, "112 times 112 gb/s transmission over 9,360 km with channel spacing set to the baud rate (360% spectral efficiency)," Proc. ECOC (2010) Paper PD2.1.

Other (16)

G. Strang, Introduction to Llinear Algebra (Wellesley Cambridge, 2003).

T. Sugihara, T. Kobayashi, T. Fujimori, T. Mizuochi, "Electronic pre-equalization technologies using high-speed DAC," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Comm. (ECOC) (2011).

S. Yamanaka, T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, H. Masuda, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Nakagawa, M. Nagatani, H. Nosaka, "11 x 171 gb/s PDM 16-QAM transmission over 1440 km with a spectral efficiency of 6.4 b/s/hz using high-speed DAC," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Comm. (ECOC) (2010) pp. Paper We.8.C.1.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. Davidson, D. Foursa, A. Lucero, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohns, N. Bergano, "Transmission of 96 times 100 G pre-filtered PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10,608 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4,368 km," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) (2010).

J. Wang, X. He, K. Gao, L. Myers, "8 times 400-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK with 100 GHz channel spacing over 2000 km transmission using MAP detection," Proc. CLEO (2011).

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. Bergano, "20 tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,890 km," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) (2011).

A. Ghazisaeidi, "Impact of tight optical filtering on the performance of 28 Gbaud Nyquist-WDM PDM-8QAM over 37.5 GHz grid," Proc. Opt. Fiber CoPaper OTu3B.6mm. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) (2013).

S. Savory, A. Steward, S. Wood, G. Gavioli, M. Taylor, R. Kiley, P. Bayvel, "Digital equalisation of 40 Gbit/s per wavelength transmission over 2480 km of standard fibre without optical dispersion compensation ECOC 2006," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Comm. (ECOC) (2006).

J. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

J. Cai, "100 G transoceanic length transmission with high spectral efficiency using bandwidth constrained PDM-QPSK," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) (2011).

M. Alfiad, D. van den Borne, M. Kuschnerov, B. Spinnler, T. Wuth, A. Napoli, S. Jansen, H. de Waardt, "FFE, DFE and MLSE equalizers in phase modulated transmission systems," Proc. IEEE LEOS Annu. Meeting (2009) pp. 193-194.

Y. Mori, K. Igarashi, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Decision-feedback carrier-phase estimation for digital coherent optical receivers," Proc. Aust. Conf. Opt. Fibre Tech. (OECC/ACOFT) (2008).

X. Zhou, L. Nelson, P. Magill, B. Zhu, D. Peckham, "8x450-gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50 GHz-grid ROADM," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) (2011).

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan, E. Dutisseuil, J. Renaudier, M. Bigot-Astruc, L. Provost, S. Richard, P. Sillard, "'Transmission of 96* 100 Gb/s with 23% super-FEC overhead over 11,680 km, using optical spectral engineering," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) (2011).

D. Foursa, Y. Cai, J. Cai, C. Davidson, O. Sinkin, W. Anderson, A. Lucero, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. Bergano, "Coherent 40 gb/s transmission with high spectral efficiency over transpacific distance," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) (2011).

M. Huang, Y. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, T. Wang, "WDM transmission of 152-gb/s polarization multiplexed RZ-16QAM signals with 25-GHz channel spacing over 15x80-km of SSMF," Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) (2011).

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