Abstract

Reflective semiconductor optical amplifier has been widely employed in wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) for implementing colorless optical network unit. WDM-PONs using a single-feeder fiber is economically beneficial, but vulnerable to beat noise resulted from distributed and discrete reflections. In this paper, we present a novel technique exploiting simple digital signal processing to mitigate the impairments in single-feeder WDM-PON by means of introducing correlations between signal levels in a coding process. The correlation properties of the coded sequence permits overall spectrum shaping to suppress the low-frequency components. We apply dicode code, the simplest correlative level code that enables direct current balance, in the uplink of a WDM-PON with downstream continuous-wave seed light or in the downlink of a WDM-PON with remodulated upstream signal. In the first case, the system's reflection tolerance is substantially enhanced via the dicode-coded modulation in the uplink. Moreover, the system reach is extended by 15 and 25 km for data rate of 2.5 and 1.25 Gb/s, respectively. In the second case, a 60 km full-duplex WDM-PON with 10 Gb/s dicode-coded downlink and 2.5 Gb/s remodulated uplink is demonstrated with high robustness against the remodulation and reflection noise.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. G. Maier, M. Martinelli, A. Pattavina, E. Salvadori, "Design and cost performance of the multistage WDM-PON access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 125-143 (2000).
  2. H. R. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Lin, S. L. Lee, G. Keiser, "WDM-PON systems using cross-remodulation to double network capacity with reduced Rayleigh scattering effects," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTuH6.
  3. A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. H. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: A review," J. Opt. Netw. 4, 737-758 (2005).
  4. U. Hilbk, G. Bader, H. Bunning, M. Burmeister, E. Grossmann, T. Hermes, B. Hoen, K. Peters, F. Raub, J. Saniter, F. J. Westphal, "Experimental WDM upgrade of a PON using an arrayed waveguide grating," presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. OsloNorway (1996) Paper WeB.1.5.
  5. T. Duong, N. Genay, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Pizzinat, R. Brenot, "Experimental demonstration of 10 Gbit/s upstream transmission by remote modulation of 1 GHz RSOA using adaptively modulated optical OFDM for WDM-PON single fiber architecture," presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Th.3.F.1.
  6. K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "10-Gb/s operation of RSOA for WDM PON," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1533-1535 (2008).
  7. Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, "10-Gb/s WDM-PON based on low-bandwidth RSOA using partial response equalization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1442-1444 (2011).
  8. Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, "20-Gb/s single-feeder WDM-PON using partial-response maximum likelihood equalizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1802-1804 (2011).
  9. S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, K. Y. Cho, S. J. Park, Y. C. Chung, "Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON employing self-homodyne receiver with high reflection tolerance," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper JWA69.
  10. H. W. Hu, H. Anis, "Degradation of bi-directional single fiber transmission in WDM-PON due to beat noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 870-881 (2008).
  11. A. Chiuchiarelli, R. Proietti, M. Presi, P. Choudhury, G. Contestabile, E. Ciaramella, "Symmetric 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON based on cross-wavelength reuse to avoid Rayleigh backscattering and maximise band usage," Electron. Lett. 45, 1343-1344 (2009).
  12. U. H. Hong, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Effects of Rayleigh backscattering in long-reach RSOA-based WDM PON," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.
  13. A. Murakami, H. C. Jeon, K. Y. Cho, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, Y. Horiuchi, "Reflection tolerance enhancement of RSOA-based WDM PON by using optical frequency dithering," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OThG1.
  14. P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. D. Waardt, "Interferometric crosstalk reduction in an RSOA-based WDM passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4943-4953 (2009).
  15. D. Lavery, M. Ionescu, S. Makovejs, E. Torrengo, S. J. Savory, "A long-reach ultra-dense 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Exp. 18, 25855-25860 (2010).
  16. J. M. Lee, D. W. Lee, Y. Y. Won, S. J. Park, S. K. Han, "Reduction of Rayleigh back-scattering noise using RF tone in RSOA based bidirectional optical link," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-3.
  17. Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, "Reduction of backscattering noise in 2.5 and 10 Gbit/s RSOA-based WDM-PON," Electron. Lett. 47, 1333-1334 (2011).
  18. W. Lee, S. H. Cho, M. Y. Park, J. H. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, B. W. Kim, "Wavelength filter detuning for improved carrier reuse in loop-back WDM-PON," Electron. Lett. 42, 596-597 (2006).
  19. Z. W. Xu, Y. Z. Wen, W. D. Zhong, M. Attygalle, X. F. Cheng, Y. X. Wang, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, "WDM-PON architectures with a single shared interferometric filter for carrier-reuse upstream transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3669-3677 (2007).
  20. T. Y. Kim, S. K. Han, "Reflective SOA-based bidirectional WDM-PON sharing optical source for up/downlink data and broadcasting transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2350-2352 (2006).
  21. W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. H. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, B. W. Kim, "Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2460-2462 (2005).
  22. J. J. Yu, M. F. Huang, D. Y. Qian, L. Chen, G. K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1545-1547 (2008).
  23. Y. Zhang, N. Deng, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, "A multicast WDM-PON architecture using DPSK/NRZ orthogonal modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1479-1481 (2008).
  24. K. Y. Cho, A. Murakami, Y. J. Lee, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON operating at symmetric rate of 1.25 Gb/s with high reflection tolerance," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTuH4.
  25. G. Berrettini, G. Meloni, L. Giorgi, F. Ponzini, F. Cavaliere, P. Ghiggino, L. Poti, A. Bogoni, "Colorless WDM-PON performance improvement exploiting a service-ONU for multiwavelength distribution," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OMN2.
  26. A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, E. Ciaramella, "Enhancing resilience to Rayleigh crosstalk by means of line coding and electrical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 85-87 (2010).
  27. M. Presi, A. Chiuchiarelli, R. Proietti, P. Choudhury, G. Contestabile, E. Ciaramella, "Single feeder bidirectional WDM-PON with enhanced resilience to Rayleigh-backscattering," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThG2.
  28. C. F. Marki, F. A. Marki, S. C. Esener, "Reduction of interferometric optical crosstalk penalty via DC blocking," Electron. Lett. 43, 644-646 (2007).
  29. J. Prat, "Rayleigh back-scattering reduction by means of quantized feedback equalization in WDM-PONs," presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. Torino Italy (2010) Paper Th.10.B.3.
  30. A. Lender, "Correlative digital communication techniques," IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. COM-12, 128-135 (1964).
  31. Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, "Improving performance of MLSE in RSOA-based WDM-PON by partial response signaling," Optics Exp. 19, 181-190 (2011).
  32. M. Omella, V. Polo, J. Lazaro, B. Schrenk, J. Prat, "10 Gb/s RSOA transmission by direct duobinary modulation," presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Tu.3.E.4.
  33. P. Kabal, S. Pasupathy, "Partial-response signaling," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-23, 921-934 (1975).
  34. Z. Al-Qazwini, H. Kim, "DC-balanced line coding for downlink modulation in bidirectional WDM PONs using remodulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1331-1333 (2011).
  35. S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, Y. C. Chung, "Enhanced performance of RSOA-based WDM PON by using manchester coding," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 624-630 (2007).

2011 (5)

Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, "10-Gb/s WDM-PON based on low-bandwidth RSOA using partial response equalization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1442-1444 (2011).

Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, "20-Gb/s single-feeder WDM-PON using partial-response maximum likelihood equalizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1802-1804 (2011).

Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, "Reduction of backscattering noise in 2.5 and 10 Gbit/s RSOA-based WDM-PON," Electron. Lett. 47, 1333-1334 (2011).

Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, "Improving performance of MLSE in RSOA-based WDM-PON by partial response signaling," Optics Exp. 19, 181-190 (2011).

Z. Al-Qazwini, H. Kim, "DC-balanced line coding for downlink modulation in bidirectional WDM PONs using remodulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1331-1333 (2011).

2010 (2)

A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, E. Ciaramella, "Enhancing resilience to Rayleigh crosstalk by means of line coding and electrical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 85-87 (2010).

D. Lavery, M. Ionescu, S. Makovejs, E. Torrengo, S. J. Savory, "A long-reach ultra-dense 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Exp. 18, 25855-25860 (2010).

2009 (2)

A. Chiuchiarelli, R. Proietti, M. Presi, P. Choudhury, G. Contestabile, E. Ciaramella, "Symmetric 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON based on cross-wavelength reuse to avoid Rayleigh backscattering and maximise band usage," Electron. Lett. 45, 1343-1344 (2009).

P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. D. Waardt, "Interferometric crosstalk reduction in an RSOA-based WDM passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4943-4953 (2009).

2008 (4)

H. W. Hu, H. Anis, "Degradation of bi-directional single fiber transmission in WDM-PON due to beat noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 870-881 (2008).

K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "10-Gb/s operation of RSOA for WDM PON," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1533-1535 (2008).

J. J. Yu, M. F. Huang, D. Y. Qian, L. Chen, G. K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1545-1547 (2008).

Y. Zhang, N. Deng, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, "A multicast WDM-PON architecture using DPSK/NRZ orthogonal modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1479-1481 (2008).

2007 (3)

Z. W. Xu, Y. Z. Wen, W. D. Zhong, M. Attygalle, X. F. Cheng, Y. X. Wang, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, "WDM-PON architectures with a single shared interferometric filter for carrier-reuse upstream transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3669-3677 (2007).

C. F. Marki, F. A. Marki, S. C. Esener, "Reduction of interferometric optical crosstalk penalty via DC blocking," Electron. Lett. 43, 644-646 (2007).

S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, Y. C. Chung, "Enhanced performance of RSOA-based WDM PON by using manchester coding," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 624-630 (2007).

2006 (2)

T. Y. Kim, S. K. Han, "Reflective SOA-based bidirectional WDM-PON sharing optical source for up/downlink data and broadcasting transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2350-2352 (2006).

W. Lee, S. H. Cho, M. Y. Park, J. H. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, B. W. Kim, "Wavelength filter detuning for improved carrier reuse in loop-back WDM-PON," Electron. Lett. 42, 596-597 (2006).

2005 (2)

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. H. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, B. W. Kim, "Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2460-2462 (2005).

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. H. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: A review," J. Opt. Netw. 4, 737-758 (2005).

2000 (1)

G. Maier, M. Martinelli, A. Pattavina, E. Salvadori, "Design and cost performance of the multistage WDM-PON access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 125-143 (2000).

1975 (1)

P. Kabal, S. Pasupathy, "Partial-response signaling," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-23, 921-934 (1975).

1964 (1)

A. Lender, "Correlative digital communication techniques," IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. COM-12, 128-135 (1964).

Electron. Lett. (2)

Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, "Reduction of backscattering noise in 2.5 and 10 Gbit/s RSOA-based WDM-PON," Electron. Lett. 47, 1333-1334 (2011).

C. F. Marki, F. A. Marki, S. C. Esener, "Reduction of interferometric optical crosstalk penalty via DC blocking," Electron. Lett. 43, 644-646 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (2)

W. Lee, S. H. Cho, M. Y. Park, J. H. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, B. W. Kim, "Wavelength filter detuning for improved carrier reuse in loop-back WDM-PON," Electron. Lett. 42, 596-597 (2006).

A. Chiuchiarelli, R. Proietti, M. Presi, P. Choudhury, G. Contestabile, E. Ciaramella, "Symmetric 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON based on cross-wavelength reuse to avoid Rayleigh backscattering and maximise band usage," Electron. Lett. 45, 1343-1344 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, E. Ciaramella, "Enhancing resilience to Rayleigh crosstalk by means of line coding and electrical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 85-87 (2010).

Z. Al-Qazwini, H. Kim, "DC-balanced line coding for downlink modulation in bidirectional WDM PONs using remodulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1331-1333 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, "10-Gb/s WDM-PON based on low-bandwidth RSOA using partial response equalization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1442-1444 (2011).

Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, "20-Gb/s single-feeder WDM-PON using partial-response maximum likelihood equalizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1802-1804 (2011).

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. H. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, B. W. Kim, "Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2460-2462 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Zhang, N. Deng, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, "A multicast WDM-PON architecture using DPSK/NRZ orthogonal modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1479-1481 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

J. J. Yu, M. F. Huang, D. Y. Qian, L. Chen, G. K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1545-1547 (2008).

K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "10-Gb/s operation of RSOA for WDM PON," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1533-1535 (2008).

T. Y. Kim, S. K. Han, "Reflective SOA-based bidirectional WDM-PON sharing optical source for up/downlink data and broadcasting transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2350-2352 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

P. Kabal, S. Pasupathy, "Partial-response signaling," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-23, 921-934 (1975).

IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. (1)

A. Lender, "Correlative digital communication techniques," IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. COM-12, 128-135 (1964).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

G. Maier, M. Martinelli, A. Pattavina, E. Salvadori, "Design and cost performance of the multistage WDM-PON access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 125-143 (2000).

H. W. Hu, H. Anis, "Degradation of bi-directional single fiber transmission in WDM-PON due to beat noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 870-881 (2008).

P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. D. Waardt, "Interferometric crosstalk reduction in an RSOA-based WDM passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4943-4953 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

Z. W. Xu, Y. Z. Wen, W. D. Zhong, M. Attygalle, X. F. Cheng, Y. X. Wang, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, "WDM-PON architectures with a single shared interferometric filter for carrier-reuse upstream transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3669-3677 (2007).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, Y. C. Chung, "Enhanced performance of RSOA-based WDM PON by using manchester coding," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 624-630 (2007).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Exp. (1)

D. Lavery, M. Ionescu, S. Makovejs, E. Torrengo, S. J. Savory, "A long-reach ultra-dense 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Exp. 18, 25855-25860 (2010).

Optics Exp. (1)

Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, "Improving performance of MLSE in RSOA-based WDM-PON by partial response signaling," Optics Exp. 19, 181-190 (2011).

Other (12)

M. Omella, V. Polo, J. Lazaro, B. Schrenk, J. Prat, "10 Gb/s RSOA transmission by direct duobinary modulation," presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Tu.3.E.4.

M. Presi, A. Chiuchiarelli, R. Proietti, P. Choudhury, G. Contestabile, E. Ciaramella, "Single feeder bidirectional WDM-PON with enhanced resilience to Rayleigh-backscattering," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThG2.

J. Prat, "Rayleigh back-scattering reduction by means of quantized feedback equalization in WDM-PONs," presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. Torino Italy (2010) Paper Th.10.B.3.

H. R. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Lin, S. L. Lee, G. Keiser, "WDM-PON systems using cross-remodulation to double network capacity with reduced Rayleigh scattering effects," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTuH6.

J. M. Lee, D. W. Lee, Y. Y. Won, S. J. Park, S. K. Han, "Reduction of Rayleigh back-scattering noise using RF tone in RSOA based bidirectional optical link," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-3.

K. Y. Cho, A. Murakami, Y. J. Lee, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON operating at symmetric rate of 1.25 Gb/s with high reflection tolerance," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTuH4.

G. Berrettini, G. Meloni, L. Giorgi, F. Ponzini, F. Cavaliere, P. Ghiggino, L. Poti, A. Bogoni, "Colorless WDM-PON performance improvement exploiting a service-ONU for multiwavelength distribution," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OMN2.

U. H. Hong, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Effects of Rayleigh backscattering in long-reach RSOA-based WDM PON," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.

A. Murakami, H. C. Jeon, K. Y. Cho, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, Y. Horiuchi, "Reflection tolerance enhancement of RSOA-based WDM PON by using optical frequency dithering," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OThG1.

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, K. Y. Cho, S. J. Park, Y. C. Chung, "Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON employing self-homodyne receiver with high reflection tolerance," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper JWA69.

U. Hilbk, G. Bader, H. Bunning, M. Burmeister, E. Grossmann, T. Hermes, B. Hoen, K. Peters, F. Raub, J. Saniter, F. J. Westphal, "Experimental WDM upgrade of a PON using an arrayed waveguide grating," presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. OsloNorway (1996) Paper WeB.1.5.

T. Duong, N. Genay, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Pizzinat, R. Brenot, "Experimental demonstration of 10 Gbit/s upstream transmission by remote modulation of 1 GHz RSOA using adaptively modulated optical OFDM for WDM-PON single fiber architecture," presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Th.3.F.1.

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